News https://home.cern/ en Closure of the inter-site access tunnel on 11 and 12 August from 7:00 to 12:00 https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/closure-inter-site-access-tunnel-11-and-12-august-700-1200 <span>Closure of the inter-site access tunnel on 11 and 12 August from 7:00 to 12:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">SCE department</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Thu, 08/05/2021 - 09:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Due to maintenance work, the access through the inter-site tunnel will be closed to traffic on Wednesday 11 and Thursday 12 August 2021 from 07:00 to approximately 12:00.<br />  <br /> We thank you for your understanding and apologise in advance for any inconvenience caused.</p> </div> Thu, 05 Aug 2021 07:04:59 +0000 thortala 157721 at https://home.cern Vast project to consolidate CERN’s technical galleries gets under way https://home.cern/news/news/cern/vast-project-consolidate-cerns-technical-galleries-gets-under-way <span>Vast project to consolidate CERN’s technical galleries gets under way</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Thomas Hortala</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Tue, 08/03/2021 - 09:52</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN’s vast underground maze spans several hectares in France and Switzerland. In addition to the tunnels of the main accelerators, some 80 less well-known technical galleries are located underneath the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. They contain the infrastructure required to keep the sites and the accelerators running, other than the equipment directly related to the operation of the accelerators. This includes the cables and pipes connecting the various buildings and facilities, as well as heating systems and optical fibres. Following approval by the Finance Committee in 2020, a vast project to renovate this underground maze is now taking shape. The aim is to make the technical infrastructure more reliable and environmentally-friendly while improving on-site safety.</p> <p>The technical galleries, some of which are as old as the Organization itself, are sorely in need of renovation: the network has not been given a general overhaul since it was first built, so incidents could arise that compromise the systems’ functioning, such as water leaks. The consolidation project will prevent such problems and get the Organization in good shape for its future scientific endeavours.</p> <p>Once it had been decided which galleries required work, an inventory and 3D modelling campaign began in May 2021. From the access doors to the electrical circuits, the entire underground structure will be modelled by teams from the Site and Civil Engineering department (SCE) and the Engineering department (EN). In the words of the project leader, Sébastien Evrard: “When the project is completed, our knowledge and understanding of these galleries should be comparable to those of the accelerator caverns.”</p> <p>Preparing for the future means stripping away the past: once the galleries have been fully modelled, a lot of obsolete infrastructure will be removed and space will be optimised to make room for the equipment required to operate new facilities, such as the data processing centre whose construction on the Prévessin site will start in 2022. “These galleries are vital to all the current projects on the Meyrin and Prévessin sites,” explains Sébastien. No effort will be spared to guarantee the reliability of the galleries and the facilities that depend on them. While some of the infrastructure, such as the stainless steel pipes, will be reused, other components that are based on obsolete technologies or are in very poor condition will be completely replaced.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-131-3"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-131-3" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Civil Engineering and Infrastructure" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-131-3/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>Maps of the Meyrin and Prévessin sites showing the technical galleries in red<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The project, which has financing for an initial ten-year period, will inevitably cause some minor disruption in the vicinity of the buildings concerned (see map). But the teams involved, who come from almost all the CERN departments, are ahead of the game in taking steps to guarantee that essential services continue. To do so, they are carrying out two pilot schemes to assess their technical processes and their ability to keep the disruption to a minimum. The lessons learned will be applied across the project.