News for CERN Community feed https://home.cern/cern-community/news/rss en LHC experiments share highlights for 2018 https://home.cern/news/news/physics/lhc-experiments-share-highlights-2018 <span>LHC experiments share highlights for 2018</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/14/2018 - 15:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Particle showers in the ALICE detector during the first lead nuclei collisions of 2018 (Image: ALICE/CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>It has been a record-breaking year for the LHC, with the accelerator <a href="/news/news/accelerators/lhc-report-final-days-run-2">delivering over twice as much proton–proton collision data as it did in all three years of its first run</a>. But while the experimental collaborations were eagerly collecting fresh data from the LHC, they were also busy analysing data they have gathered over the years, presenting many new physics results during the course of 2018. Today, young scientists from the four main LHC experiments presented the year’s highlights at an open session of the CERN Council. Below are a few of dozens of new results, which showcase the richness and diversity of the LHC’s physics programme.</p> <h2>The hot early universe</h2> <p>The results from <a href="/science/experiments/alice">ALICE</a>, the heavy-ion specialist at the LHC, focused mainly on studies of the <a href="/science/physics/heavy-ions-and-quark-gluon-plasma">quark-gluon plasma (QGP)</a>, a dense state of free quarks and gluons thought to have existed in the early universe. The LHC can recreate these conditions by colliding together lead nuclei. ALICE showed that the particle jets emerging from lead–lead collisions are narrower (more collimated) than those formed in proton–proton collisions, due to the way these particles interact with the QGP “soup”.</p> <p>Comparing results with the <a href="https://www.bnl.gov/rhic/">Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)</a> in the US, ALICE noted that the production of J/ψ mesons at the LHC was not as suppressed at low transverse momenta, concluding that the suppression caused by the QGP was countered by the recombination of charm and anticharm quarks into J/ψ mesons. They also observed that the ratio of Λ<sub>c</sub> baryons to D mesons produced in lead–lead collisions was higher than in proton–proton and proton–lead collisions. This behaviour is expected if the charm quarks bind with other quarks in the QGP around them and form baryons and mesons. The dynamics of these processes will be studied precisely with future datasets that ALICE will collect in the next runs of the LHC. Furthermore, ALICE noted that this Λ<sub>c</sub>-to-D ratio was higher than expected from theoretical calculations even in proton–proton and <a href="/news/news/accelerators/lhc-report-proton-lead-physics-begins-lhc">proton–lead</a> collisions.</p> <h2>New Higgs signatures</h2> <p>The LHC’s two general-purpose experiments – <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> and <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> – continued their examination of the <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a> that they jointly discovered in 2012. This scalar boson transforms into lighter particles almost immediately after it is produced, and by studying the various transformations, or “decay modes”, available to it, physicists can test the Standard Model of particle physics. This year, both ATLAS and CMS announced that they had <a href="/news/press-release/physics/long-sought-decay-higgs-boson-observed">observed the Higgs transforming into a pairs of bottom–antibottom quarks for the first time</a>. Although the Standard Model predicts that this decay mode is the most abundant, such bottom-antibottom pairs are produced in the LHC from a variety of processes, making it challenging to isolate those that come from the Higgs.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2018-022-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2018-022-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="Higgs Candidates,Proton Collisions,Event Displays,Physics,ATLAS" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2018-022-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>An ATLAS candidate event for the Higgs boson (H) decaying to two bottom quarks (b), in association with a W boson decaying to a muon (µ) and a neutrino (v)<span> (Image: ATLAS/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Since the top quark is heavier than the Higgs boson, nature forbids a Higgs transformation to pairs of top–antitop quarks. However, scientists can study their interactions by looking for instances where the a Higgs boson is produced along with a top–antitop pair, and ATLAS and CMS <a href="/news/news/physics/higgs-boson-comes-out-top">observed this “associated production” in data recorded in previous years</a>. Both collaborations also highlighted their observations of the Higgs transforming into a tau–antitau pair, which was first reported by combining data from ATLAS and CMS.</p> <h2>Testing the Standard Model</h2> <p>Discovered over twenty years ago, the top quark remains a source of novel physics measurements and observations. Its mass is of particular interest, and ATLAS recently measured it to a high precision – 172.08 ± 0.39 (statistical error) ± 0.82 (systematic error) GeV – using data collected in 2012. Meanwhile, CMS explored rare production modes of the top quark that are sensitive to signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. The collaboration observed the production of a top quark in association with a Z boson and a second quark (tZq), and presented evidence for the production of a top along with a photon and another quark (tγq).</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2018-011-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2018-011-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="Real Events,For Press,CMS ,Top quark,Single Top,Event Display" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2018-011-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>A candidate collision recorded by CMS in which a top quark is produced in association with a Z boson. The tZq state is characterised by three leptons (in this case two electrons and one muon), a jet produced from decay of a bottom quark, and a forward jet that is close to the LHC beam direction<span> (Image: CMS/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Unlike the massless photon, the W and Z bosons can bounce or “scatter” off each other, and the probability of this occurring is affected by the presence of the Higgs boson. ATLAS presented their observation of such scattering of pairs of W bosons (W<sup>±</sup>W<sup>±</sup>→W<sup>±</sup>W<sup>±</sup>) as well as of a W and a Z boson (W<sup>±</sup>Z→W<sup>±</sup>Z), both with statistical significances of over five standard deviations. Future data will help measure this scattering with greater precision, as physicists look for deviations from predicted values. W and Z bosons can also help in searches for new particles, and ATLAS searched for instances in which extremely massive particles transform into pairs of these. Analysis of the data recorded by the detector ruled out the presence of specific types of massive particles up to a 4.15 TeV.</p> <p>Some extensions of the Standard Model propose the existence of an exotic Z boson, known as the Z′ (“Z-prime”) boson. CMS searched for such Z′ particles, but found no deviation in the data from the Standard Model’s predictions. CMS also searched for hypothetical particles known as <a href="/news/news/physics/hunt-leptoquarks">leptoquarks</a>, which are thought to be hybrids of leptons and quarks; the data did not show their presence. Other highlights from CMS included measurements of known Standard Model processes with improved precisions as well as novel studies in physics of B mesons.</p> <p>Both ATLAS and CMS searched for many different signatures for the presence of <a href="/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a> and <a href="/science/physics/supersymmetry">supersymmetry</a> but found no evidence for their existence in the various parameters that were explored. These null results are crucial as they allow scientists to place stringent constraints on theoretical models that seek to explain gaps in the Standard Model.