News for CERN Community feed en Rare phenomenon observed by ATLAS features the LHC as a high-energy photon collider <span>Rare phenomenon observed by ATLAS features the LHC as a high-energy photon collider</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Wed, 08/05/2020 - 09:11</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2725815" data-filename="ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2020-031-1"> <a href="//" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="ATLAS Event Display: W boson pair produced from two photons" src="//"/> </a> <figcaption> A 2018 ATLAS event display consistent with the production of a pair of W bosons from two photons, and the subsequent decay of the W bosons into a muon and an electron (visible in the detector) and neutrinos (not detected). <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>During the International Conference on High-Energy Physics (<a href="">ICHEP 2020</a>), the ATLAS collaboration presented the first observation of photon collisions producing pairs of W bosons, elementary particles that carry the weak force, one of the four fundamental forces. The result demonstrates a new way of using the LHC, namely as a high-energy photon collider directly probing electroweak interactions. It confirms one of the main predictions of electroweak theory – that force carriers can interact with themselves – and provides new ways to probe it.</p> <p>According to the laws of classical electrodynamics, two intersecting light beams would not deflect, absorb or disrupt one another. However, effects of <em>quantum electrodynamics </em>(QED), the theory that explains how light and matter interact, allow interactions among photons.</p> <p>Indeed, it is not the first time that photons interacting at high energies have been studied at the LHC. For instance, light-by-light “scattering”, where a pair of photons interact by producing another pair of photons, is one of the oldest predictions of QED. The <a href="">first direct evidence of light-by-light scattering was reported by ATLAS in 2017</a>, exploiting the strong electromagnetic fields surrounding lead ions in high-energy lead–lead collisions. In 2019 and 2020, ATLAS further studied this process by measuring its properties.</p> <p>The new result reported at this conference is sensitive to another rare phenomenon in which two photons interact to produce two W bosons of opposite electric charge via (among others) the interaction of four force carriers<sup><a href="#_ftn1">[1]</a></sup>. Quasi-real photons from the proton beams scatter off one another to produce a pair of W bosons. A first study of this phenomenon was previously reported by ATLAS and CMS in 2016, from data recorded during LHC Run 1, but a larger dataset was required to unambiguously observe it.</p> <p>The observation was obtained with a highly significant statistical evidence of 8.4 standard deviations, corresponding to a negligible chance of being due to a statistical fluctuation. ATLAS physicists used a considerably larger dataset taken during Run 2, the four-year data collection in the LHC that ended in 2018, and developed a customised analysis method.</p> <p>Owing to the nature of the interaction process, the only particle tracks visible in the central detector are the decay products of the two W bosons, an electron and a muon with opposite electric charge. W-boson pairs can also be directly produced from interactions between quarks and gluons in the colliding protons considerably more often than from photon–photon interactions, but these are accompanied by additional tracks from strong interaction processes. This means that the ATLAS physicists had to carefully disentangle collision tracks to observe this rare phenomenon.   </p> <blockquote> <p>This observation opens up a new facet of experimental exploration at the LHC using photons in the initial state”, said Karl Jakobs, spokesperson of the ATLAS collaboration. “It is unique as it only involves couplings among electroweak force carriers in the strong-interaction-dominated environment of the LHC. With larger future datasets it can be used to probe in a clean way the electroweak gauge structure and possible contributions of new physics.</p> </blockquote> <p>Indeed, the new result confirms one of the main predictions of electroweak theory, namely that, besides interacting with ordinary particles of matter, the force carriers, also known as gauge bosons – the W bosons, the Z boson and the photon – are also interacting with each other. Photon collisions will provide a new way to test the Standard Model and to probe for new physics, which is necessary for a better understanding of our Universe.</p> <p>Links, related articles &amp; scientific material:</p> <ul><li><a href="">Observation of photon-induced W+W− production in proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector</a></li> <li><a href="">ATLAS Physics briefing on the result</a></li> <li><a href="">Scientific Plots and Diagrams</a></li> </ul><hr /><p><sup><a href="#_ftnref1">[1]</a></sup> The four force-carrier interaction is one of the predictions of the electroweak theory that explains how force-carrier particles, also known as gauge bosons, interact not only with matter particles, but also with one another.</p></div> Wed, 05 Aug 2020 07:11:31 +0000 cagrigor 155490 at CERN’s neutrino success story <span>CERN’s neutrino success story</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Matthew Chalmers</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Tue, 08/04/2020 - 12:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2657171" data-filename="201902-023_01" id="CERN-PHOTO-201902-023-1"> <a href="//" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="DUNE dual phase 2019" src="//"/> </a> <figcaption> DUNE dual phase 2019 <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The neutrino is the most ethereal of particles. Tens of billions of them emanating from nuclear reactions in the sun’s core pass through every square centimetre of Earth’s surface each second without notice. They have vanishingly small masses, a trillion times smaller than the top quark, and oscillate weirdly between their three flavours – electron, muon and tau – as they travel.</p> <p>Since the first <a href="/news/news/physics/ghosts-machine">direct detection</a> of a neutrino from a nuclear power plant in 1956, a vast and varied experimental programme employing reactor, solar, accelerator, atmospheric, cosmic and geological neutrino sources has grown up to explore its still-mysterious nature.</p> <p>The <a href="">latest issue</a> of <em>CERN Courier</em> <a href="">describes the state of the art in experimental neutrino physics</a>, including recent results from the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) facility in Japan that hint at <a href="">differences in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate</a>. It also celebrates the key role being played by Europe in <a href="">contributing to a globally coordinated programme of neutrino research</a> via the <a href="">CERN Neutrino Platform</a>.</p> <p>Established in 2013, the CERN Neutrino Platform has enabled significant European participation in the US Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility, which will see neutrinos sent 1300 km from Fermilab in Chicago to the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) in South Dakota, and in T2K, which sends neutrinos from Japan’s J-PARC accelerator facility to the Super-Kamiokande detector 295 km away. DUNE, T2K and its successor, the <a href="">Hyper-Kamiokande project</a>, will refine physicists’ understanding of neutrino oscillations, while a series of <a href="">shorter baseline experiments</a> are exploring the existence of a possible fourth, “sterile” neutrino.</p> <p>For the US-based programme, the CERN Neutrino Platform has provided a large-scale demonstration of DUNE’s kilotonne-scale liquid-argon time-projection chambers (TPCs), with the <a href="">construction</a> and <a href="">operation</a> of two large-scale single- and dual-phase prototypes. The single-phase ProtoDUNE detector, which has recently completed two years of continuous recording of high-quality data, paves the way for the first DUNE module. At over 70 000 tonnes, the full DUNE detector will be the largest ever deployment of liquid-argon technology, which was first proposed by former CERN Director-General Carlo Rubbia in 1977 and serves as both target and tracker for neutrino interactions.