</p> <p>The smooth running of the pilot projects around Buildings 376 and 860 bodes well for an effective and coordinated consolidation campaign. “I’m particularly pleased with the commitment shown by all the teams involved,” says Sébastien. “They’re working together to achieve an objective that’s important to all of us: preventing rather than coping with crises by guaranteeing the reliability of our facilities.” </p> </div> Tue, 03 Aug 2021 07:52:52 +0000 thortala 157712 at https://home.cern Latvia becomes Associate Member State of CERN https://home.cern/news/news/cern/latvia-becomes-associate-member-state-cern <span>Latvia becomes Associate Member State of CERN</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/18835" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">mailys</span></span> <span>Fri, 07/30/2021 - 09:30</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2777595" data-filename="202108-100%202" id="CERN-PHOTO-202108-100-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-202108-100-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Dr.sc.ing. Torims, representative of Latvia at CERN, Dr Muizniece, Minister for Eduction and Science of the Republic of Latvia, Dr Gianotti, Director-General of CERN, H.E. Mr Hasans, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative o" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-202108-100-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Dr.sc.ing. Torims, representative of Latvia at CERN, Dr Muizniece, Minister for Eduction and Science of the Republic of Latvia, Dr Gianotti, Director-General of CERN, H.E. Mr Hasans, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Latvia to the UNO and other international organisations in Geneva <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, the Republic of Latvia became an Associate Member State of CERN, following official notification that the country has completed its internal approval procedures in respect of the <a href="https://home.cern/news/press-release/cern/latvia-join-cern-associate-member-state">Agreement</a> granting it that status and has acceded to the Protocol on Privileges and Immunities of the Organization.</p> <p>Latvia’s relations with CERN date back to the early 1990s, when the country’s leading research institutions started participating in activities ranging from accelerator and detector technology to robotics. In 1996, the country’s Institute of Electronics and Computer Science contributed to the Hadron Calorimeter of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/cms">CMS detector</a> at the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC). The relationship with CERN later intensified with the conclusion of a Framework Collaboration Agreement between CERN and Riga Technical University in 2012 and a Cooperation Agreement between the Organization and the Government of Latvia in 2016. Latvian institutions were involved in the study group for the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/future-circular-collider">Future Circular Collider</a> in 2015 and in the CMS collaboration in 2017. Latvian scientists have also pursued PhD theses and project associateships at CERN.</p> <p>As an Associate Member State, Latvia is entitled to appoint representatives to attend meetings of the CERN Council and the Finance Committee. Its nationals are eligible to apply for limited-duration staff positions and fellowships, and its industry is entitled to bid for CERN contracts, increasing opportunities for industrial collaboration in advanced technologies.</p> </div> Fri, 30 Jul 2021 07:30:05 +0000 mailys 157702 at https://home.cern Environmental awareness: Tackling waste management at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/cern/environmental-awareness-tackling-waste-management-cern <span>Environmental awareness: Tackling waste management at CERN</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Fri, 07/30/2021 - 15:47</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Organization’s activities generate both conventional and radioactive waste in quantities that vary yearly, depending on the type of activities performed (long shutdowns, dismantling projects, etc.). CERN is committed to limiting its waste production and to continuously improving its sorting and recycling.</p> <p>The majority of waste produced is non-hazardous. It mainly consists of metals, worksite waste, inert waste, household waste and wood. The non-radioactive hazardous waste generated at CERN consists of chemicals and their containers, batteries, printer cartridges, light bulbs and any type of material contaminated by hazardous substances.</p> <p>CERN has a centralised waste management system that oversees all conventional waste collection and transportation, as well as ensuring the traceability of waste leaving the Organization. The overall goal is that waste is managed safely and appropriately and presents no unacceptable risk to either people or the environment. In 2018, about 56% of all non-hazardous waste was recycled and CERN’s main objective is to increase this rate.</p> <p>CERN household waste is sent to a sorting centre, where the recyclable part is recovered. The remaining household waste is incinerated in the Cheneviers incineration plant, located in the Geneva canton, where the combustion of household waste produces energy (e.g. <a href="https://www.cadiom.ch/">CADIOM district heating</a>). Please see the graph below for more details about CERN’s conventional waste eliminated in 2018.