</p> <h2>The mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry</h2> <p>Particle physicists are looking for possible solutions to explain why the universe is dominated by matter with almost no antimatter around. This asymmetry could be explained by differences in the way matter and antimatter interact with the weak force. The LHCb experiment was built to study these differences, known as charge-parity (CP) violation, and presented a variety of precision measurements at the session. LHCb measured several parameters associated with the so-called CKM matrix, which quantifies possible CP violation among quarks. In particular, the collaboration measured the angle γ with different methods, and obtained an average value of around 74°, making it the most precise measurement of this angle from a single experiment. They also presented the first evidence of the rare B<sub>s</sub> meson transforming into an excited kaon and two muons as well as the best limits on the transformation of a B<sup>+</sup> meson into three muons and a neutrino. Further, LHCb also highlighted <a href="/news/news/physics/long-live-doubly-charmed-particle">new properties of the Ξ<sub>cc</sub> baryon</a>, which they observed for the first time last year.</p> <figure role="group"><img alt="A collision event recorded by LHCb in 2018" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9e1ab905-b0f7-4e2e-bd90-eb8009ae2908" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/achintya/2018Start2-4.png" /><figcaption>A proton–proton collision event detected by LHCb in 2018 (Image: LHCb/CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>LHCb also operated in fixed-target mode besides its regular collider mode by injecting noble gases such as helium into the beam pipe in between particle bunches that race around the LHC. The atoms of these noble gases served as stationary targets for the circulating protons, and LHCb was able to observe the production of J/ψ and D<sup>0</sup> particles in these collisions as well as make the first measurement of the production rate of antiprotons in proton-helium collisions.</p> <h2>Looking forward…</h2> <p><a href="/news/news/accelerators/lhc-report-another-run-over-and-ls2-has-just-begun">The LHC’s Run 2 came to an end earlier this month and the second long shutdown (LS2) has begun</a>; but this does not mean that the collaborations go into hibernation! Indeed, the wealth of data already gathered will take many more months to be fully explored. And the detectors will undergo transformations of their own while collisions are suspended over the course of LS2. The LHCb detector has fulfilled its original mandate and will soon be overhauled completely, with every major subsystem getting upgraded or replaced. ALICE will be upgrading most of its subdetectors, aiming for greater precision in measuring particle tracks. CMS and ATLAS will similarly receive major modifications as they prepare for the restart of the LHC in 2021 and eventually higher luminosities from the <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a> in 2025. These upgrades will ensure that the LHC experiments can keep recording excellent data in the forthcoming runs and continue their searches for new discoveries.</p> </div> Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:53:48 +0000 achintya 9646 at https://home.cern CERN Open Days - Explore the future with us! https://home.cern/news/news/cern/cern-open-days-explore-future-us <span>CERN Open Days - Explore the future with us!</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/14/2018 - 10:35</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On 14 and 15 September 2019, CERN will open its doors to the public for two special days at the heart of one of the world’s largest particle-physics laboratories*.</p> <p>The CERN Open Days have become a regular feature of the period that we call the “long shutdown” during which our accelerators stop for around two years, to benefit from upgrades and renovation work. And Long Shutdown 2 has just started.</p> <img alt="CERN Open Days - Explore the future with us!" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="8b78c7c8-3178-4985-9929-f9d61bab80f9" height="203" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/anschaef/OpenDays2019_Logo%202.png" width="451" class="align-center" /><p>Similar to the 2013 edition, the 2019 Open Days will give people the chance to discover our facilities both underground and on the surface**. Debates, film screenings, theatre performances, experimental workshops and, of course, dozens of visit points spread all over the site will take you to the heart of our Laboratory, in direct contact with the science of today and tomorrow.</p> <p>The programme of the event and all practical information will be communicated in 2019. For now, save the dates of this exceptional event and come and visit CERN.</p> <p><em>* Admission is free of charge for all audiences.<br /> ** Some sites may have age and access restrictions.</em></p> </div> Fri, 14 Dec 2018 09:35:21 +0000 anschaef 9641 at https://home.cern A brand-new beam screen to cope with high luminosity https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/brand-new-beam-screen-cope-high-luminosity <span>A brand-new beam screen to cope with high luminosity</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Cristina Agrigoroae</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/07/2018 - 16:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2650381" data-filename="HL-LHC-new-beam-screen" id="OPEN-PHO-ACCEL-2018-009-5"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-ACCEL-2018-009-5" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="A new beam screen for the High-Luminosity LHC" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-ACCEL-2018-009-5/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On both sides of ATLAS and CMS, the <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a> requires new inner triplet magnets to perform the final focusing of the proton beams before collision. These magnets in turn need new beam screens in their cold bores, which will replace the beam screens of the existing magnets. The replacement, involving 230 metres of the LHC’s beam line, will be carried out in 2024.</p> <p>The current beam screens of the LHC are made of a special stainless steel, co-laminated on the inner surface with a thin copper sheet of high electrical conductivity. When the beams circulate, the temperatures of the beam screen range between 5 K and 20 K. This allows particles to circulate in a vacuum similar to that on the moon and provides a thermal shield, limiting the energy transfer from the beam to the cold mass of the magnets, which is cooled down to 1.9 K (-271.3 ℃).</p> <p>Each new beam screen is a tube up to 11 metres long with an octagonal cross-section, weighing almost half a tonne in total. It will shield the magnets’ coils and cryogenic system from the heat loads and other damage that would otherwise be induced by the highly penetrating collision debris. The shielding is done via tungsten-based inserts, which is one of the main differences compared to the current beam screens. The other differences are the bigger aperture and the four cooling tubes instead of two.</p> <p>The new beam screens have been conceived to fulfil two major requirements: to withstand a magnet quench – when the superconducting device becomes resistive – with no plastic deformations, and to transfer the heat from the tungsten-based shielding to the integrated cooling tubes to keep the temperature in the defined range of 60–80 K.</p> <p>In 2018, two dedicated experiments were performed to validate the design: a thermal test and a quench test. The thermal test reproduced the real working conditions of the beam screen in a dedicated cryostat at the operating temperatures. Its aim was to measure the heat transfer to the cold bore via the beam screen’s supporting system and map the temperature distribution of the copper layer. The quench test was conducted in a short model of a quadrupole magnet; it reproduced the mechanical behaviour of the beam screen during a magnet quench. The integrity of the beam screen was preserved and no plastic deformations were observed. Both tests showed good agreement with simulations.</p> <p>Following the design and development phase, the focus will shift to production of this system, with the aim of making it operational by 2024.