CERN: News http://home.cern/ en ISOLDE data get deluxe theoretical treatment http://home.cern/news/news/physics/isolde-data-get-deluxe-theoretical-treatment <span>ISOLDE data get deluxe theoretical treatment</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The atomic nucleus is a tough nut to crack. The strong interaction between the protons and neutrons that make it up depends on many quantities, and these particles, collectively known as nucleons, are subject to not only two-body forces but also three-body ones. These and other features make the theoretical modelling of atomic nuclei a challenging endeavour.</p> <p>In the past few decades, however, ab initio theoretical calculations, which attempt to describe nuclei from first principles, have started to change our understanding of nuclei. These calculations require fewer assumptions than traditional nuclear models, and they have a stronger predictive power. That said, because so far they can only be used to predict the properties of nuclei up to a certain atomic mass, they cannot always be compared with so-called DFT calculations, which are also fundamental and powerful and have been around for longer. Such a comparison is essential to build a nuclear model that is applicable across the board.</p> <p>In a <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.022502">paper</a> just published in <em>Physical Review Letters</em>, an international team at CERN’s <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/isolde">ISOLDE</a> facility shows how a unique combination of high-quality experimental data and several ab initio and DFT nuclear-physics calculations has resulted in an excellent agreement between the different calculations, as well as between the data and the calculations.</p> <p>“Our study demonstrates that precision nuclear theory from first principles is no longer a dream,” says Stephan Malbrunot of CERN, the first author of the paper. “In our work, the calculations agree with each other, as well as with our ISOLDE data on nickel nuclei, to within a small theoretical uncertainty.”</p> <p>Using a suite of experimental methods at ISOLDE, including a technique to detect the light emitted by short-lived atoms when laser light is shone on them, Malbrunot and colleagues determined the (charge) radii of a range of short-lived nickel nuclei, which have the same number of protons, 28, but a different number of neutrons. These 28 protons fill a complete shell within the nucleus, resulting in nuclei that are more strongly bound and stable than their nuclear neighbours. Such “magic” nuclei are excellent test cases for nuclear theories, and in terms of their radius, nickel nuclei are the last unexplored magic nuclei that have a mass within the mass region at which both ab initio and DFT calculations can be made.</p> <p>Comparing the ISOLDE radii data with three ab initio calculations and one DFT calculation, the researchers found that the calculations agree with the data, as well as with each other, to within a theoretical uncertainty of one part in a hundred.</p> <p>“An agreement at this level of precision demonstrates that it will eventually become possible to build a model that is applicable across the whole chart of nuclei,” says Malbrunot.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/10/2021 - 14:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/ana-lopes" hreflang="en">Ana Lopes</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-14T17:35:00Z">Fri, 01/14/2022 - 18:35</time> </div> </div> Fri, 10 Dec 2021 13:46:47 +0000 abelchio 158969 at http://home.cern CERN computer servers set sail for Lebanon http://home.cern/news/news/cern/cern-computer-servers-set-sail-lebanon <span>CERN computer servers set sail for Lebanon </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A year and a half after the explosion in the port of Beirut, Lebanon is still struggling to recover from a serious economic and social crisis that has paralysed this partner state of CERN, which has four universities affiliated to the CMS collaboration. International solidarity is more necessary than ever to shore up the country’s tradition of academic excellence and support its scientific community. In this context, developments such as the donation of CERN computing equipment offer a glimmer of hope amidst Lebanon’s setbacks.</p> <p>The long-awaited fruition of this project, known as HPC4L, was marked on Friday 14 January at a meeting between Joachim Mnich (CERN Director for Research and Computing), Enrica Porcari (Head of the Information Technology department at CERN), representatives of the Lebanese scientific community and of the foundations that have pledged financial support, and the Ambassador of Lebanon to the international organisations in Geneva. In 2016, the project, which was initiated by the CERN Adviser for the Middle East and North Africa Region, Martin Gastal, set out to boost Lebanon’s research capacity and secured the contribution of CERN, through the Organization’s Information Technology department, in the form of computer servers. The servers will make it possible to develop the computing capacity available to the Lebanese academic community in support of all kinds of research activities, including in high-energy physics. However, the servers could not be transported to Lebanon because of the crisis that was gripping the country, which reduced the funds available in the Lebanese institutes.