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-129-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-129-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-129-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption> </figcaption></figure><p>Several initiatives to improve CERN’s conventional waste management have been introduced in the past few years. In 2019, an awareness campaign on restaurant and industrial waste was initiated by the Staff Association, in collaboration with the SCE department and the HSE unit. In 2020, the CERN Environmental Protection Steering Board (CEPS) launched a working group for conventional waste management that investigated various waste issues, such as traceability, reduction in the generation of conventional waste and consolidation of temporary storage areas. During the same year, the HSE unit released <a href="https://home.cern/news/official-news/cern/cern-has-new-centralised-chemical-database-ceres">a new web-based tool</a>, CERES, for centralising, sharing and ensuring total traceability of chemicals on CERN’s sites, as well as improving hazardous waste management practices.</p> <p>Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product of the interaction between particle beams and the materials in the accelerators. Most of the Organization’s radioactive waste is of very low activation. It consists, for example, of metallic components, cables and ventilation filters, and waste from maintenance and upgrade works. The dismantling of installations can also generate activated concrete from CERN’s underground infrastructures.</p> <p>Radioactive waste management has always been a high priority for CERN and radioactive waste minimisation is applied during the design, operation and decommissioning of CERN’s accelerators and experiments. In this regard, CERN has developed <a href="https://actiwiz-dev.web.cern.ch/">ActiWiz</a>, a software package that optimises the choice of materials during the construction of accelerator components, identifying and selecting the materials least susceptible to radiation.</p> <p>Reuse and recycling of radioactive material prior to its declaration as waste is encouraged, so far as reasonably and economically feasible. An example of this is the reuse of activated material as shielding in specific irradiation installations (e.g. beam dumps).</p> <p>Once reuse is no longer possible, activated materials are treated via a specific elimination process, overseen by <a href="https://hse.cern/content/radioactive-waste-management">HSE’s radioactive waste management team</a>. After the waste is received and categorised, it is treated in a dedicated state-of-the-art facility where it is dismantled, sorted, compacted and packaged according to the elimination pathway criteria. Radioactive waste is eliminated through existing pathways in the Host States, in accordance with the tripartite agreement established with France and Switzerland, both optimising its elimination and respecting the principle of fair share between the Host States.</p> <p>The next article in this series will go into more detail about CERN’s recycling. In the meantime, more information on the elimination pathways for conventional waste can be found on the SCE department’s dedicated <a href="https://smb-dep.web.cern.ch/en/Introduction-Waste">webpage</a> and in the <a href="https://hse.cern/environment-report-2017-2018/waste">CERN Environment Report 2017–2018</a>.</p> <p><em>_____</em></p> <p><em>This article is a part of the series “CERN’s Year of Environmental Awareness”.</em></p> </div> Fri, 30 Jul 2021 13:47:11 +0000 thortala 157703 at https://home.cern Twice the charm: long-lived exotic particle discovered https://home.cern/news/news/physics/twice-charm-long-lived-exotic-particle-discovered <span>Twice the charm: long-lived exotic particle discovered</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Piotr Traczyk</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Thu, 07/29/2021 - 09:18</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2777165" data-filename="tetra-ccud0060b0060%20(00002)" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-128-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-128-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="An artist’s impression of Tcc+" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-128-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> An artist’s impression of Tcc+, a tetraquark composed of two charm quarks and an up and a down antiquark <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb experiment at CERN</a> is presenting a new discovery at the <a href="https://indico.desy.de/event/28202/">European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics</a> (EPS-HEP). The new particle discovered by LHCb, labelled as T<sub>cc</sub><sup>+</sup>, is a tetraquark – an exotic hadron containing two quarks and two antiquarks. It is the longest-lived exotic matter particle ever discovered, and the first to contain two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks.</p> <p>Quarks are the fundamental building blocks from which matter is constructed. They combine to form hadrons, namely baryons, such as the proton and the neutron, which consist of three quarks, and mesons, which are formed as quark-antiquark pairs. In recent years a number of so-called exotic hadrons – particles with four or five quarks, instead of the conventional two or three - have been found. Today’s discovery is of a particularly unique exotic hadron, an <em>exotic</em> exotic hadron if you like.