</p> </div> Fri, 07 Dec 2018 15:40:10 +0000 cagrigor 9531 at https://home.cern A successful conclusion to Run 2 https://home.cern/news/opinion/accelerators/successful-conclusion-run-2 <span>A successful conclusion to Run 2</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Eckhard Elsen &amp; Frédérick Bordry</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 12:44</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">On 3 December, the LHC’s second run came to an end after three fantastic years. Over the course of Run 2, our flagship machine truly came of age. The LHC accelerator, detectors and computing all performed with metronomic reliability, while demonstrating great versatility through a number of special runs. As well as running with protons and lead ions, the LHC also collided xenon ions to provide an extra data point in the quest to understand the mysteries of Quark Gluon Plasma. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">At Point 8, it became a fixed target machine with a neon gas jet target in the beam pipe, allowing LHCb to collect proton-proton collider data at the same time as proton-neon fixed-target data. The proton-neon data allow nuclear effects in particle production processes to be studied, and enable LHCb physicists to look into the physics of cosmic ray proton collisions with gas atoms in the upper atmosphere.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">There were also runs with protons on protons, protons on lead, and lead on lead, some with seemingly curious centre of mass nucleon-nucleon collision energies tuned to, for example, 5.02 TeV. These were designed to make a bridge between the Run 1 and Run 2 heavy-ion data sets, as well to allow comparisons between data from the three types of collisions. In Run 2, it’s also worth noting that all four experiments took data with heavy ions: adding new analyses to their portfolios is a sure sign of maturity, and strengthens the overall reach of the LHC physics programme.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">The landmark Higgs boson discovery in Run 1 presented us with a wonderfully rich and diverse physics programme. In Run 2 we learned a lot more about the Higgs boson, notably how it couples to the heaviest, third generation of quarks and leptons, thus establishing the Yukawa coupling as a separate term in the Lagrangian of the Standard Model – more familiar to many as the formula proudly displayed on T-shirts sold at the CERN shop! The coupling to top quarks was a particular bonus: measuring it was not expected to be within the reach of the LHC experiments until much more data had been recorded. The fact that the Higgs to top quark coupling has been measured already is testimony to the great progress the experiments have made in refining their analysis techniques.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">Thanks to Run 2, we now know the masses of the Higgs boson, top quark and W boson to considerably greater precision. Such measurements are important for constraining the Standard Model as a stable theory. Our understanding of CP-violation emerges from Run 2 with much improved measurements of the </span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The quantity of data collected means that teams will be busy throughout the long shutdown analysing it. There could be exciting results in store if early hints turn out to be more than a statistical fluke. Flavour physics, for example, looks at rare transitions between generations of particles, and there’s enough data that subtle effects might be seen. With </span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">direct searches for new physics still revealing nothing new, the road to physics beyond the Standard Model may emerge through measurements such as these.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">It was not just the big LHC experiments that produced exciting results in Run 2, the forward experiments also had important contributions to make. They took us back to an earlier era, when CERN was in its infancy and high in the lexicon of particle physics students were words like pomeron, coined in the early 1960s, and odderon, in the late 1970s. These hypothetical particles, later considered to be composed of an even or odd number of temporarily associating gluons, were put forward to describe elastic scattering. While the precision LHC measurement is not hard proof, it’s strong evidence that the odderon model bears some truth.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">The many facets of LHC physics, including all that was revealed in Run 2, explain the beauty of the LHC, but without accelerator physics at an advanced level, none of it would be possible. With the LHC running so well, it is easy to forget what a complex beast it is, and what a triumph of human ingenuity. As well as running smoothly at 13 TeV, delivering a greater harvest in terms of luminosity than the ambitious target we had set ourselves, the LHC juggled with custom particle combinations, and fine-tuned energies. All in all, it has firmly established itself as a remarkably versatile instrument.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">There was a very poignant moment as Run 2 came to an end and the venerable Linac 2 delivered its final protons destined for the LHC. Linac 2 has been faithfully providing beams for all proton experiments at CERN since 1978. It has been the lynchpin of the proton injector chain. Without its remarkable performance, along with the equally remarkable performance of the whole of the LHC injector chain, the LHC would not have achieved all it did in Run 2. </span></span></span></p> <p><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span>Run 2 has advanced our knowledge hugely, and left us at the beginning of the long shutdown with one inescapable conclusion. The physics harvest to date underscores more than ever the need for the High-Luminosity LHC, and for the full design energy of 14 TeV. The upcoming long shutdown, LS2, is the shutdown for the LHC Injectors Upgrade, LIU, project. All the careful preparations to replace Linac 2 with Linac 4, along with upgrades throughout the whole chain from the particle sources, for both protons and ions, through the Booster, the PS and the SPS, will come to fruition over the next two years. It’s going to be a busy shutdown as we prepare for the future, but we are already looking forward to the next instalment as Run 3 gets underway in 2021.</span></span></p></div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 11:44:03 +0000 cagrigor 9600 at https://home.cern LHC Report: Another run is over and LS2 has just begun… https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/lhc-report-another-run-over-and-ls2-has-just-begun <span>LHC Report: Another run is over and LS2 has just begun…</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Rende Steerenberg</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 16:35</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The CERN accelerator complex is being switched off step-by-step in order to prepare for Long Shutdown 2 (LS2). On 12 November, all protons were stopped in the LHC and throughout the accelerator complex. On Monday, 3 December, the LHC lead-ion run ended and, finally, on Monday, 10 December, the lead ions for fixed target physics were also stopped, signalling the start of LS2.</p> <p>In view of the restart of the LHC in 2021 possibly at 7 TeV instead of 6.5 TeV per beam, a magnet test and training campaign was scheduled last week. The aim of this test campaign was to get a better idea of how long it takes and how many training quenches are required to train all the superconducting magnets in the LHC so that they can sustain the magnetic field required to collide the beam at 7 TeV per beam. For the dipole magnets, this field corresponds to 8.33 Tesla. Arc 1-2, approximately 3 km of the machine connecting Point 1 (ATLAS) with Point 2 (ALICE), was chosen for this campaign. Unfortunately, a thunderstorm in the evening of Monday, 3 December caused a major power cut at CERN, delaying this magnet test campaign by two days. To make up for this lost time the test campaign has been extended from Monday morning 10 December at 6 am to Wednesday 12 December at 6 am.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="OPEN-PHO-ACCEL-2018-010-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-ACCEL-2018-010-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-ACCEL-2018-010-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>The LHC cryogenic status display, clearly showing the magnet test/training campaign. The upper part indicates the readiness of the different parts of the machine in terms of cryogenics. The lower part shows the temperature evolution of the different parts of the machine as a function of time. For example, the blue curve indicates the temperature in arc 1-2. The sudden rise indicates a magnet quench, while the slow descent shows the recovery time.