</p> <p>Thanks to a successful <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/cms-launches-initiative-support-lebanese-colleagues">fundraising campaign</a>, organised by the CMS collaboration and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation (SKF), the necessary funds have been raised to cover the cost of shipping the hardware, purchasing the equipment required to install it and training Lebanese technical staff at CERN. The international scientific community and the Lebanese diaspora, both of which proved particularly generous, helped make the fundraising campaign – and therefore the threatened project – a success, thereby illustrating their solidarity with Lebanon’s academic institutions and boosting the country’s research capacity. The commitment of the French embassy in Lebanon, which provides financial aid to participate in the training costs of the Lebanese personnel in charge of the operation and maintenance of the computer servers, has also facilitated the concrete implementation of the project.</p> <p>Now that the funds have been raised, the servers will immediately set sail for Lebanon, where their new owners and users will be awaiting their arrival in the port of Beirut. CERN is sending 144 computing servers, containing a total of 3456 cores. In addition, CERN is supplying storage capacity by sending 24 disk servers that will provide over 1 petabyte. This equipment is donated from the CERN data centre, which forms the heart of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). The WLCG is used to store and analyse data from the LHC experiments.</p> <p>The equipment will then be installed in a dedicated computing centre that will be run by a public–private consortium whose technical staff will be trained at CERN by CMS experts once the installation of the servers, scheduled for March 2022, is complete. Once that final hurdle has been cleared, the universities will be able to start using the facility to develop their research and to participate in the WLCG, which includes 170 computing centres in 42 countries across the globe.</p> <p>It has been a long and tortuous road since the project began, but a happy ending is now in sight, thanks to the perseverance of all those in Lebanon, Europe and around the world who have invested their time and resources to help consolidate scientific research in Lebanon.</p> <p>Visit the <a href="https://hpc4l-webpage.web.cern.ch/">dedicated website</a> to find out more about the project and its partners (MoT/OGERO, AUB, LAU, USJ, LU, USEK, BAU, CNRS, Tamari Foundation, Eudoxia Foudation. </p> <p>________________________</p> <p><em>Since 2012, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements on efficiency but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 2524 servers and 150 network switches have been donated by CERN to countries and international organisations, namely Algeria, Bulgaria, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Mexico, Morocco, Lebanon, Nepal, Palestine, Pakistan, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia, and the SESAME laboratory in Jordan. CERN strives to maximise its positive impact on society: these donations can play an important role in providing opportunities for researchers and students in their home countries, thus helping to avoid so-called ‘brain-drain’ scenarios.</em></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Fri, 01/14/2022 - 16:41</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/thomas-hortala" hreflang="en">Thomas Hortala</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-14T15:28:50Z">Fri, 01/14/2022 - 16:28</time> </div> </div> Fri, 14 Jan 2022 15:41:56 +0000 thortala 168430 at http://home.cern A crunching multiverse to solve two physics puzzles at once http://home.cern/news/news/physics/crunching-multiverse-solve-two-physics-puzzles-once <span>A crunching multiverse to solve two physics puzzles at once</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The discovery of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a> was a landmark in the history of physics. It explained something fundamental: how elementary particles that have mass get their masses. But it also marked something no less fundamental: the beginning of an era of measuring in detail the particle’s properties and finding out what they might reveal about the nature of the universe.</p> <p>One such property is the particle’s mass, which at 125 GeV is surprisingly small. Many theories have been put forward to explain this small mass, but none has so far been confirmed with data. In a <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.021803">paper</a> just published in <em>Physical Review Letters</em>, Raffaele Tito D’Agnolo of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Daniele Teresi of CERN propose a new theory to explain both the lightness of the Higgs boson and another fundamental physics puzzle.