</p> <p>The new particle contains two charm quarks and an up and a down antiquark. Several tetraquarks have been discovered in recent years (including one with <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/lhcb-discovers-new-type-tetraquark-cern">two charm quarks and two charm antiquarks</a>), but this is the first one that contains two charm quarks, without charm antiquarks to balance them. Physicists call this “open charm” (in this case, “double open charm”). Particles containing a charm quark and a charm antiquark have “hidden charm” – the charm quantum number for the whole particle adds up to zero, just like a positive and a negative electrical charge would do. Here the charm quantum number adds up to two, so it has twice the charm!</p> <p>The quark content of T<sub>cc</sub><sup>+</sup> has other interesting features besides being open charm. It is the first particle to be found that belongs to a class of tetraquarks with two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. Such particles decay by transforming into a pair of mesons, each formed by one of the heavy quarks and one of the light antiquarks. According to some theoretical predictions, the mass of tetraquarks of this type should be very close to the sum of masses of the two mesons. Such proximity in mass makes the decay “difficult”, resulting in a longer lifetime of the particle, and indeed T<sub>cc</sub><sup>+</sup> is the longest-lived exotic hadron found to date.</p> <p>The discovery paves the way for a search for heavier particles of the same type, with one or two charm quarks replaced by bottom quarks. The particle with two bottom quarks is especially interesting: according to calculations, its mass should be <em>smaller</em> than the sum of the masses of any pair of B mesons. This would make the decay not only unlikely, but actually forbidden: the particle would not be able to decay via the strong interaction and would have to do so via the weak interaction instead, which would make its lifetime several orders of magnitude longer than any previously observed exotic hadron.</p> <p>The new T<sub>cc</sub><sup>+</sup> tetraquark is an enticing target for further study. The particles that it decays into are all comparatively easy to detect and, in combination with the small amount of the available energy in the decay, this leads to an excellent precision on its mass and allows the study of the quantum numbers of this fascinating particle. This, in turn, can provide a stringent test for existing theoretical models and could even potentially allow previously unreachable effects to be probed.</p> <p>Read more on the <a href="https://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/Welcome.html#Tcc">LHCb website</a> and in the <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/new-tetraquark-a-whisker-away-from-stability/">CERN Courier</a>.</p> </div> Thu, 29 Jul 2021 07:18:05 +0000 cagrigor 157696 at https://home.cern CERN and the Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia announce the selected artists for the Connect and Connect South Africa residencies https://home.cern/news/news/cern/cern-and-swiss-arts-council-pro-helvetia-announce-selected-artists-connect-and <span>CERN and the Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia announce the selected artists for the Connect and Connect South Africa residencies</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/31239" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">gfabre</span></span> <span>Mon, 07/26/2021 - 10:50</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2776804" data-filename="connect-pressnote-final" id="OPEN-PHO-LIFE-2021-004-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-LIFE-2021-004-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Selected artists for the Connect and Connect South Africa residencies 2021" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-LIFE-2021-004-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> From left to right: Kamil Hassim, selected artist for Connect South Africa; AATB (Andrea Anner and Thibault Brevet), selected artists for Connect; and Ian Purnell, selected artist for Connect South Africa (photo by Lena Ditte Nissen) <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Arts at CERN and the Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia are pleased to announce the selected artists for the first edition of Connect, an international programme intended to foster experimentation in the arts in connection with fundamental science. Two fully funded artistic residencies are to be awarded in 2021: Connect, a three-month residency at CERN aimed at Swiss artists, awarded to the artistic collective AATB; and Connect South Africa, a dual residency for a Swiss artist and an artist from South, West or East Africa, awarded to the artists Ian Purnell and Kamil Hassim.</p> <p>Connect is a residency programme launched by Arts at CERN in collaboration with the Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia. Over the next four years, Connect will open a series of artistic residency opportunities that will take place at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and at partner scientific organisations in various countries, such as Chile, South Africa, Brazil and India.</p> <p>“Space and time, black holes, the Standard Model of particle physics, cosmology concepts… these are some of the topics the selected artists are keen to explore during their residencies and I am eager to see how they will give them new form and meaning when they join the CERN community,” says Mónica Bello, curator and head of Arts at CERN. “With Connect, I hope to offer artists a platform to bring forward new perspectives on the dialogue between art and science.”