CERN: Accelerators updates https://home.cern/ en FCC feasibility study comes into focus https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/fcc-feasibility-study-comes-focus <span>FCC feasibility study comes into focus</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Mark Rayner</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Thu, 07/08/2021 - 11:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>To address the many outstanding questions in fundamental physics, including those brought into sharper focus by the discovery of the Higgs boson, there is no scientific instrument yet conceived with power comparable to a particle collider. Reflecting this, the 2020 update to the European Strategy for Particle Physics set an electron-positron collider as the highest-priority facility after the LHC, along with the investigation of the technical and financial feasibility of a future energy-frontier proton-proton collider in a new 100 km tunnel as a potential second step.</p> <p>To move forward one leading proposal to realise this strategy, this year’s Future Circular Collider (FCC) Week took place online from 28 June to 2 July, attracting 700 participants from all over the world to debate how best to operate an electron-positron collider and then a proton-proton collider in a new 100 km circumference tunnel in the Geneva region. The meeting tackled ongoing work on a feasibility study being prepared in time for the next strategy update in 2027.</p> <p>For details on what was discussed at FCC Week 2021, check out <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/fcc-feasibility-study-comes-into-focus/">Panos Charitos’ report</a> in <a href="https://cerncourier.com/">CERN Courier magazine</a>, which discusses the collaboration’s progress with placement studies, accelerator physics R&amp;D and minimising the project’s potential ecological impact.</p> </div> Thu, 08 Jul 2021 09:20:32 +0000 thortala 157569 at https://home.cern Millimetric precision for a Future Circular Collider https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/millimetric-precision-future-circular-collider <span>Millimetric precision for a Future Circular Collider </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Tue, 06/29/2021 - 12:10</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A key recommendation of the 2020 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics is that <em>Europe, together with its international partners, should investigate the feasibility of a future hadron collider at CERN. </em>Consequently, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/future-circular-collider">Future Circular Collider (FCC)</a> Feasibility Study has been launched with the goal of demonstrating the technical and financial viability of such a facility at CERN. A vital aspect of this study is geodetic measurements* of the region, a prerequisite for the high-precision alignment of the accelerator’s components.</p> <p>The Future Circular Collider would have a circumference three times greater than the Large Hadron Collider’s (LHC), covering an area about ten times larger than its predecessor's in which every geographical reference must be pinpointed with unprecedented precision. To provide a reference coordinate system in this area, a team of <a href="https://be-dep-gm.web.cern.ch/">surveyors from CERN</a> have recently performed geodetic levelling measurements along an 8km profile across the Swiss-French border south of Geneva. </p> <p>These new geodetic measurements, performed in May, have two immediate research objectives. First, they determine a high-precision gravity field model for the FCC region. This surface model, called a “geoid”, consists in a field that is perpendicular to the direction of a plumb line at any given point and is the basis for the altitude of a point. Second, the new measurements improve and update the present reference system, whose measurements date back to the 1980s, when the tunnel housing the LHC today was built. The results will help to evaluate if an extrapolation of the current LHC model is precise enough, or if a full redetermination is needed over the whole FCC area. In addition, the data collected will be used to write a PhD thesis and carry out postdoctoral research.</p> <p>The present measurement campaign is performed in collaboration with ETH Zurich, Swisstopo and HEIG-Vd, in the framework of an FCC - Swiss CHART Collaboration. It is one of the first activities undertaken in the field for the FCC Feasibility Study.</p> <p>The FCC feasibility study involves the cooperation of more than 140 universities and research institutions from 34 countries. It comprises a series of multidisciplinary studies including geological, technological, environmental, engineering, political and economic considerations from 2021 to 2025.  Should the FCC Feasibility Study lead to a positive result and the project receive the approval of CERN’s Member States, civil engineering works could start as early as the 2030s.      </p> <p><em><span style="font-size:11px;">* Geodesy is the science that studies the Earth’s shape, size, gravitational field, orientation and rotation.