</p> <p>The first large-scale liquid-argon detector, ICARUS, has also been completely refurbished via the CERN Neutrino Platform. ICARUS was one of two detectors (along with OPERA) at Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy that studied neutrinos generated by CERN’s Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) between 2006 and 2012. The refitted detector was shipped to the US in 2017 and is about to take data at Fermilab’s <a href="">short-baseline neutrino facility</a>.</p> <p>For neutrino projects in Japan, the CERN Neutrino Platform has participated in the <a href="">development of the BabyMIND</a> magnetic spectrometer and <a href="">upgrades to T2K’s “near-detector”, ND280</a>. This detector, which was built inside the magnet from the UA1 experiment at CERN’s SPS, is crucial for understanding the neutrino flux prior to oscillations – one of the main measurement uncertainties at T2K and, in the future, at Hyper-Kamiokande. Independently, the SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment (NA61/SHINE) at CERN has also contributed to a better understanding of T2K data, and has an <a href="">important role</a> to play in the future neutrino physics programmes in the US and Japan.</p> <p>The 2020 update of the European strategy for particle physics, <a href="">which was released on 19 June</a>, recommends that Europe, and CERN through its neutrino platform, should continue to support neutrino projects in Japan and the US for the benefit of the worldwide neutrino community. “Experimental neutrino physics is back in town at CERN, and it looks like it is there to stay,” says Albert de Roeck, leader of the CERN EP-Neutrino group.</p> </div> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 10:57:30 +0000 achintya 155485 at A new coating technique for accelerating crab cavities <span>A new coating technique for accelerating crab cavities</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Thomas Hortala</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Tue, 07/28/2020 - 10:05</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Research being done as part of the <a href="/science/accelerators/future-circular-collider">Future Circular Collider (FCC) study</a> is already bearing fruit, as the development of a new sputtering method for manufacturing crab cavities shows. These cavities, which are located on either side of the collision points, tilt the particle bunches so that their overlap area is as large as possible when they cross each other, making it possible to increase and control the accelerator’s luminosity. This technique is in its infancy, as the first crab cavities are being developed for the <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)</a>. They will be made of bulk niobium, a superconducting material that is traditionally used for radiofrequency cavities. However, bulk niobium is very expensive, which is why alternatives are being sought for use in colliders of the future. To reduce costs, the scientists intend to use copper coated with a thin layer of niobium instead of bulk niobium.</p> <p>Copper has previously been coated with niobium for the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">LHC</a>’s <a href="/science/engineering/accelerating-radiofrequency-cavities">radiofrequency cavities</a>, using a technique called magnetron sputtering. A magnet surrounded by a negatively polarised niobium cylinder (the “magnetron”) is inserted into the cavity in order to generate an argon plasma. The electrons present in the plasma, excited around the magnetic field lines, ionise the positively charged argon atoms, which are accelerated towards the niobium cathode. The argon ions hit the niobium, whose atoms are sprayed out and scatter around the cavity before settling on the copper walls.</p> <p>The constant negative polarisation technique suits the LHC’s elliptical radiofrequency cavities, but the more complex inner shape of the crab cavities prevents a uniform layer from being deposited on the walls. This is where teams from the BE-RF, EN-MME and TE-VSC groups came in, developing a new WOW (“Wide Open Waveguide”) crab cavity that is compatible with the sputtering technique, as well as a new technique for depositing the coating, namely High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS), a sputtering method using voltage modulation that makes it possible to reach fairly high power levels in order to ionise a significant fraction of the sputtered niobium atoms. The potential of the niobium target is periodically reversed in order to repel the positive niobium ions, thereby increasing the speed of the scattered particles. They are thus projected more efficiently onto the cavity walls and the coating becomes denser and more homogenous.</p> <p>Following three years of R&amp;D, the first test on a cavity will take place this winter, having been postponed due to CERN moving to safe-mode. Fabio Avino of the VSC group is raring to go: “I witnessed the very beginnings of the project, three years ago, and since then, I’ve been delving into the principles of physics and engineering, and I’ve come up with a satisfactory result. The team and I hope that our work will one day be useful for an accelerator like the FCC.” Beyond high-energy physics, the depositing technique studied at CERN also has applications in the automobile, aerospace and medical industries, which use HiPIMS to coat objects with complex shapes and to obtain layers with challenging properties.</p> </div> Tue, 28 Jul 2020 08:05:33 +0000 thortala 155453 at CERN experiments announce first indications of a rare Higgs boson process <span>CERN experiments announce first indications of a rare Higgs boson process</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/199" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abha</span></span> <span>Mon, 08/03/2020 - 14:22</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2725767" data-filename="dimuons" id="OPEN-PHO-EXP-2020-002-1"> <a href="//" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Candidate event displays of Higgs boson decaying into two muons as recorded by CMS (left) and ATLAS (right)." src="//"/> </a> <figcaption> Candidate event displays of Higgs boson decaying into two muons as recorded by CMS (left) and ATLAS (right). <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Geneva. At the <a href="">40th ICHEP conference</a>, the <a href="">ATLAS</a> and <a href="">CMS</a> experiments announced new results which show that the <a href="">Higgs boson</a> decays into two muons. The muon is a heavier copy of the electron, one of the elementary particles that constitute the matter content of the Universe. While electrons are classified as a first-generation particle, muons belong to the second generation. The physics process of the Higgs boson decaying into muons is a rare phenomenon as only about one Higgs boson in 5000 decays into muons. These new results have pivotal importance for fundamental physics because they indicate for the first time that the Higgs boson interacts with second-generation elementary particles.</p> <p>Physicists at CERN have been studying the Higgs boson since its discovery in 2012 in order to probe the properties of this very special particle. The Higgs boson, produced from proton collisions at the <a href="">Large Hadron Collider</a>, disintegrates – referred to as decay – almost instantaneously into other particles. One of the main methods of studying the Higgs boson’s properties is by analysing how it decays into the various fundamental particles and the rate of disintegration.</p> <p>CMS achieved evidence of this decay with 3 sigma, which means that the chance of seeing the Higgs boson decaying into a muon pair from statistical fluctuation is less than one in 700. ATLAS’s two-sigma result means the chances are one in 40. The combination of both results would increase the significance well above 3 sigma and provides strong evidence for the Higgs boson decay to two muons.</p> <p>“CMS is proud to have achieved this sensitivity to the decay of Higgs bosons to muons, and to show the first experimental evidence for this process. The Higgs boson seems to interact also with second-generation particles in agreement with the prediction of the Standard Model, a result that will be further refined with the data we expect to collect in the next run,” said Roberto Carlin, spokesperson for the CMS experiment.