</p> <p>AATB, the collaborative practice of Swiss artists Andrea Anner and Thibault Brevet, is dedicated to the idea of experimenting with industrial robotic systems and automation processes. With their project, they aim to explore representations of space and time using industrial robotic arms, bringing both small atomic events and massive cosmological events into a human-scale format. With CERN researchers, they hope to define a precise framework and ideas to later develop an art installation. AATB will spend two months at</p> <p>CERN, followed by a remote residency of one month in dialogue with scientists at CERN and with the curatorial support of the Arts at CERN team.</p> <p>The winners of Connect South Africa, the Swiss artist Ian Purnell and Kamil Hassim, a transdisciplinary artist from South Africa, will spend three weeks together at CERN, followed by five weeks in the group of astronomy observatories connected to the <a href="https://www.saao.ac.za/">South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO)</a> and the <a href="https://www.sarao.ac.za/about/sarao/">South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)</a>. Ian Purnell works at the intersection of visual arts, documentary filmmaking and performing arts; in his project proposal titled The Black Hole Image, he aims to explore the visual concept of black holes and initiate a process of reflection on an alternative imaging of the universe. In his project proposal If Spacetime were a Canvas, South African Kamil Hassim intends to explore the Standard Model of particle physics, as well as Indigenous and diasporic South African spiritual and cosmological sensibilities and their relevance to the modern physics and astronomy research conducted by SARAO and SAAO. He aims to create resonant instruments that will serve to draw a connection between ancient wisdom and modern scientific knowledge.</p> <p>“We look forward to seeing how the two residencies will inspire dialogue and exchange between the selected artists and the scientists at CERN; and how it will ultimately lead to new ways of thinking and collaborating,” says Seraina Rohrer, head of the Innovation &amp; Society Sector at Pro Helvetia.</p> <p>Both residencies are expected to start between February and April 2022, depending on organisational and travel limitations due to the global health emergency.</p> <p><strong>Further information:</strong></p> <ul><li>Arts at CERN website: <a href="https://arts.cern">https://arts.cern</a></li> <li>Connect programme: <a href="https://arts.cern/programme/connect">https://arts.cern/programme/connect</a></li> <li>Connect on Pro Helvetia’s website: <a href="https://prohelvetia.ch/en/2021/04/connect-art-and-science/">https://prohelvetia.ch/en/2021/04/connect-art-and-science/</a></li> </ul><p><strong>About CERN</strong></p> <p>CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world's leading laboratories for particle physics. The Organization is located on the French-Swiss border, with its headquarters in Geneva. Its Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Cyprus, Estonia and Slovenia are Associate Member States in the pre-stage to Membership. Croatia, India, Lithuania, Pakistan, Turkey and Ukraine are Associate Member States. The European Union, Japan, JINR, the Russian Federation, UNESCO and the United States of America currently have Observer status.</p> <p><strong>About Arts at CERN</strong></p> <p>Arts at CERN is the arts programme of CERN and the leading worldwide art programme fostering dialogue between artists and physicists. Artists across all artistic disciplines are welcomed to the Laboratory to experience the way the big questions about our universe are pursued by fundamental science. Arts at CERN supports the artists in the research and exploration of new ideas in relation to science, through annual residencies and the production of new work, through the programme of new commissions and through exhibitions and events in collaboration with cultural partners.</p> <p><strong>About Pro Helvetia</strong></p> <p>The Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia has been working at the heart of the Swiss and international cultural scene since 1939. It fosters contemporary art production in Switzerland and helps disseminate and promote Swiss arts at home and abroad. The Arts Council also contributes to national and international cultural exchange and to innovation in the field of cultural promotion. Pro Helvetia has its head office in Zurich and maintains an international network abroad with liaison offices in Johannesburg, Cairo, Moscow, New Delhi, Shanghai and South America and the Centre culturel suisse in Paris</p> </div> Mon, 26 Jul 2021 08:50:05 +0000 gfabre 157683 at https://home.cern ATLAS reports first observation of WWW production https://home.cern/news/news/physics/atlas-reports-first-observation-www-production <span>ATLAS reports first observation of WWW production</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Mon, 07/26/2021 - 18:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2776761" data-filename="WWW_event_3l_Run349169" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2021-066-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2021-066-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="ATLAS Event Display: Triple W-boson Production" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2021-066-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Display of a candidate WWW→ 3 leptons + neutrinos event. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, at the <a href="https://www.eps-hep2021.eu/">EPS-HEP Conference 2021</a>, the ATLAS collaboration <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/observation-www-production">announced</a> the first <a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2021-039/">observation</a> of a rare process: the simultaneous production of three W bosons.</p> <p>As a carrier of the electroweak force, the W boson plays a crucial role in testing the Standard Model of particle physics. Though discovered nearly four decades ago, the W boson continues to provide physicists with new avenues for exploration.</p> <p>ATLAS researchers analysed the full LHC Run-2 dataset, recorded by the detector between 2015 and 2018, to observe the WWW process with a statistical significance of 8.2 standard deviations – well above the 5 standard-deviation threshold needed to declare observation. This result follows <a href="https://cms.cern/news/triple-treat-cms-observes-production-three-massive-vector-bosons-0">an earlier observation by the CMS collaboration</a> of inclusive three weak boson production.</p> <p>Achieving this level of precision was no mean feat. Physicists analysed around 20 billion collision events recorded and pre-filtered by the ATLAS experiment in their search for just a few hundred events expected from the WWW process.</p> <p>As one of the heaviest known elementary particles, the W boson is able to decay in several different ways. The ATLAS physicists focused their search on the four WWW decay modes that have the best discovery potential due to their reduced number of background events. In three of these modes, two W bosons decay into charged leptons<em> </em>(electrons or muons), carrying the same positive or negative charge, and neutrinos, while the third W boson decays into a pair of light quarks. In the fourth decay mode, all three W bosons decay into a charged lepton and a neutrino.</p> <p>To pick out the WWW signal from the large number of background events, researchers used a machine-learning technique called Boosted Decision Trees (BDTs). BDTs can be trained to identify specific signals in the ATLAS detector, spotting small – but key – differences between the predicted event properties. The improved separation between signal and background provided by the BDTs – along with the massive dataset provided by Run 2 of the LHC – enhanced the precision of the overall measurement and enabled the first observation of WWW production.</p> <p>This exciting measurement also allows physicists to look for hints of new interactions that might exist beyond the current energy reach of the LHC. In particular, physicists can use the WWW production process to study the <em>quartic gauge boson coupling</em> – where two W bosons scatter off each other – a key property of the Standard Model.<em> </em>New particles could alter the quartic gauge boson coupling through quantum effects, modifying the WWW production cross section. The continued study of WWW and other electroweak processes offers an enticing road ahead.</p> <p><strong>Links</strong></p> <ul><li><a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2021-039/">Observation of WWW production in proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector</a> (ATLAS-CONF-2021-039)</li> <li>EPS2021 presentation by Jessica Metcalfe: <a href="https://indico.desy.de/event/28202/contributions/105236/">Measurements of multi-boson production at ATLAS</a></li> <li>CMS Collaboration: <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.11191">Observation of the production of three massive gauge bosons at 13 TeV</a> (arXiv: 2006.11191)</li> </ul></div> Mon, 26 Jul 2021 16:04:31 +0000 cagrigor 157686 at https://home.cern Steven Weinberg (1933 – 2021) https://home.cern/news/obituary/cern/steven-weinberg-1933-2021 <span>Steven Weinberg (1933 – 2021)</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Mon, 07/26/2021 - 16:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Steven Weinberg, one of the greatest theoretical physicists of all time, passed away on 23 July, aged 88. He revolutionised particle physics, quantum field theory and cosmology with conceptual breakthroughs which still form the foundation of our understanding of physical reality.</p> <p>Weinberg is well known for the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic forces, which earned him the Nobel Prize in 1979, shared with Sheldon Glashow and Abdus Salam, and led to the prediction of the Z and W vector bosons, later discovered at CERN in 1983. His breakthrough was the realisation that some new theoretical ideas, initially believed to play a role in the description of nuclear strong interactions, could instead explain the nature of the weak force. “Then it suddenly occurred to me that this was a perfectly good sort of theory, but I was applying it to the wrong kind of interaction. The right place to apply these ideas was not to the strong interactions, but to the weak and electromagnetic interactions,” as he later recalled. With his work, Weinberg had made the next step in the unification of physical laws, after Newton understood that the motion of apples on Earth and planets in the sky are governed by the same gravitational force, and Maxwell understood that electric and magnetic phenomena are the expression of a single force.