</span></em></p> <figure class="cds-video" id="CERN-VIDEO-2021-016-001"><div><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="450" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/CERN-VIDEO-2021-016-001" width="100%"></iframe></div> <figcaption>Gravitational measurements campaign taking place from 24 to 28 May 2021 along the road between Bernex and Saint-Julien. <span>(Video: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure></div> Tue, 29 Jun 2021 10:10:26 +0000 thortala 157509 at https://home.cern Qualifying HL-LHC magnets and cavities at Uppsala University https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/qualifying-hl-lhc-magnets-and-cavities-uppsala-university <span>Qualifying HL-LHC magnets and cavities at Uppsala University</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Roger Ruber</div> <div class="field--item">Kevin Pepitone</div> <div class="field--item">Akira Miyazaki</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Thu, 06/24/2021 - 11:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Uppsala University in Sweden has been a valuable partner to CERN since the Laboratory’s foundation. In the 1950s, Uppsala, having just constructed its own cyclotron, contributed to the development of the very first accelerator at CERN, the Synchrocyclotron. In the 1980s, CERN assisted Uppsala in constructing a proton and heavy-ion accelerator and cooler-storage ring named CELSIUS and, in the mid-2000s, Uppsala assisted in the development and operation of the CLIC CTF3 test facility at CERN. Now, Uppsala University is upgrading its FREIA Laboratory, initially constructed for the ESS project, to test superconducting magnets and crab cavities for the HL-LHC.</p> <p>Uppsala University established the FREIA Laboratory for instrumentation and accelerator development in 2011. It is equipped with a horizontal cryostat called Hnoss, a cryomodule test stand for superconducting cavities, and a vertical cryostat called Gersemi. In Nordic mythology, Hnoss and Gersemi are daughters of the goddess Freia.</p> <p>A unique feature of Gersemi is its double functionality for both cavity and magnet testing. Cavities are tested in liquid helium at 2 K and sub-atmospheric pressure, while magnets are tested at 2 K and atmospheric pressure. Magnets create a magnetic field that can magnetise any metallic parts around the cryostat, such as reinforced concrete. Since superconducting cavities are very sensitive to magnetic fields, this puts substantially different requirements on the functionality of the cryostat in its two modes of operation.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-5"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-5" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-5/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>An HL-LHC crab cavity being prepared for testing.<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Gersemi uses different inserts for cavity and magnet testing, and has an active earth-magnetic-field compensation system to shield superconducting cavities, monitored by a prototype 3-axis magnetic sensor produced in collaboration with UK company Bartington Instruments Ltd.</p> <p>The Gersemi vertical cryostat was installed and commissioned during 2019. During the summer of 2020, a first HL-LHC prototype crab cavity was sent from CERN, installed into Gersemi and cooled down to 2 K. An extensive testing period followed, supported under the EU-funded <a href="http://cern.ch/aries">ARIES</a> project Transnational Access scheme, in which the cavity reached an electric field of 4.6 MV. This was more than 1.2 MV above the nominal design value.</p> <p>“We overcame a lot of issues and passed plenty of milestones, including mechanical, vacuum, cryogenics and radiation shielding issues,” said Akira Miyazaki, the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) researcher responsible for the test. “We are now firmly on the starting line of the cavity business!”</p> <p>Simultaneously, preparations for testing an HL-LHC orbit corrector magnet were ongoing. Two power converters and energy extraction units developed by CERN were sent to Uppsala and, on 23 June 2020, the first positive results were announced.</p> <p>After completing the crab cavity test, the magnet was installed into Gersemi and cooled down, first to 4 K and then to 2 K. An extensive testing period was performed at both temperatures to commission the complete set-up for superconducting magnet testing. Many small and not-so-small problems had to be fixed, both on the cryostat hardware and on the testing hardware and software. On 1 April 2021, the system was finally ready for the first powering of the cold magnet at 4 K. Two weeks later, the magnet was cooled down to 2 K and successfully powered again. “After encountering difficulties for a few weeks, even months, I am happy to announce that a superconducting magnet has been powered for the first time in the FREIA lab,” said magnet test engineer Kévin Pepitone. “All systems responded as expected.” The LHC superconducting orbit corrector magnet was powered to a current close to the nominal current, and a field of 2.4 T was produced in Gersemi.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-4"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-4" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-4/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>An LHC superconducting orbit corrector magnet being prepared for testing.<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The successful commissioning of the new equipment at Uppsala establishes the FREIA Laboratory as an important complement to the SM18 test facility at CERN, in time for the testing of new HL-LHC components.