<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Looking back on 2018, one can only conclude that it was a successful year. The target integrated luminosity of 60 fb<sup>-1</sup> for the ATLAS and CMS proton run was reached, and even exceeded by 10%, resulting in a total integrated luminosity during Run 2 (2015 – 2018) of 160 fb<sup>-1</sup>, and of 189 fb<sup>-1</sup> since the start of LHC physics. The integrated luminosities for the proton run of LHCb and ALICE, for which luminosity levelling is applied, were 2.5 fb<sup>-1</sup> and 27.3 pb<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The fourth lead-ion run since the start of the LHC was challenging, but, here again, the goals were reached: 1.8 nb<sup>-1</sup> was integrated for each of ATLAS and CMS, 0.9 nb<sup>-1</sup> for ALICE and 0.24 nb<sup>-1</sup> for LHCb.</p> <p>In addition, important steps have been made towards the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC): during re-commissioning in April, the new Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) optics, developed for the HL-LHC, were deployed, allowing for smaller β* and hence higher peak luminosities. The value for β* at ATLAS and CMS in the LHC design report was 80 cm, while in 2018 the LHC ran with a β* of 30 cm and at the end of each fill even 25 cm. For the HL-LHC, a β* of 15 cm or even 10 cm is planned.</p> <p>In addition to the techniques of levelling through beam separation, used for ALICE and LHCb, and the change of crossing angle, which were both deployed in previous years, levelling through β* was deployed operationally in 2018. The purpose of this type of levelling is that, at the start of collisions, when the peak luminosity is too high for the experiments, the beam size is increased while, later, when the beam density or brightness decreases due to the collisions, the beam size is reduced. All these techniques aim at reducing, in a controlled manner, the cross section of the beam encounters and limiting the pile-up of physics events in the detectors.</p> <p>The re-commissioning of the machine and beam were remarkable in 2018. The initial schedule, based on past experience, allowed five weeks from first beam in the machine to physics with 1200 bunches per beam, which is when luminosity production starts to become significant. Thanks to the high machine availability during this period, 1200 bunches per beam were reached on 28 April. Collisions with the full machine – 2556 bunches per beam – were established on 5 May, thirteen days ahead of schedule.</p> <p>In 2017, the LHC performance was hampered by the so-called 16L2 issue: frozen air in an interconnection between magnets in the arc connecting Point 1 (ATLAS) with Point 2 (ALICE). Despite the work carried out during the Year End Technical Stop, when the arc was warmed up to 100 K, not all the gas had been eliminated and, in 2018, the beam was dumped several times due to losses induced by the remaining, probably minuscule, amount of ice in 16L2. Fortunately, this allowed running with Bunch Compression, Merging and Splitting (BCMS) beam instead of the 8b4e (8 bunches and 4 empty buckets) beam that was used in 2017. However, to avoid these 16L2-induced dumps, the bunch intensity was not pushed beyond 1.15 × 10<sup>11</sup> protons, the design value for the LHC bunch intensity.</p> <p>Preliminary analysis of the 2018 availability statistics shows that 49% of the time, beams were colliding and luminosity was being produced. Equipment failures and other faults account for 24% of the time, while the remainder, 26%, was spent on “operation”, i.e. recovering from beam dumps, preparing the machine, injecting, accelerating, squeezing and adjusting the beams.</p> <p>The entire accelerator complex is now in shutdown. The majority of the LHC helium inventory will be moved to the surface before the Christmas break and, as of January, people rather than particles will be running around the machine to perform all the planned maintenance and upgrade activities to prepare the machine for Run 3.</p> </div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 15:35:27 +0000 anschaef 9602 at https://home.cern Pensions payment dates in 2019 https://home.cern/news/official-news/cern/pensions-payment-dates-2019 <span>Pensions payment dates in 2019</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 15:09</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Monday 7 January<br /> Thursday 7 February<br /> Thursday 7 March<br /> Monday 8 April<br /> Tuesday 7 May<br /> Friday 7 June<br /> Monday 8 July<br /> Wednesday 7 August<br /> Friday 6 September<br /> Monday 7 October<br /> Thursday 7 November<br /> Friday 6 December</p> <p class="text-align-right"><em>CERN Pension Fund</em></p> </div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 14:09:04 +0000 anschaef 9601 at https://home.cern Opening hours of UNIQA offices during end-of-year closure https://home.cern/news/official-news/cern/opening-hours-uniqa-offices-during-end-year-closure-0 <span>Opening hours of UNIQA offices during end-of-year closure </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">HR Department</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 13:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The <strong>UNIQA office at CERN</strong> (Main Building) <strong>will be closed during the two-week end-of-year closure of the Laboratory</strong>.</p> <p>However, during that period, the <strong>UNIQA Geneva offices</strong> <strong>will be open</strong> on 24 as well as 26 to 28 December 2018, and 1 to 4 January 2019 from 8 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and from 1.30 p.m. to 5 p.m. (4 p.m. on 24 December 2018). During these hours, you can also call +41 22 718 63 00.</p> <p>For urgent medical assistance, you may call <strong>UNIQA Assistance +41 22 819 44 77, 24h/day during the whole period</strong>. Please note that this service only provides medical advice and urgent assistance services and is not in a position to inform you on the coverage by CHIS of medical expenses.</p> </div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 12:53:42 +0000 anschaef 9599 at https://home.cern James Stirling (1953 - 2018) https://home.cern/news/obituary/cern/james-stirling-1953-2018 <span>James Stirling (1953 - 2018)</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 11:12</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The eminent theoretical physicist James Stirling died on 9 November at his home in Durham, UK, after a short illness. He will be greatly missed, not only by his family but by his many friends and colleagues throughout the particle physics community. His wide-ranging contributions to the development and application of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) were central in verifying QCD as the correct theory of strong interactions and in computing precise predictions for all types of processes at hadron colliders such as the LHC.</p> <p> </p> <figure><img alt="James Stirling (1953-2018)" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c989b17a-0ebb-41ce-bc8f-d54bf9c51dcb" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/anschaef/Stirling%202.png" width="181" /></figure><p> </p> <p>James was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge University, where he obtained his PhD in 1979. After post-doc positions at the University of Washington in Seattle and at Cambridge, he came to CERN, first as a fellow and then as a staff member, leaving in 1986 for a faculty position at Durham University, where he remained until 2008. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1999. At Durham, he played a major role in the foundation of the University’s Institute of Particle Physics Phenomenology in 2000, and served as its first Director. In 2005 he was appointed Pro-Vice Chancellor for Research. He moved to Cambridge in 2008 to take up the Jacksonian Professorship of Natural Philosophy in the Cavendish Laboratory, becoming Head of the Department of Physics in 2011. Then, in 2013, he was appointed to the newly created position of Provost, the chief academic officer, at Imperial College, London, from which he retired last August, moving back to Durham, where his retirement was tragically curtailed by illness.