</p> <p>In his research, Weinberg always focused on an overarching vision of physics and not on a model description of any single phenomenon. At a lunch among theorists, when a colleague referred to him as a model builder, he jokingly retorted: “I am not a model builder. In my life, I have built only <em>one</em> model”. Indeed, Weinberg’s greatest legacy is his visionary approach to vast areas of physics, in which he starts from complex theoretical concepts, reinterprets them in original ways, and applies them to the description of the physical world. A good example is his construction of effective field theories, which are still today the basic tool to understand the Standard Model of particle interactions. His inimitable way of thinking has been the inspiration and guidance for generations of physicists and it will certainly continue to serve future generations.</p> <p>Steven Weinberg is among the very few individuals who, during the course of the history of civilisation, have radically changed the way we look at the universe.</p> <p><strong>Gian Giudice</strong> <em>CERN</em></p> <p><em>A full obituary will appear later in the year in the <a href="https://cerncourier.com">CERN Courier</a>.</em></p> </div> Mon, 26 Jul 2021 14:57:01 +0000 thortala 157685 at https://home.cern Privacy corner: A supervisory authority for data privacy matters at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/cern/privacy-corner-supervisory-authority-data-privacy-matters-cern <span>Privacy corner: A supervisory authority for data privacy matters at CERN</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Office of Data Privacy</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Fri, 07/23/2021 - 16:12</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Operational Circular No. 11, entitled “The processing of personal data at CERN” (OC 11) entered into force on 1 January 2019 and was the first major step to update the rules and processes of the Organization concerning the processing of personal data.</p> <p>The <a href="https://home.cern/news/official-news/cern/two-annexes-operational-circular-no-11-processing-personal-data-cern?utm_source=Bulletin&amp;utm_medium=Email&amp;utm_content=2021-07-08E&amp;utm_campaign=BulletinEmail">two new OC 11 annexes</a>, which have now been introduced, establish the Data Protection Commission (DPC) – CERN’s independent supervisory authority in matters of data protection.</p> <p>The DPC’s mandate is to monitor CERN’s compliance with OC 11, to ensure the application of OC 11 and, in particular, of data subject rights, and to evaluate and investigate complaints lodged by data subjects, regardless of their connection to CERN.</p> <p>This is in line with best practices in the Member States and other intergovernmental organisations and aims to provide assurance to individuals and partners that personal data is always handled with due care and respect.</p> <p>The DPC will be composed of three external data protection experts, recommended collectively by representatives of the Director-General, the Staff Association and the Office of Data Privacy for nomination by the Director-General. The next step will be the recruitment of the DPC’s members, so that, hopefully by the beginning of 2022, the DPC can commence its work at CERN.</p> <p>If you are interested in learning more about CERN’s supervisory authority, an <a href="https://privacy.web.cern.ch/news/news/all-you-need-know-about-cerns-supervisory-authority-data-protection-commission">article</a> on the Privacy web site provides a deeper insight.</p> </div> Fri, 23 Jul 2021 14:12:45 +0000 thortala 157674 at https://home.cern COVID-19 and heatwaves https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/covid-19-and-heatwaves <span>COVID-19 and heatwaves</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Medical Service</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 07/20/2021 - 14:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2776309" data-filename="8-Repères-Clés-Canicule_COVID19-EN_2021" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-122-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-122-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Heatwave during COVID-19" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-122-3/file?size=large"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Summer is here, with a heatwave perhaps on the horizon. Unfortunately, the virus responsible for COVID-19 is still circulating. Here are a few tips for coping with the heat whilst avoiding the risk of it contributing to the spread of the virus:</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-122-3"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-122-3" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-122-3/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption><span>(Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure></div> Tue, 20 Jul 2021 12:20:00 +0000 anschaef 157653 at https://home.cern