</p> <p>In addition to the current tests of superconducting magnets at Gersemi, Uppsala and CERN have started a new collaboration project that will use new manufacturing technologies to produce an innovative new type of magnet, a so-called canted-cosine-theta design. The basic idea, which consists of combining two solenoids slightly canted in opposite directions, originated in the 1960s. It is only nowadays with accurate computer-aided manufacturing that it has become feasible to industrialise it. Uppsala University and Linnaeus University will provide skills development to three participating companies in Sweden to develop the technology to manufacture the magnet. The goal is to develop a prototype magnet that, in the future, can replace existing dipole orbit corrector magnets in the LHC when they reach the end of their lives. A major requirement is to make it plug-in compatible with the existing orbit correctors, limiting the design choices of current, quench protection, overall dimensions and connections. The design work on the superconducting cable and magnetic layout has started. The powering tests of the magnet will be performed at Gersemi.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-3"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-3" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-3/file?size=large" /></a><span></span> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-102-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>Preliminary design of the canted-cosine-theta magnet. Above, the winding of the superconducting wire. Below, the magnetic field strength, maximum 3.1 T.<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><span></span></figure><p>This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under GA No. 730871.</p> </div> Thu, 24 Jun 2021 09:20:47 +0000 anschaef 157474 at https://home.cern CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics | 25 September - 8 October 2021 https://home.cern/news/announcement/accelerators/cern-accelerator-school-introduction-accelerator-physics-25 <span>CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics | 25 September - 8 October 2021</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">CERN Accelerator School</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 06/15/2021 - 10:29</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><strong><em>The CAS team has adapted to the ongoing evolution of the Covid pandemic and has changed dates and venue of the introductory course. </em></strong></p> <p>The introductory CAS course is the core teaching of all CAS courses and represents the ideal opportunity to be introduced into the field of particle accelerators. This course will be of interest to staff and students from laboratories and universities as well as from companies manufacturing accelerator equipment. The course will focus on various aspects of beam dynamics and will provide an introduction to the underlying accelerator systems and technologies. Key topics will be consolidated through a series of discussion sessions and computer-based tutorials, while topical seminars will round up the programme.</p> <p>The final decision on holding this course will be taken by the end of August 2021. Hence present inscriptions are only a firm expression of interest. Payments and travel organisation will be done after the confirmation date. This time, grant applications can only be accepted for persons not requiring a VISA.</p> <p>For more information and application, please visit the school website: <a href="https://cas.web.cern.ch/schools/kaunas-2021">https://cas.web.cern.ch/schools/chavannes-de-bogis-2021</a></p> </div> Tue, 15 Jun 2021 08:29:40 +0000 anschaef 157204 at https://home.cern The High-Luminosity LHC project takes shape at Point 1 https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc-project-takes-shape-point-1 <span>The High-Luminosity LHC project takes shape at Point 1 </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Thomas Hortala</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Tue, 06/08/2021 - 14:21</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>With the pure whiteness of its walls, its impeccable cleanliness and its alternating white and blue lights, the new <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a> (HL-LHC) cavern, situated at Point 1 near the ATLAS detector at around 80 metres below ground, could easily pass for a medical facility. However, “it won’t stay that way for long,” smiles Oliver Brüning, HL-LHC project leader: the empty cavern and 300-metre-long service tunnel will soon experience the clutter and bustle of the installation of its technical infrastructure and, further in the future, of the equipment fitting out the upgraded LHC.</p> <p>Along with a similar underground complex at Point 5 (close to CMS), which is still under construction, this cavern and gallery are the keystone upon which much of the HL-LHC strategy rests. Indeed, the structure presents a comprehensive solution to the challenges posed by the future accelerator – namely, increased radiation damage to components due to the higher number of collisions, greater losses in magnet refrigeration and storage issues in the tight LHC tunnel, which cannot house all of the cutting-edge equipment needed to improve its performance. These pieces include superconducting links, cold compressors for the triplet quadrupole magnets, a variety of cooling magnet protection systems and the power generation for the new <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/engineering/worlds-first-crabbing-proton-beam">crab cavity</a> SRF system. They will be moved to the new cavern, alongside all of the new and old power converters of the LHC, during Long Shutdown 3.