</p> <p>In broad brushes, the duo’s theory works like this. In its early moments, the universe is a collection of many universes each with a different value of the Higgs mass, and in some of these universes the Higgs boson is light. In this multiverse model, universes with a heavy Higgs boson collapse in a big crunch in a very short time, whereas universes with a light Higgs boson survive this collapse. Our present-day universe would be one of these surviving light-Higgs universes.</p> <p>What’s more, the model, which includes two new particles in addition to the known particles predicted by the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a>, can also explain the puzzling symmetry properties of the strong force, which binds quarks together into protons and neutrons, and protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei.</p> <p>Although the theory of the strong force, known as quantum chromodynamics, predicts a possible breakdown in strong interactions of a fundamental symmetry called CP symmetry, such a breakdown is not observed in experiments. One of the new particles in D’Agnolo and Teresi’s model can solve this so-called strong CP problem, making strong interactions CP symmetric. Moreover, the same new particle could also account for the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a> that is thought to make up most of the matter in the universe.</p> <p>The jury is of course out on whether the new model, or any of the many other models that have been proposed to explain the Higgs boson mass or the strong CP problem, will fly.</p> <p>“Each model comes with perks and limitations,” says Teresi. “Our model stands out because it is simple, generic and it solves these two seemingly unrelated puzzles at once. And it predicts distinctive features in data from experiments that aim to search for dark matter or for an electric dipole moment in the neutron and other hadrons.”</p> <p>Other recent theoretical proposals to explain the Higgs mass include <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.221801">the relaxion field model</a>, <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.08617">a new phenomenon in quantum cosmology</a> and <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP10%282019%29199">the selfish Higss model</a>, to mention a few. Older, more traditional theories are based on a Higgs boson that is a composite particle or on a new type of symmetry called supersymmetry. Only time and data will tell which – if any – of the models will prevail.</p> <figure role="group"> <img alt="Shows universes in a multiverse." data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4c66fdfc-e49a-48b9-85d0-9bd68835a21a" height="“auto”" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/abelchio/Fig2.jpg" width="987" loading="lazy" /> <figcaption>The surviving light-Higgs universes. (Image: D’Agnolo and Teresi)</figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 01/13/2022 - 14:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/ana-lopes" hreflang="en">Ana Lopes</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-13T13:45:41Z">Thu, 01/13/2022 - 14:45</time> </div> </div> Thu, 13 Jan 2022 13:53:10 +0000 abelchio 168406 at http://home.cern ATLAS gives new insight into the internal structure of the proton http://home.cern/news/news/physics/atlas-gives-new-insight-internal-structure-proton <span>ATLAS gives new insight into the internal structure of the proton</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>While the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (<a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">LHC</a>) is well known for smashing protons together, it is actually the quarks and gluons inside the protons – collectively known as <em>partons</em> – that are really interacting. Thus, in order to predict the rate of a process occurring in the LHC – such as the production of a Higgs boson or a yet-unknown particle – physicists have to understand how partons behave within the proton. This behaviour is described in Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs), which describe what fraction of a proton’s momentum is taken by its constituent quarks and gluons.</p> <p>Knowledge of PDFs has traditionally come from lepton–proton colliders, such as <a href="https://www.desy.de/research/facilities__projects/hera/index_eng.html">HERA at DESY</a>. These machines use point-like particles, such as electrons, to directly probe the partons within the proton. Their research revealed that, in addition to the well-known up and down quarks that are inside a proton, there is also a sea of other quark–antiquark pairs in the proton. This sea is theoretically made of all types of quarks, bound together by gluons. Now, studies of the LHC’s proton–proton collisions are providing a detailed look into PDFs, in particular the proton’s gluon and quark-type composition.</p> <p>The ATLAS Collaboration has just released a <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2112.11266">new paper</a> combining LHC and <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06042">HERA data</a> to determine PDFs. The result uses ATLAS data from several different Standard Model processes, including the production of W and Z bosons, pairs of top quarks and hadronic jets (collimated sprays of particles). The strange quark’s contribution to PDFs was expected to be lower than that of lighter quarks. The new paper confirms a <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03016">previous ATLAS result</a>, which found that the strange quark is not substantially suppressed at small proton momentum fractions and extends this result to show how suppression kicks in at higher momentum fractions.