</p> <p>The Higgs boson is the quantum manifestation of the Higgs field, which gives mass to elementary particles it interacts with, via the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. By measuring the rate at which the Higgs boson decays into different particles, physicists can infer the strength of their interaction with the Higgs field: the higher the rate of decay into a given particle, the stronger its interaction with the field. So far, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed the Higgs boson decays into different types of bosons such as <a href="">W</a> and <a href="">Z</a>, and heavier fermions such as tau leptons. The interaction with the heaviest quarks, the top and bottom, was measured in 2018. Muons are much lighter in comparison and their interaction with the Higgs field is weaker. Interactions between the Higgs boson and muons had, therefore, not previously been seen at the LHC.</p> <p>“This evidence of Higgs boson decays to second-generation matter particles complements a highly successful Run 2 Higgs physics programme. The measurements of the Higgs boson’s properties have reached a new stage in precision and rare decay modes can be addressed. These achievements rely on the large LHC dataset, the outstanding efficiency and performance of the ATLAS detector and the use of novel analysis techniques,” said Karl Jakobs, ATLAS spokesperson.</p> <p>What makes these studies even more challenging is that, at the LHC, for every predicted Higgs boson decaying to two muons, there are thousands of muon pairs produced through other processes that mimic the expected experimental signature. The characteristic signature of the Higgs boson’s decay to muons is a small excess of events that cluster near a muon-pair mass of 125 GeV, which is the mass of the Higgs boson. Isolating the Higgs boson to muon-pair interactions is no easy feat. To do so, both experiments measure the energy, momentum and angles of muon candidates from the Higgs boson’s decay. In addition, the sensitivity of the analyses was improved through methods such as sophisticated background modelling strategies and other advanced techniques such as machine-learning algorithms. CMS combined four separate analyses, each optimised to categorise physics events with possible signals of a specific Higgs boson production mode. ATLAS divided their events into 20 categories that targeted specific Higgs boson production modes.</p> <p>The results, which are so far consistent with the <a href="">Standard Model</a> predictions, used the full data set collected from the second run of the LHC. With more data to be recorded from the particle accelerator’s next run and with the High-Luminosity LHC, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations expect to reach the sensitivity (5 sigma) needed to establish the discovery of the Higgs boson decay to two muons and constrain possible theories of physics beyond the Standard Model that would affect this decay mode of the Higgs boson.</p> <p><br /><strong>LINKS</strong></p> <p>Scientific materials<br />  <br /> Papers:<br /> CMS physics analysis summary: <a href=""></a><br /> ATLAS paper on arXiv: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Physics briefings:<br /> CMS: <a href=""></a><br /> ATLAS: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Event displays and plots:<br /> CMS: <a href=""></a><br />  <a href=""></a><br /> ATLAS: <a href=""></a><br />  <a href=""></a></p> <p>Photos</p> <p>CMS detector:<br /><a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a></p> <p>ATLAS detector: <a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a></p> <p>CMS muon system:<br /><a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a></p> <p>ATLAS muon spectrometer:<br /><a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a></p> </div> Mon, 03 Aug 2020 12:22:17 +0000 abha 155473 at COVID-19 and heatwaves: a double challenge <span>COVID-19 and heatwaves: a double challenge </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">CERN Medical Service</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Mon, 07/06/2020 - 11:41</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2722856" data-filename="8-Repères-Clés-Canicule_COVID19-EN_V3%20(1)" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2020-078-2"> <a href="//" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="COVID-19 and heatwaves: a double challenge" src="//"/> </a> <figcaption> The Medical Service outlines the preventive measures to be taken in with the event of a heatwave during the COVID-19 pandemic <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Summer has arrived and may bring with it another heatwave at a time when, unfortunately, COVID-19 is still with us.</p> <p>The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recently <a href="">published a warning about the health risks posed by the double challenge of a heatwave and the pandemic</a>, especially for vulnerable people. Some of the measures usually recommended during a heatwave, such as the use of air conditioning, contradict those in place to combat the novel coronavirus.</p> <p>Here are a few tips to help you stay safe during this time, without increasing the risk of spreading the virus:</p> <ul><li><strong>Stay hydrated</strong>: drink water regularly throughout the day (at least 1.5 litres in total). At work, use your own bottle or flask. In addition, plan meals based primarily on fruit and vegetables, either raw or cooked. Opt for vegetables with a high water content, such as cucumbers, lettuce, radishes, tomatoes, courgettes and peppers, and fruits that aren’t too high in sugar, such as watermelon, melon, peaches and strawberries.</li> <li><strong>Dress appropriately</strong>: choose loose, lightweight clothes (preferably in light colours) to allow sweat to evaporate. If you work outdoors, remember to protect your skin and your head from the sun (sunglasses, sun hat, sun cream).</li> <li><strong>Know your limits</strong>: adapt your work pattern to your heat tolerance; avoid intense physical activity during the hottest hours of the day. Work in the shade as much as possible.</li> <li><strong>Ventilate</strong>: to keep fresh air circulating, it is essential to air or ventilate offices and work spaces. If possible, leave windows open overnight and early in the morning. During the day, open windows for at least ten minutes every two hours. In addition open inside doors if possible to help air circulate. If you have a pedestal fan, use it with the windows and doors open to increase the air circulation.</li> <li><strong>Protect yourself</strong>: the protective measures put in place to combat COVID-19 still apply!</li> </ul><p><strong>In the event of a medical emergency, call 74444! </strong></p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2020-078-2"><a href="//" title="View on CDS"><img alt=",Life at CERN" src="//" /></a> <figcaption><span>(Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p><br /> If you need support on a specific issue, the following services are available to you:</p> <ul><li>The COVID-19 helpline: +41 22 766 77 77</li> <li>The Medical Service: +41 22 767 31 86 /</li> </ul></div> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 09:41:44 +0000 anschaef 155341 at NA62 sees first significant evidence of rare process <span>NA62 sees first significant evidence of rare process</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/29/2020 - 11:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2690508" data-filename="201909-262_01" id="CERN-PHOTO-201909-262-1"> <a href="//" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="NA62 Hall overview" src="//"/> </a> <figcaption> NA62 Hall overview <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Physicists look for new physics phenomena in many ways. One is by observing and measuring processes that are predicted to be extremely rare and looking for differences between data and theoretical predictions. The <a href="/science/experiments/na62">NA62</a> detector – the 62nd experiment located in CERN’s North Area – is designed to observe with high precision one such process, in which a positively charged particle known as a kaon transforms into a positively charged pion and a neutrino–antineutrino pair (denoted by K<sup>+</sup>→π<sup>+</sup>νν). Yesterday, at the <a href="">40th International Conference on High Energy Physics</a>, the NA62 collaboration reported recording 17 candidate events for this particular transformation in data they collected in 2018. By combining the data they collected in 2016 and 2017, NA62 can claim the first evidence for this ultra-rare process, with a statistical significance of three-and-a-half sigma (3.5σ).