</p> <p>James was a prolific and meticulous researcher, publishing more than 300 papers, including some of the most highly cited of all time in particle physics. His research, always full of insight, focused on the confrontation of theoretical predictions with experimental results. Over the years, he performed frontier research on a vast range of phenomenological topics. Already during his graduate studies at Cambridge, in the early days of QCD, he clarified in detail the connection between deep inelastic lepton–hadron scattering and hadron–hadron processes such as lepton pair production, which led on to his later work on parton distributions at Durham. An example of his pioneering research is the first computation of the resummed transverse momentum distribution of W and Z bosons in hadron collisions at next-to-leading logarithmic order, performed with Christine Davies in 1984. Another is the development of the powerful helicity amplitude method, completed with Ronald Kleiss while they were at CERN. This enabled them to show that the “monojet” events at the CERN proton–antiproton collider, which had been thought to be a possible signal of new physics, could be explained by vector boson plus jet production. The method has since facilitated the calculation of many other important Standard Model processes.</p> <p>After moving to Durham in 1986, James formed a long-standing and successful research collaboration with Alan Martin, Dick Roberts and, later, Robert Thorne. Among other projects, they set the standard for determining the quark and gluon distributions in the proton, which led to the widely used MRS, MRST and MSTW parton distribution functions. Later, when James returned to Cambridge, he became interested in processes in which more than one parton from each colliding hadron participates (double parton scattering), bringing a new level of rigour to the analysis of such processes.</p> <p>James had the gift of being able to explain complicated concepts and ideas simply. He was highly sought after as a plenary or summary speaker at the major international particle physics conferences. His textbook QCD and Collider Physics, written with Keith Ellis and Bryan Webber, has been a standard reference for more than 20 years.</p> <p>James was a humble and modest person but his intellectual brilliance, coupled with a very strong work ethic and exceptional organisational skills, meant that his advisory and administrative services were always in great demand. In 2006 he received the national honour of Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE) from the Queen for his services to science.</p> <p>In addition to the great respect in which he was held as a scientist, James was much loved as a friend, colleague and mentor. He treated everyone with the same respect, courtesy and attention, whatever their status. His warmth, kindness and fundamental humanity made a deep impression on all who came into contact with him.</p> <p class="text-align-right"><em>Alan Martin and Bryan Webber</em></p> </div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 10:12:51 +0000 anschaef 9597 at https://home.cern Send a CERN e-card https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/send-cern-e-card-2 <span>Send a CERN e-card</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 10:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN account holders can send electronic greetings cards via <a class="bulletin" href="https://greetings.web.cern.ch/">this site</a>.</p> </div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 09:57:31 +0000 anschaef 9596 at https://home.cern Networking event brings together CERN scientists and alumni https://home.cern/news/news/cern/networking-event-brings-together-cern-scientists-and-alumni <span>Networking event brings together CERN scientists and alumni</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Wed, 12/12/2018 - 10:15</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2646703" data-filename="201811-296 04" id="CERN-PHOTO-201811-296-4"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-296-4" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="LHC & Alumni conference" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-296-4/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> LHC & Alumni conference <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/763368/">sixth ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb Career Networking Event</a> took place on 12 November 2018, offering an insight into career opportunities outside academia. More than 170 young physicists and engineers from LHC and non-collider experiments gathered for an evening of networking with CERN alumni and peers. Various former members of the LHC collaborations came back to CERN and to their scientific roots to provide the audience with insights into their successful moves from CERN to areas outside academia, to roles such as energy expert consultant, data scientist, independent software engineer and site-reliability engineer.</p> <p>For some of the speakers the road to success was relatively easy and for others it was challenging and bumpy. However, what all the speakers had in common was their desire to continue working in a distributed and multicultural environment, and to find a job that would be as fulfilling and enriching as their experience at CERN; they had all succeeded in this!</p> <p>This year, participants were able to benefit from the wisdom of two external guests from the recruiting side of the process, who explained why CERN is an amazing pool of talent in so many fields of today’s economy.</p> <p>During a panel discussion, all the speakers gave practical advice on how to prepare for a successful transition and, in particular, how to boost one’s CV so that it is not filtered out by parsing machines searching for specific keywords. Furthermore, CVs have to be read in 60 seconds, so it is better to speak, for example, about a “three-dimensional camera” than a “time projection chamber”.</p> <p>You may be interested in the <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/category/9333/">regular events under the ‘Moving out of Academia to…’ banner</a>, organised by the <a href="https://alumni.cern/">CERN Office of Alumni Relations</a>.</p> <hr /><p>See more photos <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2646703">on CDS</a>.</p> <pa><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" scrolling="no" src="https://cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-296/export?format=sspp&amp;ln=en&amp;captions=true"></iframe> <p> </p> </pa></div> Wed, 12 Dec 2018 09:15:23 +0000 achintya 9606 at https://home.cern Be seen – be safe https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/be-seen-be-safe <span>Be seen – be safe</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">HSE Unit</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/11/2018 - 09:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span>Want to make a bright impression on long dark winter nights? Then come and pick up your free reflector! It is small. It is neat. It comes with a metal chain so it can be attached to your clothes or bag. And it might just save your life.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span>When walking in the dark, it can be hard for drivers to see us. Just because we can clearly see a car approaching in the distance, it does not mean that the driver can see us. In fact, if we are not wearing something reflective, we are effectively invisible. However, if we are wearing something reflective, drivers can see us from a safe stopping distance of 125 metres. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span>Reflectors will be distributed outside all three main restaurants at lunchtime on Tuesday, 18 December. They will be available for purchase in the CERN Stores at a later date. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span>Make sure you are seen. Make sure you are safe.</span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> Tue, 11 Dec 2018 08:48:08 +0000 cagrigor 9598 at https://home.cern 4 January: emergency stop tests on the Meyrin site https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/4-january-emergency-stop-tests-meyrin-site-0 <span>4 January: emergency stop tests on the Meyrin site</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/10/2018 - 17:42</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The emergency stop tests of <strong>the administrative area on the Meyrin site</strong> are planned on <strong>Friday 4 January 2019 from 7:00 am to 9:00 pm</strong>.</p> <p>Frequent power cuts will occur on this area. The EN-EL group recommends that you turn off all your critical equipment and computer equipment.