</p> <p>Several experiments and theoretical groups around the world are working to understand PDFs, as variance in these results could impact high-energy searches for physics beyond the Standard Model.</p> <p>Achieving high-accuracy PDFs is needed if physicists are to find evidence for new-physics processes – which is where the ATLAS analysis contributes most powerfully.  The ATLAS Collaboration is able to assess the correlations of the systematic uncertainties between their datasets and account for them – an ability put to great effect in their new PDF result. Such knowledge was not previously available outside ATLAS, making this result a new “vademecum” for global PDF groups.</p> <p>Read <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/insight-proton-structure">the full article</a> on the ATLAS website.</p> <p>Additional links</p> <ul> <li>CERN Preprint: <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2798650">CERN-EP-2021-239</a></li> <li>arXiv: <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2112.11266">2112.11266</a></li> <li>Figures: <a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2020-32">https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2020-32</a></li> <li>Lepton photon talk: <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/949705/contributions/4556026/">https://indico.cern.ch/event/949705/contributions/4556026/</a> </li> </ul> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Wed, 01/12/2022 - 17:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/atlas-collaboration" hreflang="en">ATLAS collaboration</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-12T16:10:46Z">Wed, 01/12/2022 - 17:10</time> </div> </div> Wed, 12 Jan 2022 16:17:36 +0000 cagrigor 168398 at http://home.cern Dorota Gaweda and Egle Kulbokaite win Collide residency award http://home.cern/news/news/cern/dorota-gaweda-and-egle-kulbokaite-win-collide-residency-award <span>Dorota Gaweda and Egle Kulbokaite win Collide residency award</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Polish artist Dorota Gawęda and Lithuanian artist Eglė Kulbokaitė, a duo based in Basel, Switzerland, have been selected as the winners of this year’s edition of the <a href="https://arts.cern/programme/collide">Collide</a> award alongside three Honorary Mentions.</p> <p>Collide is the flagship programme of <a href="https://arts.cern/">Arts at CERN</a>, which invites artists worldwide from all creative disciplines to submit proposals for a research-led residency based on interaction with CERN’s scientific community. This year’s Collide residency award received 388 submissions from 75 countries.</p> <p>Working together since 2013, Dorota Gawęda and Eglė Kulbokaitė’s multi-faceted practice navigates between performance, fragrance, installation, sculpture, video and painting, all of which are rooted in feminist theory and fiction. Their winning proposal is entitled “Gusla” and derives from Polish rural folklore.</p> <p>In 2022, Dorota Gawęda and Eglė Kulbokaitė will extend their collaborative practice during a two-month residency at CERN, working with scientists, engineers and staff of the Laboratory. Later, they will spend one month in Barcelona connecting and engaging in dialogue with scientists from the city while being hosted at the Hangar Centre for Art Research and Production.</p> <p>The artists are deeply inspired by fundamental physics, especially how quantum physics in relation to living organisms exposes the “strangeness” of the world. “We hope that the engagement with quantum physics has the potential to break normative patterns of human behaviour and negotiate new ways of relating to the natural world,” the duo declare. Engaging with concepts from fundamental physics and drawing from Eastern European summoning rituals, their research calls forth speculative worlds and fictions.</p> <p>Additionally, the jury selected three Honorary Mentions: Indonesian filmmaker Riar Rizaldi, New Zealand-based collective The Observatory Project and Barcelona-based Colombian artist María Paz. They will be invited to take part in <a href="https://arts.cern/programme/guest-artists">Arts at CERN’s Guest Artists programme</a> – a short stay at the Laboratory to engage with CERN’s research and community and investigate ideas to support their proposals.</p> <p>The jury was composed of Mónica Bello, Curator and Head of Arts at CERN, Geneva; Valentino Catricalà, Curator of the SODA Gallery, Manchester; Lluis Nacenta, Director of Hangar, Barcelona; Rosa Pera, independent curator, Barcelona; and Helga Timko, Accelerator Physicist at CERN, Geneva.</p> <p>Collide has been organised in collaboration with Barcelona’s Institute of Culture and Barcelona City Council since 2019 as part of a three-year collaboration (2019–2021).