</p> <p>Colliding particles – into other particle beams or into fixed targets – at sufficiently high energies can produce heavy, unstable particles, like the kaons sought by NA62. These heavy particles transform (or “decay”) almost instantaneously into lighter particles in various combinations. The <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model of particle physics</a> predicts how often a given particle will undergo all possible transformations. In the case of the kaon, only around one in every ten billion are expected to transform into a pion and a neutrino–antineutrino pair, with an uncertainty of about 10%. It is thus one of the rarest processes that can be observed by physicists.</p> <p>While CERN is famous for the Large Hadron Collider, other accelerators at the laboratory provide particle beams for smaller but highly specialised experiments. The NA62 detector gets its beam from the <a href="/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)</a>. Proton beams from the SPS, with an energy of 450 gigaelectronvolts, slam into a fixed target made of beryllium located upstream of NA62. Nearly a billion secondary particles are produced each second as a result and race towards the detector. Of these particles, around 6% are positively charged kaons. The kaons enter the detector, where a dedicated device identifies them before they undergo transformation into lighter particles. The physicists therefore have to first count the kaons produced and identify which of them transformed into a pion and a neutrino–antineutrino pair. Since neutrinos and their antiparticle counterparts leave no trace in the NA62 detector, their presence has to be deduced by calculating the angles between the parent kaon and the daughter pion and by measuring their speed and direction of motion.</p> <p>In 2018, the NA62 detector collected data for 217 days, at the expense of around a billion billion (10<sup>18</sup>) protons. By sifting through these data, the collaboration was able to identify 17 new events that fit the K<sup>+</sup>→π<sup>+</sup>νν profile, in addition to the <a href="/news/news/experiments/cern-experiment-sees-hints-rare-kaon-decay">first candidate event observed in data from 2016</a> and the <a href="/news/news/physics/na62-spots-two-potential-instances-rare-particle-decay">two candidates from 2017</a>. Combining these data allowed NA62 to experimentally determine that the rate at which kaons undergo this rare transformation is around one in ten billion, with an uncertainty of about 35%. The experimental value is compatible with the Standard Model’s prediction at the current level of precision.</p> <p>This is an important milestone for the experiment. NA62 is now on track to reach the threshold of 5σ statistical significance to claim observation of the process. The detector will receive new batches of kaons when the SPS resumes operations in 2021, following the second long shutdown of CERN’s accelerator complex.</p> </div> Wed, 29 Jul 2020 09:39:06 +0000 achintya 155456 at LS2 Report: The High-Luminosity LHC is ready for injection <span>LS2 Report: The High-Luminosity LHC is ready for injection</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Tue, 07/14/2020 - 10:44</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Following several hours of transport and a vertiginous descent, the large, silver-coloured machine was installed at Point 2 of the <a href="">LHC</a> tunnel. The TDIS internal beam absorber is one of the many pieces of equipment that will enhance the protection of the accelerator’s components. It was designed for the <a href="">High-Luminosity LHC</a>, but will also be used from Run 3 of the LHC onwards.</p> <p>The High-Luminosity LHC’s more intense beams are more interesting in terms of physics, but more problematic for the accelerator. The greater the number of particles in circulation, the higher the risk that some of the more wayward ones will stray from their path and damage the accelerator. </p> <p>Beam injection is one of the critical stages. The particle bunches coming from the previous accelerator, the SPS, are tilted by septum and kicker magnets so that they can be injected into the large ring. In the event of a failure, the internal beam absorber stops the particles that have been sent in the wrong direction in order to prevent them from harming the accelerator.</p> <figure><a href="//"><img alt="TDIS,2019,WP,High-Luminosity LHC" src="//" /></a> <figcaption>View of the interior of one of the three modules of the LHC’s new internal beam absorber: on the left, the jaw, which closes around the injected beam and absorbs the particles that stray from the path; on the right, the RF screen, part through which the beam passes as it circulates in the machine. (Image: Maximilien Brice and Julien Ordan/CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>The new TDIS absorber is made up of three modules, each measuring 1.6 metres, and replaces a piece of equipment made of a single element measuring a little over four metres. The modules comprise two jaws similar to those of a collimator, made of increasingly dense materials, namely graphite, titanium and copper, along the entire length of the absorber, which slow down and then stop the beam. One advantage of this beam absorber is its smaller size, thanks to its optimised design.</p> <p>In addition, a molybdenum alloy has been used for the structure, which provides the rigidity required for the jaws to function. “This material has a very good level of rigidity, as well as good thermal conductivity, which is needed to evacuate the heat generated by the electrical currents induced by beam circulation,” explains Antonio Perillo-Marcone, the TDIS project leader. “Robustness was one of the major challenges that needed to be overcome in the development of this equipment,” confirms Chiara Bracco, who is in charge of the beam transfer and kicker magnet work package within the HL-LHC project. “That’s why we developed a beam absorber that is made up of three shorter modules and is therefore less susceptible to warping.”<em> </em></p> <p>A similar absorber is currently being assembled and will be installed in the autumn at Point 8 of the accelerator, where the second beam is injected. In addition, again to improve the injection phase, the kicker magnets’ vacuum chambers will be coated with a layer of chromium oxide.  This will reduce the <a href="">electron-cloud</a><a href=""> phenomenon</a>, which degrades the vacuum. Finally, a vacuum chamber prototype has been developed that features a beam screen specially designed to reduce the heat deposited on the magnet’s yoke.</p> <figure><div style="position: relative; padding-top: 56.25%;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" src="" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></div> <figcaption>Watch the 360 video of the transport of this new equipement in the LHC tunnel. (Video: CERN)</figcaption></figure><div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div></div> Tue, 14 Jul 2020 08:44:36 +0000 cmenard 155390 at Updated COVID-19-related health and safety measures <span>Updated COVID-19-related health and safety measures</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Doris Forkel-Wirth</div> <div class="field--item">James Purvis</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Tue, 07/21/2020 - 16:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As businesses re-open and we adapt to the new normal, we should not forget that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over, that there is not yet a vaccine, and that the number of cases is still rising in our Host States, albeit at a much lower rate than during the lockdown period. The virus is still circulating and we need to be prepared for increasing cases as the holiday season draws to a close, more of us come back to work and our activities move indoors in the autumn. For these reasons, our return to work must be managed with the utmost care, and it is the responsibility of every one of us to play our part in ensuring the health and safety of our colleagues and ourselves. Respecting CERN’s COVID-19 health and safety measures is our common framework for doing that.