</p> <p>Ever since the decision to build the caverns was made in 2015, the teams responsible for the civil engineering works (primarily the Civil Engineering group within SCE, although the project involves groups from all across the Organization) haven’t lost a second: concerned by the disturbances that the heavy drilling works could cause in the LHC beam during operation, the HL-LHC leadership advanced the start of the works to 2018 and LS2, with the aim of finalising the civil engineering works before Run 3. Designers settled for a double-decker solution, with the new gallery resting parallel to the LHC tunnel, six metres above it, and connected to the old tunnel at four different points. “This elegant double-decker design allows us to bore the connections through the roof of the LHC tunnel, so as to not lose a single square metre of ground floor in the already jam-packed tunnel,” explains Oliver Brüning.</p> <p>Laurent Tavian, work package leader for the construction of the underground structure, cannot hide his satisfaction with the unfolding of the civil engineering works: “Our main concern was water, as the flooding of the caverns had complicated the digging of different caverns in the past. But this never crystallised into a real issue here, as we were lucky enough to dig during two exceptionally dry years. What we did not expect, however, were the hydrocarbons.” Despite the minor inconvenience of finding small pockets of natural gas and oil and the few weeks lost because of the 2020 lockdown, civil engineering is now finishing smoothly and on schedule, thanks in part to the trusting relationship built with the main contractor company, The Joint Venture Marti Meyrin. The construction of surface buildings – for cooling systems and other services – is well under way and should be completed by autumn 2022.</p> <p>“The purpose of the HL-LHC upgrade is not limited to maxing out the luminosity of the accelerator, but also to make the machine more reliable. We want it working like a Swiss clock,” states Oliver Brüning. With the new equipment stored separately from the accelerator tunnel in the new underground structures, interventions will be carried out while the machine is still operating, ensuring continuous data collection – unlike in previous runs, when the machine required frequent breaks for technicians to access the equipment. Though the road to the HL-LHC is still long, the idea of a more luminous, sturdier and more reliable accelerator is now one step closer to completion thanks to the new underground structures.</p> <figure class="cds-video" id="CERN-FOOTAGE-2021-040-001"><div><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="450" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/CERN-FOOTAGE-2021-040-001" width="100%"></iframe></div> <figcaption>A flight through the upgraded infrastructure at Point 1 <span> (Video: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p> </p> </div> Tue, 08 Jun 2021 12:21:08 +0000 thortala 157163 at https://home.cern Accelerators meet gravitational waves https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/accelerators-meet-gravitational-waves <span>Accelerators meet gravitational waves </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Thu, 06/03/2021 - 09:49</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2021-06/GW%20accelerators.jpg" width="1557" height="815" alt="illustration of gravitational waves" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Curvature to the fabric of spacetime (yellow) distorts the trajectories (blue) of particles orbiting in a storage ring (red). Image: CERN</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p> </p> <p>In particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), charged particles bob and weave in magnetic and electric fields, following tightly corralled trajectories. Their paths are computed assuming a flat Euclidean space-time, but gravitational waves ­– first observed by the LIGO and Virgo detectors in 2015 – crease and stretch this underlying geometry as they ripple out across the universe. For the past 50 years, there has been intermittent interest in the possibility of detecting observable resonant effects as a result of this extra curvature of the fabric of space-time, as the particles whizz around the accelerators repeatedly at close to the speed of light.</p> <p>Advances in accelerator technology could now usher in an era of gravitational-wave astronomy in which particle accelerators play a major role. To explore this tantalising possibility, over 100 accelerator experts, particle physicists and members of the gravitational physics community participated in a virtual workshop entitled <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/982987/">“Storage Rings and Gravitational Waves”</a> (SRGW2021), organised as part of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 <a href="https://aries.web.cern.ch/home">ARIES project</a>. During this meeting, they explored the role that particle accelerators could play in the detection of cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves. This would provide us with a picture of the early universe and give us hints about high-energy phenomena, such as high-temperature phase transitions, the nature of inflation and new heavy particles that cannot be directly produced in the laboratory.