</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/18835" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">mailys</span></span> <span>Tue, 01/11/2022 - 10:43</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-12T09:00:00Z">Wed, 01/12/2022 - 10:00</time> </div> </div> Tue, 11 Jan 2022 09:43:45 +0000 mailys 168338 at http://home.cern Internal communications survey: change the way you get informed on CERN matters! http://home.cern/news/news/cern/internal-communications-survey-change-way-you-get-informed-cern-matters <span>Internal communications survey: change the way you get informed on CERN matters! </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>With 57 years and counting behind it, the CERN Bulletin has been the Laboratory’s internal newsletter for most of its existence. Since the days when a print copy was distributed to each office, the Laboratory and its community have changed a lot, and the Bulletin has always adapted to keep up with this evolution and growth. In parallel, new ways of keeping you informed have budded over the years, such as departmental newsletters, internal screens and panels at the sites’ entrances. In the light of the profound changes that CERN is currently undergoing, we think that the time has come for all these communication channels to be rethought and reshaped, to ease access to information, better engage with you and promote the feeling of community that we hold dear.</p> <p><a class="bulletin" href="https://surveyhero.com/c/ytxzv449"><strong>Help us make this happen by taking this 5-minute survey</strong></a><strong>.</strong></p> <p>In this survey, you will be asked to share the ways you get informed on CERN news and matters, and your opinions on the various internal communication channels. <strong>We strongly encourage you to participate even if you have never read the CERN Bulletin</strong><strong>: </strong>it is about finding new ways of keeping you engaged in CERN and its mission and of delivering all the information that you need in a timely manner. We think every member of our community can benefit from this.<br /> <br /> Your personal data will be processed only until it is downloaded and anonymised. The analysis of the survey and the presentation of the results will be completely anonymous. The collected data will be used exclusively in the framework of the evaluation campaign. Click <a class="bulletin" href="https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal?id=privacy_policy&amp;se=internal-events&amp;notice=internal-communication-survey">here</a> for the privacy notice.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Mon, 01/10/2022 - 16:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/thomas-hortala" hreflang="en">Thomas Hortala</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-11T16:41:54Z">Tue, 01/11/2022 - 17:41</time> </div> </div> Mon, 10 Jan 2022 15:46:23 +0000 thortala 168112 at http://home.cern Environmental awareness: Greenhouse gas emissions http://home.cern/news/news/cern/environmental-awareness-greenhouse-gas-emissions <span>Environmental awareness: Greenhouse gas emissions</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The recent UN Climate Change Conference (<a href="https://ukcop26.org/">COP26</a>) in Glasgow once again stressed the importance of combatting climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. CERN is committed to participating in this combat.</p> <p>The first step in this endeavour is to accurately monitor the Organization’s greenhouse gas emissions following the <a href="https://ghgprotocol.org/corporate-standard">Greenhouse Gas Protocol</a>’s nomenclature, which breaks down emissions into three scopes: scope 1 refers to the direct carbon dioxide equivalent (CO<sub>2</sub>e) emissions resulting from an organisation’s facilities, scope 2 refers to indirect CO<sub>2</sub>e emissions, for example related to the generation and supply of electricity, while scope 3 refers to indirect CO<sub>2</sub>e emissions occurring upstream and downstream of an organisation’s activities, such as those linked to mobility and waste.</p> <p>CERN’s direct CO<sub>2</sub>e emissions (scope 1) arise from the Laboratory’s industrial infrastructure and on-site activities, such as heating, air conditioning and the vehicle fleet, but the vast majority are generated by the gases in the LHC experiments. These large experiments use a wide range of gas mixtures, including fluorinated gases (F-gases), for particle detection and detector cooling purposes. More than 78% of CERN’s direct emissions is due to F-gases, some of which have high Global Warming Potential (GWP)*.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2022-003-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2022-003-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2022-003-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>Distribution of CERN's greenhouse gas emissions in 2019 (representative of LS2, before the COVID-19 pandemic)<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure> <p>The Organization set itself the objective of reducing its direct CO<sub>2</sub>e emissions by 28% by the end of 2024 (baseline year: 2018). Because of their major contribution, F-gases are the main focus of these mitigation efforts and CERN has developed an R&amp;D strategy based on gas recuperation, optimisation of current technologies and replacement with more environmentally friendly gases. During LS2, the Organization took important steps towards replacing F-gases with CO<sub>2</sub>,<sub> </sub>which has a substantially lower GWP, in detector cooling systems. The experiments also carried out a leak repair campaign and investigated environmentally friendly gas mixtures. Despite the difficulties arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, most planned repairs have been or are being carried out.