</p> <p>CERN’s HSE Unit is monitoring the evolving situation closely and matching the measures in place at CERN to the evidence at our disposal. First published on 5 May prior to commencing the gradual re-start of on-site activities, the measures have been updated to reflect the latest developments and knowledge, and in anticipation of a full return to work in September. You will find the new CERN instructions on <a href="">COVID-19-related health and safety measures</a> in EDMS, linked from the usual <a class="bulletin" href="">coronavirus information, measures and recommendations page</a>, along with specific information on the <a href="">heating, ventilation and air conditioning</a> of indoor spaces and instructions for the <a href="">organisation of office work spaces</a> and for <a href="">contractors working on site</a>.</p> <p>These are lengthy documents, but the information they contain is vital for all of us and it’s imperative that we all take the time to familiarise ourselves with them. The changes take into account the fact that there are more people on site than there were two months ago and that this number will continue to grow, with the consequence that interactions between people are becoming more frequent, which increases the risk of infection chains.</p> <p>The main messages are already familiar: avoiding close contact with others, frequent hand washing and the wearing of masks are the key measures for protecting us all. CERN’s instructions spell out precisely how these should be applied in the CERN context, and they go further in detailing what we must do if we have COVID-19 symptoms, or indeed symptoms of any kind of infectious disease. They set out our individual responsibilities in terms of tracing those we have been in contact with and maintaining the cleanliness of equipment and vehicles we have used, and lay out clearly procedures for self-isolation for confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases and those with whom they have been in close contact. Access to the sites and recommendations on transport, the organisation of work, meetings, duty travel and events are also covered.</p> <p>CERN’s <a class="bulletin" href="">coronavirus information, measures and recommendations page</a> is also regularly updated to reflect the latest advice from the Host States. Of particular relevance through the summer holiday season is the <em>ordonnance</em> issued on 2 July 2020 by the Swiss Federal Council, which stipulates that as of 6 July 2020, travellers who have spent any amount of time <a href="">in States or areas with a high risk of COVID-19 infection</a> within 14 days of their arrival in Switzerland must put themselves in quarantine* for 10 days. CERN complies with this measure and members of the personnel are expected to respect it. When choosing a holiday destination, choose wisely. Inform yourself of quarantine requirements or local restrictions at your destination, and know that if you do travel to an area with a high risk of infection, CERN may require you to quarantine yourself for 14 days upon return. This is stricter than the Swiss <em>ordonnance</em>, but in line with the measures in place in many European countries. If you are an employed or associated member of the personnel and this concerns you, discuss your plans with your supervisor before leaving in order to plan your absence to include a possible period of quarantine. If you are a contractor, the Medical Service will determine whether you need to self-isolate.</p> <p>Despite the constraints that COVID-19 places on our plans and its impact on our daily lives, we hope you will be able to make the most of the warm summer days. Wherever you go, stay safe!</p> <hr /><p><em>*The term quarantine is used to describe a preventative measure for people without COVID-19 symptoms, e.g. for persons coming back from areas of increased risk of infection or those having been in close contact with people with COVID-19 symptoms. If the quarantined person does not develop symptoms, the duration is 14 days. Self-isolation is for people with symptoms, to avoid further infections, and the duration of the isolation depends on the severity of the symptoms and includes three symptom-free days at the end. The minimum duration is 13 days.</em></p> </div> Tue, 21 Jul 2020 14:31:32 +0000 cmenard 155428 at CERN, SKAO, GÉANT and PRACE to collaborate on high-performance computing <span>CERN, SKAO, GÉANT and PRACE to collaborate on high-performance computing</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Andrew Purcell</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/22/2020 - 12:38</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="1306200" data-filename="" id="CERN-CO-1008294-02"> <a href="//" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="CERN PHOTOWALK 2010 - Computer Centre - Veronika McQuade" src="//"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, four leading research organisations formed a pioneering collaboration that will work to overcome challenges related to the use of high-performance computing (HPC) to support large, data-intensive science projects. The members of the collaboration are CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research; SKAO, the organisation leading the development of the <a href="">Square Kilometre Array</a> radio-telescope; <a href="">GÉANT</a>, the pan-European network and services provider for research and education; and <a href="">PRACE</a>, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe.</p> <p>The next-generation of HPC technology offers great promise for supporting scientific research. Exascale supercomputers – machines capable of performing a quintillion, or a billion billion, calculations per second – are expected to become a reality in the next few years. This change in the power of HPC technology, coupled with growing use of machine learning, will be vital in ensuring the success of big science projects scheduled to come online this decade, such as SKA and CERN’s <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC)</a>.</p> <p>“Heterogeneous architectures hold the promise of delivering significantly more computing power which we have to harness to address the computing challenges of the HL-LHC,” says Eckhard Elsen, CERN Director for Research and Computing. “The smooth integration of these resources typically available at HPCs into the globally distributed <a href="/science/computing/grid">Worldwide LHC Computing Grid [WLCG]</a>, will be essential for the computing model of the future,” adds Maria Girone, CERN openlab’s Chief Technology Officer.</p> <p>The collaboration between CERN, SKAO, GÉANT and PRACE will see the organisations work together to help realise the full potential of the coming new generation of HPC technology. During an initial period of 18 months, the collaboration will develop a benchmarking test suite and a series of common pilot ‘demonstrator’ systems.</p> <p>Establishing a common benchmark suite will help the organisations to measure and compare the performance of different types of computing resources for data-analysis workflows from astronomy and particle physics. The suite will include applications representative of both communities – reflecting today’s needs, as well as those of the future. It will be for running on both HPC resources and high-throughput computing (HTC) resources, like the WLCG.</p> <p>“With the sheer quantity of data that will flow from the SKA antennas towards two supercomputing centres, one in Australia and one in South Africa, developments in high-performance computing and high-speed networks will be key for the SKA Observatory,” says Professor Philip Diamond, SKA Director-General. “The value of this collaboration was demonstrated by the recently concluded H2020 AENEAS project,” adds Chiara Ferrari, SKA-France Director and Chair of the AENEAS General Assembly. “Working with such leading organisations is of paramount importance to identify optimised solutions for the future world-wide network of SKA regional centres.”