</p> <p>Lively discussions at the SRGW2021 workshop – the first, apart from an informal discussion at CERN in the 1990s, to link accelerators and gravitational waves and bring together the scientific communities involved – attest to the prospective role that accelerators could play in detecting or even generating gravitational waves. The great excitement and interest prompted by this meeting, and the exciting preliminary findings from this workshop, call for further, more thorough investigations into harnessing future storage rings and accelerator technologies for gravitational-wave physics.</p> <p>This text was extracted from the <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/accelerators-meet-gravitational-waves/">full meeting report</a> in <em>CERN Courier</em>, where you can learn more about gravitational-wave research using particle accelerators.</p> </div> Thu, 03 Jun 2021 07:49:52 +0000 cagrigor 157130 at https://home.cern Why the LHC magnets are blue – and other colourful accelerator questions answered https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/why-lhc-magnets-are-blue-and-other-colourful-accelerator-questions-answered <span>Why the LHC magnets are blue – and other colourful accelerator questions answered </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Thomas Hortala</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Wed, 05/19/2021 - 17:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Springtime has arrived in Geneva, where CERN is located, bringing with it colourful blossoms and the whir and buzz of nature awakening. A few dozen metres beneath the fertile soil, another equally buzzing ecosystem is springing back to life: CERN’s accelerator system, whose rings are gradually entering their recommissioning phase. Whether the beauty of our metal machines resembles that of mother nature is open to debate, but one thing is certain: when it comes to colourfulness, our accelerators can compete with most blossoming meadows.</p> <p>Magnets are systematically painted to protect them from rust, except in the case of superconducting magnets (like those of the LHC), where the vacuum vessels containing the equipment are painted instead. Besides the blue of the LHC dipole magnets, which bend particle beams to preserve the particles’ circular trajectory, CERN’s accelerators are painted in colours ranging from red to green, purple, orange and various shades of silver. How are these colours chosen and why? The short answer is that CERN’s top physicists and engineers decide which ones they like the best. Indeed, unlike other pieces of equipment whose colour code is strictly regulated for safety reasons, the teams developing the magnets have free reign over the colour of their creations.</p> <p>Certain unwritten rules do influence their decision-making, however, as Vittorio Parma, formerly in charge of the LHC cryostats, explains: “Working in accelerator tunnels can be quite gloomy as the lighting is poor. To offset this, we tend to go for the brighter, more luminous colours that make working around the magnets easier.” This swayed Vittorio’s team towards the choice of a gleaming white for the vacuum vessels containing the LHC’s quadrupole magnets, which focus the particles in tighter bunches, when they designed the LHC superconducting magnets in the 1990s. The white alternates with the more familiar blue of the dipoles and the deep red of the triplet quadrupole magnets, which further focus the beam around the collision points. They will be joined in a few years’ time by the dark blue of the future <a href="https://home.cern/resources/faqs/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a>’s 11 Tesla magnets, which are currently undergoing tests. The darker shade is intended to reflect the magnet’s stronger magnetic field than that of the regular LHC dipoles, which are lighter in colour.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-078-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-078-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-078-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>The LHC with its blue dipole magnets and white quadrupole magnets (top left), a red LHC triplet quadrupole magnet before installation (top right) and a prototype of the dark blue 11 Tesla HL-LHC dipole magnet (bottom)<span>. (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>This gaudy picture is completed by the magnets of CERN’s other accelerators (LINAC 4, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and its Booster (PSB), the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the antimatter decelerating (AD) rings, to name but a few). “Each machine was built at a different point in time, by different people with different mindsets. Each team chose the hues of their magnets without following any strict code and, as a result, each machine is a unique, colourful artwork. This showcases the diversity and the creativity of the work done here at CERN”, explains Davide Tommasini, who led the development of the superconducting magnets for the LHC.</p> <p>Consequently, a bending dipole magnet in the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron-booster">PS Booster</a> is green, while its <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">SPS</a> counterpart is red, and a blue magnet may be a dipole in the LHC or a quadrupole in the SPS or <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/low-energy-ion-ring">LEIR</a>. This somewhat messy patchwork contributes to the strong visual identity of CERN’s accelerators, from the green and orange of the PS Booster to the red and dark blue of the SPS – not to mention the magnets of the transfer lines, which boast their own specific colours, such as the mint and lavender of the superb dipole magnets we see below.