</p> <p>The indirect emissions related to CERN’s electrical power supply and consumption (scope 2) are relatively low as the Laboratory procures low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, the Organization is committed to limiting its increase in electricity consumption to 5% up to the end of 2024. During LS2, CERN consumed about 64% less electricity, which had a knock-on effect on energy-related emissions.</p> <p>In 2020 and for the first time, CERN assessed its scope 3 CO<sub>2</sub>e emissions, such as those arising from business travel, personnel commutes, catering, waste and water purification. This estimate marks an important step in understanding and controlling the Laboratory’s overall emissions. Emissions related to personnel commutes and to long-distance flights in the framework of business travel make up the bulk of CERN’s scope 3 emissions. CERN’s goals are to keep individual motorised vehicle commuting constant by 2025, despite a growing scientific community, and to better understand and monitor emissions deriving from the Laboratory’s procurement. A project was launched by the IPT department in 2021 to address this second goal.</p> <p>More information about CERN’s scope 3 emissions and their reduction priorities can be found in the latest <a href="https://hse.cern/environment-report-2019-2020">Environment Report.</a></p> <p>In addition to setting reduction objectives and mitigation measures, CERN discusses its carbon footprint in international forums, such as the <a href="https://www.eiroforum.org/">EIROforum</a>, where representatives of eight major research organisations in Europe share their respective experiences.</p> <p>__________________</p> <p><em>This article is part of the series “CERN’s Year of Environmental Awareness”.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>* Global Warming Potential (GWP) is defined as the cumulative radiative forcing impact of one unit of a given greenhouse gas, relative to one unit of CO<sub>2</sub>, over a period of time. In practice, it allows comparisons of the global warming impacts of different gases.</p> <p> </p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Mon, 01/10/2022 - 13:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-10T11:59:53Z">Mon, 01/10/2022 - 12:59</time> </div> </div> Mon, 10 Jan 2022 12:04:07 +0000 thortala 167960 at http://home.cern BASE breaks new ground in matter–antimatter comparisons http://home.cern/news/news/physics/base-breaks-new-ground-matter-antimatter-comparisons <span>BASE breaks new ground in matter–antimatter comparisons</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In a <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04203-w">paper</a> published today in the journal <em>Nature</em>, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/base">BASE collaboration</a> at CERN reports the most precise comparison yet between protons and antiprotons, the antimatter counterparts of protons.</p> <p>Analysing proton and antiproton measurements taken over a year and a half at <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">CERN’s antimatter factory</a>, a unique facility for antimatter production and analyses, the BASE team measured the electric charge-to-mass ratios<strong> </strong>of the proton<strong> </strong>and the antiproton with record precision. The results found these are identical to within an experimental uncertainty of 16 parts per trillion.</p> <p>“This result represents the most precise direct test of a fundamental symmetry between matter and antimatter, performed with particles made of three quarks, known as baryons, and their antiparticles,” says BASE spokesperson Stefan Ulmer.</p> <p>According to the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a>, which represents physicists’ current best theory of particles and their interactions, matter and antimatter particles can differ, for example in the way they transform into other particles, but most of their properties, including their masses, should be identical. Finding any slight difference between the masses of protons and antiprotons, or between the ratios of their electric charge and mass, would break a fundamental symmetry of the Standard Model, called CPT symmetry, and point to new physics phenomena beyond the Model.</p> <p>Such a difference could also shed light on why the universe is made up almost entirely of matter, even though equal amounts of antimatter should have been created in the Big Bang. The differences between matter and antimatter particles that are consistent with the Standard Model are smaller by orders of magnitude to be able to explain this observed cosmic imbalance.