</p> <p>The series of pilot ‘demonstrators’ developed will also include systems for data access and authenticated workflows. It is indeed vital that data can be delivered and accessed quickly and in a secure manner.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2020-085-1"><a href="//" title="View on CDS"><img alt=",Personalities and History of CERN" src="//" /></a> <figcaption>Eckhard Elsen (top left), Director for Research and Computing at CERN; Philip Diamond (top right), SKA Director-General; Erik Huizer (bottom left), Chief Executive Officer of GÉANT; and Philippe Lavocat (bottom right), PRACE Council Vice-Chair, signed the agreement for the new collaboration.</figcaption></figure><p>“GÉANT exists to serve research and education and, together with Europe’s National Research and Education Networks, we provide networking and access services that are vital to large-scale, highly data-intensive projects such as the HL-LHC and the SKA,” says Erik Huizer, Chief Executive Officer of GÉANT. “We look forward to further strengthening our long-standing relationship with CERN, SKAO and PRACE and ensuring next-generation HPC technology is easily accessible for all scientific communities.” Enzo Capone, Head of Research Engagement and Support at GÉANT, adds, “GÉANT is extremely proud to be part of this agreement, alongside partners and communities with which we have a long-standing relationship already, but now specifically focussing on a number of innovative activities that aim to scale the synergies between big-data production, data movement, AAI services and high-performance computing to the next level”.</p> <p>In addition, the four organisations will work together to establish a training programme to help researchers make the most of the new computing architectures that are becoming available.</p> <p>“Big science needs deep and intense collaboration across disciplines, organisations and borders. PRACE is very proud to see four large European and international infrastructures come together in this historic collaboration. Now that the paperwork is done, the real work can start, mixing numerical simulation, scientific theories and data even more intimately, and we are looking forward to it”, explains Philippe Lavocat, PRACE Council Vice-Chair. “One of the central aspects of this collaboration that PRACE will lead is training and education: creating and supporting the next generation of supercomputing experts, and filling the gaps that we currently see in the skills available in the HPC ecosystem,” adds Florian Berberich, Member of the PRACE Board of Directors.</p> <p>Today’s agreement was signed in an online meeting by Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing at CERN; Philip Diamond, SKA Director-General; Erik Huizer, Chief Executive Officer of GÉANT; and Philippe Lavocat, PRACE Council Vice-Chair. The four organisations are now planning a first joint event later this year, hosted at CERN with the support of CERN openlab.</p> </div> Wed, 22 Jul 2020 10:38:31 +0000 achintya 155437 at Submit your project to the CERN Knowledge Transfer Fund and the Medical Applications Budget <span>Submit your project to the CERN Knowledge Transfer Fund and the Medical Applications Budget</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/22/2020 - 11:05</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The CERN Knowledge Transfer (KT) Fund and the Medical Applications (MA) Budget are funding projects based on CERN technologies with high potential for a positive impact on society. Over the years, the projects funded have spanned many technological fields and applications, from aerospace and superconductivity to cultural heritage.</p> <p>Since 2011, 89 projects have been funded, with each project receiving between 15 and 240 kCHF. In order to be considered, a project should be based on CERN technologies, it should have the approval of the department head, and the department should undertake to cover the full salaries of the employed members of the personnel who receive funding.</p> <p>All CERN personnel are welcome to submit their applications before 24 August 2020. If your technology has the potential for applications in medical or biomedical technologies, you should apply for funding from the CERN Medical Applications Budget and present your project at one of the Medical Applications Project Forum meetings (the next one is on 19 August).</p> <p>_____</p> <p><em>Read more about how to apply for funding here:</em></p> <ul><li><em>CERN KT Fund: <a href=""></a></em></li> <li><em>CERN Medical Applications Budget: <a href=""></a></em></li> </ul></div> Wed, 22 Jul 2020 09:05:59 +0000 thortala 155432 at CERN’s digital memory in colour <span>CERN’s digital memory in colour</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Jean-Yves Le Meur</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/22/2020 - 09:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">A kaleidoscope of digitised memories</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In 2017, the IT department launched a large-scale programme to digitise CERN’s multimedia archive of the 20th century,  the results are now beginning to emerge. Around 2000 hours of audio material were digitised in 2019, and now the colour photo collections are available too.</p> <p>Some 200 000 images in the form of negatives or large and medium-format slides have been converted into TIFF format, for preservation purposes, and into JPG format to be accessed by anyone who is interested, anywhere in the world. After their escapade at the scanning facilities of various specialised contractors, the originals have now been safely returned to the drawers where they live in CERN’s archives.</p> <p>The recent period of lockdown was put to good use to transfer all the digitised images back to CERN for storage in the photo repository of the CERN document server (CDS). Many images were linked to an existing album in the <a href="">PhotoLab archives</a> where they now sit alongside the 100 000 black-and-white stills processed in 2014. When an album could not be identified, the images were simply classified by year, month and day of shot, or using any other piece of information available on the sleeves in which they had been stored. A lot of work is still needed to classify these images and to produce captions.</p> <p>The help of the CERN Library and retirees in the alumni network was enlisted to identify the subject matter, with the aim of documenting the whole chapter of CERN’s history from 1980 to 2000. Whether it’s a photo of technical infrastructure, an aerial view of a construction site or a portrait of a CERN figure, these collections are of such high quality that it’s well worth enriching them with captions for the greater enjoyment of everyone who consults them.</p> <p><em>_____</em></p> <p><em>Take a look at the albums already available here:</em><a href=""><em> </em></a><a href=""><em> Images Archive</em></a><em> </em><em>or at  </em><a href=";cc=Color+Images+Archive+%28to+be+completed%29&amp;rg=100&amp;of=hp"><em>the universe of unidentified photos</em></a><em> </em><em>and feel free to make suggestions !</em> <em>If you’re a retired member of the CERN personnel, please get in touch with the Alumni Relations office at </em><a href=""><em></em></a><em> </em><em>to find out about future alumni events relating to CERN’s digital memory.</em></p> <p><em>For regular updates on your computing environment, please check the <a class="bulletin" href="">CERN computing blog</a> (sign-in to access).</em> <em>To receive automatic monthly updates, subscribe to the <a href="">computing-blog-update e-group.</a></em></p> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div></div> Wed, 22 Jul 2020 07:01:26 +0000 thortala 155430 at CERN visits your home <span>CERN visits your home </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Thu, 07/16/2020 - 17:37</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Fancy a dive into the mysteries of the infinitesimally small? This week, CERN has launched a series of virtual lectures hosted by scientists. You can watch a presentation live and ask your questions from anywhere in the world, with just an internet connection and a web browser. No prior knowledge of physics or science is needed. </p> <p>Due to the pandemic, all CERN visits have been suspended since March. To meet the demand from schools, the CERN Visits service launched a series of lectures during the lockdown. More than 3500 pupils tuned in to watch a total of 141 lectures. A survey of pupils and teachers showed that the concept had been a success, hence the idea to extend the offer to the general public.