</p> <p>The PS Booster very nearly took a different path, recalls Giorgio Brianti, Division Leader at the time the machine was built. “I thought it would be nice to hold a competition for a colour scheme.” Coming at the tail end of the flower-power era, though, this was maybe not such a good idea. “The winning entry was kind of psychedelic, with lots of bands of colour all over the place. I didn’t like the result at all, so I presented the prize of a few bottles of champagne to the winner, but I chose the colours myself.”</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-079-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-079-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-079-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>The PS Booster with its orange quadrupole and green dipole magnets (top left), dipole magnets used in the PS Booster transfer lines (top right, bottom left), and the Super Proton Synchrotron with its red dipole and blue quadrupole magnets (bottom right)<span>. (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>So, which is your favourite?</p> </div> Wed, 19 May 2021 15:39:07 +0000 thortala 157062 at https://home.cern The superconducting coils for the 11 T dipoles have been delivered https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/superconducting-coils-11-t-dipoles-have-been-delivered <span>The superconducting coils for the 11 T dipoles have been delivered </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Anaïs Schaeffer</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Wed, 04/28/2021 - 11:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Starting in 2018, a team of experts from the company <a href="https://www.ge.com/">General Electric</a> (GE) worked with the Magnets, Superconductors and Cryogenics (TE-MSC) group at CERN to manufacture superconducting coils for the new 11 T dipoles being developed for the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">HL-LHC</a> project. In January, following three years of fruitful collaboration, the 15-strong team left the Laboratory.</p> <p>The 11 T dipoles are based on superconducting niobium–tin (Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn). They are just six metres long but, thanks to their higher field, they might be able to replace some of the main 15-metre-long LHC dipoles in strategic parts of the accelerator, notably at Point 7, freeing up space for new collimators. The plan is to install a total of four 11 T dipoles for the HL-LHC.</p> <p>“From the very beginning, we established a relationship of trust between the CERN and GE teams to ensure knowledge transfer and cross-fertilisation,” explains Arnaud Devred, leader of the Magnets, Superconductors and Cryogenics group. “We have learned from their industrial approach and their organisational structure, using production units, which has helped us to improve our quality assurance. As for GE, they have developed specific skills in the manufacture of superconducting magnets thanks to their work on the 11 T dipoles, a new technology that is still evolving.”</p> <p>A total of 35 coils have been manufactured and assembled in the Large Magnet Facility on the Meyrin site, using tools provided by CERN. They will form part of the 11 T dipoles, which may be installed in the LHC during a future technical stop.</p> <p>___</p> <p><em>To find out more about the manufacturing process for the Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn coils, read <a class="bulletin" href="https://cerncourier.com/a/taming-the-superconductors-of-tomorrow/">this article</a> published in the</em> CERN Courier.</p> </div> Wed, 28 Apr 2021 09:00:27 +0000 anschaef 156889 at https://home.cern LHC key handed back for operation https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/lhc-key-handed-back-operation <span>LHC key handed back for operation</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/24/2021 - 12:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/key-plans-next-two-years-lhc">10 December 2018</a>, LHC Run 2 came to an end, and the symbolic key to the machine was handed over to the aptly-named ACE (Accelerator Coordination and Engineering) group in the Engineering Department. Two years and one pandemic later, it is now back in the hands of the operators, and preparations are underway to bring the LHC back to life later this year.</p> <p>During Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), major equipment has been installed within the framework of several projects. The LIU project, in addition to the large number of injector upgrades, was also very active in the LHC tunnel, with the implementation of a new design for the transfer lines from the SPS to the LHC. Even if most of the activities for the HL-LHC project will take place during LS3, major works were performed during LS2: <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-increased-cryogenic-power-lhc-point-4">the upgrade of the cryogenics system at LHC Point 4</a>, the installation of numerous innovative collimators, civil engineering at LHC <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/breakthrough-high-luminosity">Points 1</a> and 5, to list only a few. As part of the DISMAC project, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-all-interconnections-lhc-have-been-closed">the electrical insulation of all 1232 LHC dipole diodes</a> was consolidated and 22 magnets were replaced in the machine.