</p> <p>For more information please refer to the "note de coupure": <a href="https://edms.cern.ch/ui/file/2059764/1/ENNC_EL_2018_197_AUG_ZA.pdf">https://edms.cern.ch/ui/file/2059764/1/ ENNC_EL_2018_197_AUG_ZA.pdf</a></p> <p>See the map of the Meyrin site showing buildings affected by these power cuts: <a href="https://edms.cern.ch/ui/file/2059764/1/ENNC_EL_2018_197_AUG_ZA_PLAN.pdf">https://edms.cern.ch/ui/file/2059764/1/ ENNC_EL_2018_197_AUG_ZA_PLAN.pdf</a></p> </div> Mon, 10 Dec 2018 16:42:03 +0000 anschaef 9592 at https://home.cern Schengen area* - Entry, stay and exit - Documents required - Reminder https://home.cern/news/official-news/cern/schengen-area-entry-stay-and-exit-documents-required-reminder <span>Schengen area* - Entry, stay and exit - Documents required - Reminder </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/10/2018 - 16:22</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>When crossing a border to enter or leave the Schengen area*, as well as when travelling from one country to another within the Schengen area (including between Switzerland and neighbouring France), you must carry a recognised and valid travel document (e.g. passport).</p> <p>In addition, all nationals of countries other than the Member States of the European Economic Area** and Switzerland, unless they are specifically exempt, must carry a valid residence permit issued by a Schengen state or a valid Schengen visa.</p> <p>The <em>carte de légitimation</em> issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (DFAE) and the <em>titre de séjour spécial</em> issued by the French Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs qualify as residence permits issued by Schengen states that allow visa-free travel to another Schengen state for a duration of up to 90 days within a 180-day period. The Host States have provided the Schengen authorities with specimens of the above-mentioned residence permits, which are included in Annex 20, Part II of the Schengen Manual, available here: <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/e-library/documents/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/docs/handbook-annex_20_part2.pdf">https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/e-library/documents/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/docs/handbook-annex_20_part2.pdf</a>.</p> <p>In the event of difficulties when presenting a <em>carte de légitimation</em>, the authority carrying out the check can be invited to contact the International Security Police at Geneva International Airport for information by calling +41 22 427 58 30 (until midnight) or + 41 22 427 92 20 (24 hours a day).</p> <p><em>*<a href="http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/index_en.htm ">http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/index_en.htm </a></em></p> <p><em>** <a href="https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/glossaire/R42218 / ">https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/ glossaire/R42218 /</a>; <a href="https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/tags/european-economic-area ">https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/tags/european-economic-area </a></em></p> <p class="text-align-right"><em>Relations with the Host States service<br /> relations.secretariat@cern.ch<br /> www.cern.ch/relations/</em></p> </div> Mon, 10 Dec 2018 15:22:40 +0000 anschaef 9589 at https://home.cern Become a volunteer for International Day of Women and Girls in Science https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/become-volunteer-international-day-women-and-girls-science <span>Become a volunteer for International Day of Women and Girls in Science </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/10/2018 - 16:03</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><figure role="group"><img alt="Journée internationale des femmes et filles de science" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5057cb4c-577f-4336-beed-98e86104240e" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/anschaef/201802-034_04%202.jpg" /><figcaption>Kate Kahle presents CERN and her job as a scientific editor at Geneva Collège Voltaire (Photo: CERN)</figcaption></figure><p> </p> <p>11 February is the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. On this occasion, CERN, EPFL and UNIGE Scienscope offer local schools the possibility to welcome a female scientist/engineer to present her work to classes.</p> <p>They are invited to tell their story, reveal some mysteries of science and to conduct some small experiments if they wish. The goal is to change the perception of classes towards the scientific and engineering professions, providing them feminine role models. And who knows, perhaps to arouse career plans, especially among young girls.</p> <p>The event faces a growing interest among local schools, with more than 180 requests last year! We are thus looking for more and more female scientists volunteers who would give some of their time for this project.</p> <p>Practical information:</p> <ul><li>Possibility of choosing the more suitable times and places for your talk</li> <li>45 min. to 1 hour presentation</li> <li>Maximum 30 students per visit, from 7 to 15 years old</li> <li>Presentation in English or French (other languages possible on a case-by-case basis)</li> </ul><p>Registration and further info on <a href="http://cern.ch/wis-internal" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">http://cern.ch/wis-internal</a>.</p> <p>Thank you for your commitment!</p> </div> Mon, 10 Dec 2018 15:03:56 +0000 anschaef 9588 at https://home.cern Key plans for the next two years of the LHC https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/key-plans-next-two-years-lhc <span>Key plans for the next two years of the LHC</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Letizia Diamante</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/152" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ldiamant</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/10/2018 - 13:33</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2650570" data-filename="201811-331_02" id="CERN-PHOTO-201812-331-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201812-331-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Passage of the LHC key for LS2" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201812-331-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Passing the baton, or, even better, the key <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As with everything in this world, scientific instruments have a limited life-span, and from time to time they need a revamp. But compared to other objects, a technical pause for the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a> involves thousands of international scientists, engineers and technicians, state-of-the-art technology, and… a huge key. <a href="/news/news/accelerators/lhc-season-2-holding-key-new-frontiers">Back in 2015</a>, after the LHC’s first long shutdown (LS1), the LS1 coordination team handed this key to the <a href="/science/accelerators/accelerator-complex">CERN Control Centre (CCC)</a> operators. Not to open a door, but as a simple gesture to symbolise a shift in responsibilities. The operators kept the key for almost three years, as they checked the performance of the machine 24/7. Today, <a href="/news/press-release/accelerators/lhc-prepares-new-achievements">after a successful machine run</a>, the operators mark the start of the second long shutdown (LS2), and pass the key to the LS2 coordinators to keep for the next two years.</p> <p>The first task of LS2 is to bring the machine back to room temperature. The LHC uses <a href="/science/engineering/superconductivity">superconductors</a> that work at the astonishing temperature of −271 °C. The warming process requires almost four months, as more than 100 tonnes of liquid helium need to be slowly removed. Then, major upgrades and improvements will start.</p> <p>Teams will be working to a tight schedule to improve the machine for both the short-term and long-term future, including preparations towards the <a href="http://hilumilhc.web.cern.ch">High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)</a> project foreseen for after 2025. Reaching the HL-LHC goals means delivering a more intense beam of particles to the LHC, and the team working on the injectors plan a series of modifications in the next two years. One includes replacing the now retired linear accelerator <a href="/news/news/accelerators/so-long-linac2-and-thanks-all-protons">Linac 2</a> with the new <a href="/news/press-release/cern/cern-celebrates-completion-linac-4-its-brand-new-linear-particle">Linac 4</a>. While Linac 2 accelerated protons, the new addition will accelerate hydrogen ions (H<sup>−</sup>), made of one proton and two electrons, along an almost 90-metre-long machine, placed 12 metres underground.