</p> <p>The lectures focus on CERN, the exploration of the infinitesimally small and the many people involved in this scientific adventure. Each presentation, lasting around 40 minutes, is followed by a 20-minute question-and-answer session. A lecture takes place in English every day, and in other languages (French, German, Italian and Spanish) at least once a week.  </p> <p>Sign up and spread the word! Visit: <a href=""></a>.</p> </div> Thu, 16 Jul 2020 15:37:22 +0000 thortala 155409 at Recognition and exchange of foreign driving licences in France <span>Recognition and exchange of foreign driving licences in France</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 07/14/2020 - 10:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The following information is provided on the understanding that it may be subject to amendment by the French authorities. More details can be found on the website or by calling <em>“Allô Service public”</em> on 3939 (from France only) or +33 1 73 60 39 39 (<a href=""></a>).</p> <p><strong>1. French residents </strong></p> <p><strong>1.1. Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA or by the United Kingdom</strong></p> <p><strong>a) Recognition on French territory</strong><br /> All driving licences issued by a state belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) or, until 31 December 2020, the United Kingdom (see <a href=""></a>), are generally valid on French territory as long as they have not passed their expiry date.</p> <p>However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for one issued by a state not belonging to the EU or the EEA and with which France has not concluded a <a href="">reciprocity agreement</a>, it is recognised only during the 12 months following the date of establishment of normal residence in France.</p> <p><strong>_____</strong></p> <p><strong>Covid-19: validity of European driving licences extended by 7 months</strong><br /> Due to the health crisis, all driving licences issued in the EU card format by a Member State of the European Union and whose validity expires between 1 February and 31 August 2020 are deemed to be valid for an additional period of seven months following their expiry date, in accordance with para. 4 of EU Regulation 2020/698 of 25 May 2020, published in the Official Journal of the European Union of 27 May 2020, provided that the issuing country has decided to apply this provision (NB: driving licences issued by Croatia, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Spain do not benefit from this extension: see <a href=""> transport/files/opt-outs-from-regulation 20200698.pdf</a> and <a href=""> vosdroits/F1757</a>).</p> <p>This extension is recognised on Swiss territory, provided that the holder presents an official document, or any document printed from an official site of the issuing country, attesting to this.</p> <p><strong>_____</strong></p> <p><br /><strong>b) Exchange for a French driving licence</strong><br /> N.B. Following the introduction of an electronic procedure on the site of the <em>Agence nationale des titres sécurisés</em> (French agency for secure documents: in 2020, holders of a special residence permit issued by the Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs are currently no longer authorised to exchange their driving licence for a French driving licence. CERN is in contact with the French authorities with a view to finding a solution.</p> <p>N.B.: In the event of the loss or theft of a European driving licence, it is still possible to apply for a French driving licence by post (cf. <a href=""></a>).</p> <p><strong>1.2. Driving licences issued by a state not belonging to the EU or the EEA </strong></p> <p><strong>a) Recognition for holders of a special residence permit </strong><br /> The foreign driving licence of a person holding a special residence permit issued by the Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs is recognised on French territory for the duration of the validity of the permit, irrespective of the state that issued the licence, provided that the licence is currently valid and is accompanied by an official translation into French (e.g. an international driving licence) see Title III, article 9 of the decree of 12 January 2012 (<a href=""> 000025175223</a>).</p> <p><strong>b) Limited recognition for holders of a residence permit issued by a Prefecture</strong><br /> All driving licences issued by a state not belonging to the EU or the EEA are generally valid on French territory during the 12 months following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of issue of the first residence permit by a Prefecture) (see articles 2 and 3 of above-mentioned decree of 12 January 2012 / <a href=""> 000025175223</a>).</p> <p>In order to recognised, such driving licences must:</p> <ul><li>be currently valid;</li> <li>have been issued by a state on whose territory the driver normally resided;</li> <li>have been obtained prior to the date of issue of the residence permit;</li> <li>be accompanied by an official French translation or an international driving licence.</li> </ul><p><strong>c) Exchange for a French driving licence </strong><br /> Holders of a special residence permit issued by the Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs are not authorised to exchange a driving licence issued to them by a state that does not belong to the EU or the EEA for a French driving licence. CERN is in contact with the French authorities with a view to finding a solution. In the meantime, it is the responsibility of the individuals concerned to renew their foreign driving licence with the authorities of the country of issue or to take a driving test in order to obtain a French driving licence.</p> <p>Holders of a residence permit issued by a Prefecture who hold a driving licence issued by a state not belonging to the EU or EEA must apply for it to be exchanged for a French licence within the deadlines in force. An electronic application procedure will be available on the site of the ANTS as of 4 August 2020 (see <a href=""></a>). However, such an exchange is possible only if the state that issued the driving licence <a href="">has signed a reciprocal agreement with France for the exchange of driving licences</a>. If this is not the case, the individual concerned must pass a French driving test.</p> <p><strong>2. Non-French residents </strong></p> <p>A current driving licence duly issued by a state is generally considered to be valid on French territory. In certain cases, it must be accompanied by an official translation into French or an international driving licence (information can be obtained from French embassies and consulates).</p> <p class="text-align-right"><em>Host-States Relations Secretariat<br /><br /> 72848 - 75152</em></p> </div> Tue, 14 Jul 2020 08:40:49 +0000 anschaef 155389 at Chasing particles with tiny electric charges <span>Chasing particles with tiny electric charges</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 07/14/2020 - 09:55</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>All known elementary particles have electric charges that are integer multiples of a third of the electron charge. But some theories predict the existence of “millicharged” elementary particles that would have a charge much smaller than the electron charge and could account for the elusive <a href="/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a> that fills the universe. An international team of researchers has now <a href="">reported</a> the first search at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC) – and more generally at any hadron collider – for elementary particles with charges smaller than a tenth of the electron charge.</p> <p>Many previous studies have tried and failed to find millicharged particles, both directly, at collider and non-collider experiments, and indirectly, using astronomical observations. But millicharged particles with masses between about 1 billion electron volts (GeV) and 100 GeV remain largely unexplored owing to the lack of sensitivity of current detectors to such particles.