</p> <p>To make their proton and antiproton measurements, the BASE team confined antiprotons and negatively charged hydrogen ions<a href="#_ftn1">[1]</a>, which are negatively charged proxies for protons, in a state-of-the-art particle trap called a Penning trap. In this device, a particle follows a cyclical trajectory with a frequency, close to the cyclotron frequency, that scales with the trap’s magnetic-field strength and the particle's charge-to-mass ratio.</p> <p>Alternately feeding antiprotons and negatively charged hydrogen ions one at a time into the trap, the BASE team measured, under the same conditions, the cyclotron frequencies of these two kinds of particle, allowing their charge-to-mass ratios to be compared.</p> <p>Performed over four campaigns between December 2017 and May 2019, these measurements resulted in more than 24000 cyclotron-frequency comparisons, each lasting 260 seconds, between the charge-to-mass ratios of antiprotons and negatively charged hydrogen ions. From these comparisons, and after accounting for the difference between a proton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion, the BASE researchers found that the charge-to-mass ratios of protons and antiprotons are equal to within 16 parts per trillion.</p> <p>“This result is four times more precise than the <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14861">previous best comparison</a> between these ratios, and the charge-to-mass ratio is now the most precisely measured property of the antiproton.” says Stefan Ulmer. “To reach this precision, we made considerable upgrades to the experiment and carried out the measurements when the antimatter factory was closed down, using our reservoir of antiprotons, which can store antiprotons for years.” Making cyclotron-frequency measurements when the antimatter factory is not in operation is ideal, because the measurements are not affected by disturbances to the experiment’s magnetic field.</p> <p>In addition to comparing protons and antiprotons with an unprecedented precision, the BASE team used their measurements to place stringent limits on models beyond the Standard Model that violate CPT symmetry, as well as to test a fundamental physics law known as the weak equivalence principle.</p> <p>According to this principle, different bodies in the same gravitational field undergo the same acceleration in the absence of friction forces. Because the BASE experiment is placed on the surface of the Earth, its proton and antiproton cyclotron-frequency measurements were made in the gravitational field on the Earth’s surface. Any difference between the gravitational interaction of protons and antiprotons would result in a difference between the proton and antiproton cyclotron frequencies.</p> <p>Sampling the varying gravitational field of the Earth as the planet orbits around the Sun, the BASE scientists found no such difference and set a maximum value on this differential measurement of three parts in 100.</p> <p>“This limit is comparable to the initial precision goals of <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/new-antimatter-gravity-experiments-begin-cern">experiments</a> that aim to drop antihydrogen in the Earth’s gravitational field,” says Ulmer. “BASE did not directly drop antimatter in the Earth’s gravitational field, but our measurement of the influence of gravity on a baryonic antimatter particle is conceptually very similar, indicating no anomalous interaction between antimatter and gravity at the achieved level of uncertainty.”</p> <p><strong>Videos:</strong></p> <p>Video about BASE: <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2289533">https://videos.cern.ch/record/ 2289533</a></p> <p>Video about the Antimatter Factory : <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2312142">https://videos.cern.ch/record/2312142</a></p> <p><strong>Photos:</strong></p> <p>BASE experiment: <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2748765">https://cds.cern.ch/record/ 2748765</a></p> <p>BASE penning trap: <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2748764">https://cds.cern.ch/record/ 2748764</a></p> <p> </p> <hr /> <p><a href="#_ftnref1">[1]</a> A hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/139" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ssanchis</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/21/2021 - 17:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2022-01-05T16:01:22Z">Wed, 01/05/2022 - 17:01</time> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Dec 2021 16:07:24 +0000 ssanchis 160458 at http://home.cern Relive 2021 at CERN http://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/relive-2021-cern <span>Relive 2021 at CERN </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p> </p> <p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/R11VyvT8gzY?rel=0" width="560"></iframe></p> <p>With LHC’s Run 3 around the corner, it has been a year of milestones at CERN! <a href="/news?title=&amp;topic=1114&amp;type=All&amp;audience=All&amp;tid_3=&amp;date_from=2021-01-01&amp;date_to=">Accelerators</a> saw their first beams circulating and <a href="/news?title=&amp;topic=1117&amp;type=All&amp;audience=All&amp;tid_3=&amp;date_from=2021-01-01&amp;date_to=">experiments</a> went through significant transformations to increase their detection potential.  </p> <p>Among <a href="/news?title=&amp;topic=1113&amp;type=All&amp;audience=All&amp;tid_3=&amp;date_from=2021-01-01&amp;date_to=">physics</a> results, the discovery of the <a href="/news/news/physics/totem-and-do-collaborations-announce-odderon-discovery">odderon</a> by the TOTEM and DØ collaborations, the <a href="/news/press-release/experiments/alpha-cools-antimatter-using-laser-light-first-time">first laser-cooling of antimatter</a> at ALPHA and <a href="/news/news/physics/faser-catches-first-candidate-collider-neutrinos">first candidate collider neutrinos</a> at FASER are only a few that generated awe at the Laboratory. <a href="/news/news/experiments/cloud-cern-reveals-role-iodine-acids-atmospheric-aerosol-formation">CLOUD</a>, <a href="/news/news/physics/two-trap-cooling-promises-antimatter-precision">BASE</a>, <a href="/news/news/experiments/ams-decade-cosmic-discoveries">AMS</a>, <a href="/news/news/physics/intriguing-new-result-lhcb-experiment-cern">LHCb,</a> <a href="/news/news/physics/cms-homes-higgs-bosons-lifetime">CMS</a>, <a href="/news/news/physics/atlas-reports-first-observation-www-production">ATLAS</a>, <a href="/news/news/physics/alice-finds-charm-hadronisation-differs-lhc">ALICE</a>, <a href="/news/news/physics/bismuth-isotopes-also-alternate-spheres-rugby-balls">ISOLDE</a> and <a href="/news/news/physics/na64-sets-bounds-how-much-new-x-bosons-could-change-electrons-magnetism">NA64</a> also had exciting news in store.</p> <p>Watch <a class="bulletin" href="https://youtu.be/R11VyvT8gzY">this video</a> and enjoy a visual journey through key moments of 2021!</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/21/2021 - 15:43</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2021-12-21T14:42:31Z">Tue, 12/21/2021 - 15:42</time> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Dec 2021 14:43:52 +0000 cagrigor 160457 at http://home.cern Guardians of the tunnel http://home.cern/news/news/engineering/guardians-tunnel <span>Guardians of the tunnel</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>With over 60 km of tunnels and more than 80 caverns at depths ranging from 50 to 175 metres, CERN’s underground infrastructure is one of the most complex in the world. Most of these tunnels are more than 60 years old, and CERN’s geology of moraines, molasse and limestone requires continuous risk assessment as any movement could disrupt or even halt the operation of the accelerator complex.</p> <p>During LS2, the Future Studies (FS) section of the Site and Civil Engineering (SCE) department inspected 60 km of underground tunnels and subsurface infrastructure. They found 550 defects, mostly minor. However, of the 8% of faults that were severe, cracks were the most common issue.</p> <p>Traditionally, an engineer would inspect and manually document cracks and other issues in the tunnels, which is a meticulous and slow process. But a new project being carried out in collaboration with other departments is aimed at finding time-efficient solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the inspections using new technologies that allow automated analysis, remote inspection and digitalisation.</p> <p>One of these solutions is the CERN Inspection Tool (TIC – “Collector”), a fully digital, mobile-based app that is fully integrated into <a href="https://gis.cern.ch/">CERN’s GIS</a> portal and allows users to record a fault, attach photos, measure distances and locate the fault on a map. After an inspection, all the records are uploaded wirelessly to the GIS servers, where they can be viewed immediately on the “Tunnel Inspection”<em> </em>thematic map.</p> <p>But most recently, artificial intelligence devices native to CERN – like the CERNbot and the TIM robot – are being used to acquire data and photos from the tunnels. These remotely operated robots, developed by the <a href="https://be-dep-cem.web.cern.ch">Controls, Electronics and Mechatronics</a> (BE-CEM) group, take inspection photos that are then processed to identify cracks and automatically locate them. Using photogrammetry and deep learning to analyse CERN's underground infrastructure, a team of experts from the Future Studies section and University College Cork (UCC) has developed a real-time crack and feature recognition algorithm. “This remote collection of photos and data obtained using robots promises to allow more regular inspections and less risk to inspectors, although further testing is needed”, said John Osborne, Future Studies section leader.</p> <p>Another PhD research project involving the <a href="https://sce-dep.web.cern.ch/">SCE department</a> and the UCC explores the use of fibre optic cables to remotely measure underground movements, allowing the tunnels to be continuously monitored even during accelerator operation.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/21/2021 - 10:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/cristina-agrigoroae" hreflang="en">Cristina Agrigoroae</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2021-12-21T09:02:07Z">Tue, 12/21/2021 - 10:02</time> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Dec 2021 09:23:32 +0000 cagrigor 160407 at http://home.cern