</p> <p>FASER (Forward Search Experiment) <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/ls2-report-faser-born">has also been installed in the LHC</a>; it will be taking data during Run 3.</p> <p>The LS2 was a fundamental milestone for allowing the LHC to reach unprecedented energy levels for the new era of high luminosity, opening the door to new discoveries, but it was also instrumental for the building of strong and trustful relationships between all stakeholders. By consolidating, upgrading, maintaining and optimising the accelerator complex, teams worked towards a more powerful and reliable discovery factory. “Long Shutdown 2 federated people around a common project,” explains Marzia Bernardini, in charge of the organisation, scheduling and support section in the EN-ACE group, “especially when circumstances require constant rescheduling. The LS2 helped us to understand each other as we listen and debate to find common solutions, putting aside our egos and working towards a common goal.”</p> <p>When the LHC key was handed back to the Operations group in the Beams Department, on 15 March, it was an opportunity for the LS2 teams to celebrate a mission accomplished. “This key somehow represents the values and knowledge of the scientific community,” says Marzia, “the work of hundreds of Cernois, collaborators, contractors, fellows, project associates: everyone has contributed with passion, commitment and professionalism to the success of LS2. It was a wonderful challenge that we were able to take on together.”</p> </div> Wed, 24 Mar 2021 11:53:01 +0000 anschaef 156726 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: CERN’s oldest accelerator awakens https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-cerns-oldest-accelerator-awakens <span>LS2 Report: CERN’s oldest accelerator awakens</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Thomas Hortala</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/03/2021 - 14:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>“The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is the beating heart of CERN’s accelerator system. Situated at the centre of the complex, it feeds particle beams not only to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), but to many of CERN’s major facilities, including the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">Antimatter Factory</a> and the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-getting-ready-future-physics-east-area">East Area</a>.” Klaus Hanke, head of <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron">the Proton Synchrotron</a> operations team, chooses his words carefully to describe CERN’s oldest accelerator still in operation. On 4 March, the veteran accelerator received its first particle beam after a two-year shutdown, during which it underwent significant upgrades to prepare it for higher luminosity (an indicator of the number of collisions).</p> <p>Within CERN’s accelerator complex, protons extracted from a hydrogen gas source are accelerated in the brand new <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/linear-accelerator-4">Linac4</a> and in the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron-booster">PS Booster</a> before injection into the PS, which then feeds, either directly or indirectly, the vast majority of CERN’s accelerators and experiments. The new Linac4 and the upgraded PS Booster now provide the PS with a beam accelerated to up to 2 GeV, a 0.6 GeV increase compared to past beam. To ensure that the 60-year-old PS can withstand these higher energies, the accelerator ring has been fitted out with cutting-edge equipment in recent years, including <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-proton-synchrotrons-magnets-prepare-higher-energies">refurbished magnets</a>, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-innovation-stop-protons-their-tracks">new beam-dump system</a>s, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-making-movie-ps-beam">beam instrumentation devices</a>, and upgraded radiofrequency and cooling systems.</p> <p>The injection of the first beam into the PS marks the end of more than ten years of research and development focused on this equipment as part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project. Months of dry test runs (without beam) and system checks ensured the success of this important milestone on the road to the broader reactivation of CERN’s accelerators. “The injection is not a rocket launch, we do not push a button and watch as the PS roars to full capacity. We inject protons gradually, tweaking settings and fixing things along the way until we reach a satisfactory energy level,” explains Klaus Hanke.  </p> <p>The injection of the first beam will be followed by a commissioning period of a few months to fine-tune the accelerator’s specs while the rest of CERN’s accelerator system gradually emerges from its two-year slumber. These machines, and the many experiments they are connected to, will benefit from the higher energy levels during the next experimental run starting next year: with higher energies come more focused, denser particle beams, which translates into more precision in experiment results. But it isn’t until the advent of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a> that the upgrades of the PS and the broader accelerator system will show their true potential: the sturdier and more efficient rings will be key in delivering a final luminosity in the LHC that is expected to be ten times higher than previously.</p> </div> Wed, 03 Mar 2021 13:48:35 +0000 thortala 156602 at https://home.cern