</p> <p>The next accelerator in the chain, the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), will strip off the electrons of H<sup>-</sup>, leaving only protons. The negatively charged hydrogen ions coming from Linac 4 get attracted to the newly-obtained protons, and the result is a more intense, concentrated beam that will continue its journey towards the LHC. In order to cope with these new requirements, the PSB will be equipped with completely new injection and acceleration systems, and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the last injector before the LHC, will have a new radio-frequency system.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HI-1308206-39"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HI-1308206-39" title="View on CDS"><img alt="LS1,Magnets,TI2,PMI2,LHC,dipole,descent,replacement" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HI-1308206-39/file?size=medium" /></a> <figcaption>Replacement of LHC dipole magnets during LS1<span> (Image: Anna Pantelia/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Of the many renovations taking place inside the LHC, teams will replace more than 20 magnets. They will also install new lifts to travel 100 metres underground to the LHC tunnel, innovative power converters and unprecedented <a href="/news/news/engineering/once-upon-time-there-was-superconducting-niobium-tin">superconducting technologies</a>. Teams will open up the interconnections between the LHC dipole magnets to consolidate the diodes, which are used to bypass the current from one magnet to the next in case of a rise in temperature. This is essential for the machine to reach a beam energy of 7 TeV, another objective of the HL-LHC upgrade.</p> <p>While engineers and technicians perform maintenance and consolidation underground, above ground, physicists sift through the wealth of data gathered so far. We will share the LS2’s key moments for both the accelerators and the experiments over the coming months.</p> </div> Mon, 10 Dec 2018 12:33:35 +0000 ldiamant 9587 at https://home.cern Quand la science dépasse les bornes https://home.cern/fr/news/news/cern/when-science-goes-beyond-borders <span>When science goes beyond borders</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Thu, 12/06/2018 - 14:59</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>This is not a story of mere stones. You will probably have noticed some of the numbered posts along the 103 km border between France and Geneva. Of the 440 in total, 188 of them mark the border with the department of the Ain. They were erected after the 1814-1816 congress and treaties that resulted in Geneva becoming part of the Swiss Confederation and defined the territory of the new Canton. They are noteworthy in terms of both their size and the presence of engravings indicating the direction of the next and previous posts. The border is also marked by other unexceptional posts, </span></span><span><span>simple pegs in the ground and watercourses.  </span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>With its unique location straddling two countries, CERN’s main site is home to three of the more exceptional border posts, numbered 124, 125 and 126. On Wednesday, 28 November, post No. 126, which had been removed while work was carried out on the car park of Restaurant No. 2, was returned to its original place. This was a more delicate feat than you might imagine as the post had to be positioned and oriented to within an accuracy of one centimetre. The operation was planned and supervised by an engineer from the <em>Direction de l'information du territoire de Genève</em>, Geneva’s land registry office, using a special surveying instrument known as a tacheometer. It was important that the post be turned to face exactly the right direction as the engraving on the top must correctly indicate the curve of the border. </span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>The history of the border posts has common threads with CERN’s own history. Built on the periphery of the Canton of Geneva in the 1950s, the Laboratory soon found itself pushed for space. As it was impossible to find room to expand in the communes of Satigny or Meyrin, Switzerland and France signed an agreement in 1965 to extend the site onto French territory and thus allow the construction of the world's first proton-proton collider, the <a href="/science/accelerators/intersecting-storage-rings">Intersecting Storage Rings</a> (ISR), commissioned in 1971. As a result, the border posts were situated within the CERN site. A further twist in the tale occurred when the <a href="/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron-booster">PS Booster</a> was built. Commissioned in 1972, the small ring measuring 150 metres in circumference was constructed on the border and covered over; finding itself directly beneath the border, it became the world’s first cross-border accelerator. Border post No. 125, which was originally located above ground, was kept at the bottom of a shaft and remains there to this day. You are therefore unlikely to see it, while post No. 124 is easy to spot on the grass strip above the PS, between Buildings 271 and 365.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <figure><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-VIEW-2018-001-1"><img alt="Sites and Aerial Views" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-VIEW-2018-001-1/file?size=medium" /></a> <figcaption>Border post No. 124, above the PS accelerator, was installed two hundred years ago, in 1818. It therefore has a fleur-de-lis on the French side and a "G" on the side facing Geneva, like all the border posts dating from that time.(Image: Jacques Monney)</figcaption></figure><p><span><span></span></span><span><span>As an interesting historical footnote, the border posts installed along the border with the Pays de Gex soon after the 1816 agreement are dated 1818 and bear a fleur-de-lis on the side facing France and a “G” on the side facing Geneva. However, those that have been replaced over time bear the letter “S” for Switzerland on the side facing Geneva, and the side facing France bears the letter “F” instead of the fleur-de-lis, a symbol of royalty. Along the border with Haute-Savoie, the French side of the original posts still standing bears an “S”, reflecting the fact that the territory belonged to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1816, while the posts that have been replaced in more recent times have an “S” on the Swiss side. All very confusing! The final irony in the story is that the roads running along the border on the CERN site are named after a British man and an American, Ernest Rutherford and Richard Feynman, proving the point that science knows no borders and makes no distinction between nationalities.</span></span></p> </div> Thu, 06 Dec 2018 13:43:40 +0000 cmenard 9521 at https://home.cern CERN’s values and respect in our daily working lives https://home.cern/news/news/cern/cerns-values-and-respect-our-daily-working-lives <span>CERN’s values and respect in our daily working lives</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Anna Cook</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Wed, 12/05/2018 - 11:37</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Respect underpins CERN’s five values: integrity, commitment, professionalism, creativity and diversity. Taken together, these values form the basis of respect for others, for the Organization and for its mission. In 2010, building on its values, CERN established its <a href="https://hr-dep.web.cern.ch/content/code-of-conduct">Code of Conduct</a>, a guide to help us, as CERN contributors, better understand how we are expected to conduct ourselves and treat others and how we should expect to be treated. “Respect @ CERN” then became the driving force for a project led by Geneviève Guinot, then Diversity Programme Leader, in which HR, the Ombud, HSE, the Design and Visual Identity team and the Relations with the Host States service worked together to create a series of short videos, to showcase situations covering the five values.</p> <figure role="group"><img alt="CERN’s values and respect in our daily working lives" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="fa107cf3-1e6f-4adc-9ab4-221848e0193f" height="332" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/anschaef/RespectVideos%202.jpg" width="635" /><figcaption><em>Excerpt from the video covering the value "commitment". </em></figcaption></figure><p> </p> <p>James Purvis, head of CERN’s HR department, feels the videos complete the picture: “CERN’s values and the Code of Conduct have been embedded in the fabric of the Organization since 2010. These complementary videos are an invitation for us all to reflect on the way our behaviour can impact our working environment and to think about how we can contribute to creating a respectful and inclusive working environment”.</p> <p>The videos are now available on <a href="https://cern.ch/hr/cern-values">https://cern.ch/hr/cern-values</a>. All videos are designed to be accessible for people with disabilities.</p> </div> Wed, 05 Dec 2018 10:37:17 +0000 anschaef 9510 at https://home.cern Celebrate Christmas at Restaurant 1 https://home.cern/news/announcement/cern/celebrate-christmas-restaurant-1 <span>Celebrate Christmas at Restaurant 1</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Sun, 12/09/2018 - 12:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>From 10 to 14 December, Natacha, who is in charge of Novae’s grocery range, will be selling various products at our Christmas market.</p> <p>On Thursday, 13 December, Novae will be offering a Christmas menu for 10.20 CHF:</p> <ul><li>Roast turkey breast flavoured with chestnuts and Christmas spices</li> <li>Cardoon gratin with cep mushroom sauce</li> <li>Roesti potato croquettes</li> <li>Complimentary Yule log</li> </ul><p>A free raffle will be held on the same day. Tickets will be distributed at the restaurant tills from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m.<br /> Prizes: hamper, smoked salmon, bottle of Prosecco, panettone and more!<br /> The draw will take place at 3.00 p.m. in Restaurant 1.</p> </div> Sun, 09 Dec 2018 11:17:06 +0000 anschaef 9540 at https://home.cern Four CERN apprentices in the class of 2018 https://home.cern/news/news/cern/four-cern-apprentices-class-2018 <span>Four CERN apprentices in the class of 2018</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Anaïs Schaeffer</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Sun, 12/09/2018 - 18:56</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">CERN&#039;s apprentice Lucile Pinard (third from left) during the 2018 UIG prize ceremony, in the presence of Pierre Maudet, Geneva state councillor (fifth from left). (Photo: Stéphane Castella)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>At the end of 2018, four CERN technical apprentices were awarded their <em>certificat fédéral de capacité</em> (CFC). After four years of training at CERN, two physics laboratory technicians, Lucile Pinard and Deborah Sala, and two electronics technicians, Yann Kandasamy and Vincent Peer, have left the Laboratory.</p> <p>Lucile Pinard was also awarded the <em>Union industrielle genevoise</em> (UIG) prize for her excellent academic results. The certificates were presented on 4 December at the <em>Office de promotion des industries et des technologies</em> (OPI) in the presence of Pierre Maudet, Geneva state councillor in charge of the department of security and the economy.</p> <p>This year, the apprentices were hosted by the TE-ABT, TE-MPE, TE-VSC, EN-MME, TE-MSC, TE-EPC, BE-RF, BE-BI, PH-DT and HSE-RP groups at CERN, as well as the <em>Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève</em> (HUG) and the <em>Haute école du paysage, d'ingénierie et d'architecture de Genève</em> (HEPIA).</p> <p>Thanks go to these groups and the apprentices’ supervisors who provided high-quality training to these young people.</p> </div> Sun, 09 Dec 2018 17:56:16 +0000 anschaef 9541 at https://home.cern Computer security: Meeting your family during the holiday season? https://home.cern/news/news/computing/computer-security-meeting-your-family-during-holiday-season <span>Computer security: Meeting your family during the holiday season?</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">The Computer Security Team</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Sun, 12/09/2018 - 19:56</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Help keep them secure. Discuss “security” with them. Tell them how to protect their digital life, their documents and data, their photos and videos, their Facebook and Instagram accounts, and their online banking access. Start with your family. And then move on to your friends. Here are some ideas of how to do it.</p> <p>Let’s start with the people you know. And those you don’t. Would you ever invite a random person from the street into your home? Would you accept a parcel from someone unknown and open it up? Would you follow a stranger into his car? (and what about your kids?) And how would that translate into the digital world? Chatting with some avatars on the other side of the world (who might happen <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Internet,_nobody_knows_you%27re_a_dog#/media/File:Internet_dog.jpg">to be “a dog”</a>)? Or opening up an attachment to an unsolicited and unexpected e-mail with no return address nor reference to you; unrelated to you, your job or your interests; written in a foreign language; <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/computing/why-you-got-new-pdf-reader">full of typos</a>? What about clicking on random links in similar e-mails, Facebook posts, WhatsApp messages, or on <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/computing/computer-security-curiosity-clicks-link">dodgy webpages</a>? Encourage them to be more suspicious. Common sense in the real world also applies to the digital world. Or else your digital life is in jeopardy.</p> <p>Have a fun discussion about passwords. Secure long ones. Breakable short ones. Stupidly obvious ones. Nice complex ones. Without, of course, disclosing the passwords you use, talk about what kinds of passwords work for you and what kinds don’t. How do you memorise them (how did your grandma remember phone numbers in the last century)? What strategy do you employ for different applications and websites? Do you use a verse from your favourite poem? Or the chorus of your most cherished song? What about a good mathematical formula? Or the recipe of your preferred dish? The contents of a CD you bought 20 years ago? Or a combination of them all? Remember that <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/computing/computer-security-cern-secure-password-competition-not">good passwords</a> should never be shared with anyone, be sufficiently complex that they cannot be found in any dictionary, and be different for different important websites and devices.</p> <p>Also show them how they can keep their devices up-to-date: their Windows PCs (search for “Updates”), their Macbooks (Apple logo, then System Preferences, then App Store) but also their iOS (Settings, then Software Update and Settings, then Apple ID, then iTunes &amp; App Store, then enable Updates) and Android (Google Play Store, then Menu Settings and enable Auto-update) smartphones and tablets. Also consider any other networked device, like their wireless access points, webcams, smart TVs, gaming consoles… If you feel comfortable doing so, check whether these are running the most recent firmware version. Usually, somewhere they will provide a “check-for-recent-update” button. Your family and friends will be grateful!</p> <p>Finally, note that <a href="https://home.cern/tags/computer-security">all our <em>Bulletin</em> articles</a> are publicly available on the <em>CERN Bulletin</em>’s home page. In addition, we have collated them into <a href="https://security.web.cern.ch/security/training/en/CERN%20Articles%20On%20Computer%20Security%20(2018).pdf">a nice Christmas read</a>. Maybe your friends and family will be interested to learn more about computer security best practice and protective measures…</p> <p>The CERN Computer Security Team wishes you a safe and secure 2019 (and, similarly, end of 2018)!</p> <p><em>Do you want to learn more about computer security incidents and issues at CERN? Follow <a href="https://cern.ch/security/reports/en/monthly_reports.shtml">our Monthly Report</a>. For further information, questions or help, check <a href="https://cern.ch/Computer.Security">our website</a> or contact us at Computer.Security@cern.ch.</em></p> </div> Sun, 09 Dec 2018 18:56:19 +0000 anschaef 9543 at https://home.cern