</p> <p>This is where a proposed detector called milliQan could make a difference. The detector would be sensitive to 1–100 GeV millicharged particles produced in proton–proton collisions at the LHC, through the flash of light created in its interior by the passage of such a particle. The detector has yet to be approved, and if approved then built, but a demonstrator detector that is a mere 1% of the full detector and was installed at the LHC in 2017 and gathered data in 2018 has now delivered promising results.</p> <p>The data taken by the milliQan demonstrator rule out the existence of millicharged particles with masses between 20 and 4700 MeV for charges varying between 0.006 and 0.3 times the electron charge, depending on the mass. The results are consistent with those previously obtained by other experiments and represent a hadron collider’s first venture into the territory of particles with a charge smaller than 0.1 times the electron charge.</p> <p>“We are very pleased by these results from the demonstrator. It has certainly achieved the original goal of providing feedback on our design and giving us experience with its operation, but to demonstrate that with only a 1% prototype we were already able to place new constraints on the properties of millicharged particles was a nice bonus. We are now quite confident that the full-scale milliQan detector will perform as expected, and we look forward to securing the funding to make this happen,” says Chris Hill, co-spokesperson of the milliQan collaboration.</p> </div> Tue, 14 Jul 2020 07:55:53 +0000 abelchio 155388 at CERN Webfest goes online… and global! <span>CERN Webfest goes online… and global!</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Andrew Purcell</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/08/2020 - 18:05</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The ‘<a href="">CERN Webfest</a>’ – CERN’s annual hackathon based on open web technologies – took place between 26 and 28 June. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the event was held online for the first time, and over 400 people signed up for the event from 75 countries across the globe.</p> <p>Held since 2012, the Webfest brings together bright minds to work on creative projects. Participants work in small teams, often designing web and mobile applications that help people engage with CERN’s research, physics or even science in general.</p> <p>The theme for this year’s event was ‘working together apart: accelerating collaboration’. Given the global COVID-19 crisis, the organisers were particularly keen to see projects that address the evolving ways in which we work together. Building on CERN’s strong history of international collaboration, the Webfest provided an excellent opportunity to create tools to support the changing ways in which we do science.</p> <p>Examples of projects developed over the weekend – albeit typically as prototypes – include the following: <a href="">an online detective-themed science show for school children</a>, <a href="">a web library of LaTeX equations</a>, <a href="">an app to assist with urban planning at large research centres</a>, <a href="">a platform for sharing remote access to lab equipment</a>, <a href="">a learning-management system</a> and <a href="">a machine-learning program to help prevent social-media content from exacerbating depression</a>.</p> <p><a href="">A panel of 12 judges</a>, representing a range of organisations, selected an overall winner from <a href="">over 30 projects submitted</a>. They picked <a href="">a team that is developing a platform to digitise electrocardiograms of COVID-19 patients</a>, with a view to helping medical researchers better analyse this data. “The Webfest provided us with an opportunity to inspire others and to be inspired ourselves; the event helped us to believe that – through our hard work and dedication – we can work together to change the world for the better,” says Sina Khezri, a medical student in Iran who led the award-winning project.</p> <p>“It was a privilege being part of the jury for this year’s Webfest,” says Charlotte Warakaulle, CERN’s Director for International Relations. “The quality of the projects was impressive. The participants demonstrated great creativity and understanding of the broader societal challenges that we are trying to address together, all of them showing how much we can really achieve when we work across boundaries for common goals.”</p> <p>While the projects worked on formed the core of the Webfest, there was so much more to this year’s event. <a href="">Six workshops were held across the weekend</a>, during which experts from CERN shared important skills and insights with the participants. Members of CERN’s yoga and fitness clubs also provided online exercise sessions, and an online DJ set was organised for the close of the event.</p> <p>The CERN Webfest was organised by members of<a href=""> CERN openlab</a> and<a href=""> gluoNNet</a>, an evidence-based analysis provider founded by physicists from CERN. Additional support was provided by members of CERN’s HR department; CERN’s IR sector; <a href="">THE Port</a>, which organises an annual humanitarian hackathon at CERN’s <a href="">IdeaSquare</a>;<a href=""> Remotely Green</a>, a start-up company created by CERN users that specialises in virtual networking; and others.</p> <p><em>_____</em></p> <p><em>A longer version of this article is available on the CERN openlab website, <a class="bulletin" href="">here</a>.</em></p> </div> Wed, 08 Jul 2020 16:05:41 +0000 achintya 155367 at Computer Security: CERN has been phished again <span>Computer Security: CERN has been phished again</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">The Computer Security Team</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Fri, 07/17/2020 - 11:16</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>At the end of June, CERN saw yet another phishing campaign against its staff and users. About 21 000 owners of a CERN mailbox received e-mails from "Sonia Abelona", "Michel Dutoit", "Ralf Brant", "Federico Campesi", "Anne Darenport-Smid" or "Andreu Tomanga", on topics related to "contract amendment", "pension fund balance situation", "confidential covid-19 report" and "new teleworking rules". All e-mails stemmed from either “CERN.COM”, “CEM.CH” or “CERM.CH”. And all of them contained a link, either directly in the body of the message or in an attached PDF or Word document, pointing to a fake CERN login page hosted outside the CERN.CH domain (note the “” at the top).</p> <figure class="cds-image align-right" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2020-083-1"><a href="//" title="View on CDS"><img alt=",Computers and Control Rooms" src="//" /></a></figure><p>Entering a CERN account name and a password into that fake login page would have put the Organization at risk and your private life at peril, giving access credentials to malicious evildoers for their malicious deeds (see our <em>Bulletin</em> articles on “<a href="">Blackmailing Academia: back to pen and paper(?)</a>” and “<a href="">What do apartments and computers have in common?</a>”).</p> <p>In the wild world of evil, there are groups of criminals such as “SilentLibrarian” that do exactly this: targeting universities, companies and organisations with well-crafted, malicious e-mails in order to infiltrate their networks, gain access to their computing resources and extract confidential information. With sufficient preparation and reconnaissance, and given the human nature of being curious, this “social engineering” is easy as pie… unfortunately. Luckily, this time, these malicious e-mails were part of the CERN Computer Security team’s annual phishing campaign. The attachments were benign and the fake login page did not accept passwords at all. CERN passwords were not collected or exposed during this campaign. So no harm done, but lots of disturbing lessons learned.</p> <p>Disturbing “Game Over” #1: 10%* of all recipients did not recognise the fake login page. The wrong web address (URL) at the top. That implies that 10% of CERN accounts would have been compromised. We deem that about 90% of those accesses came from teleworkers. Hence, in nine out of ten cases, there are no means for our computer security detection to spot this… it all happened outside CERN. The ultimate silver bullet to protect CERN against such a loss is the deployment of multi-factor authentication, which will be introduced in the coming months (see our <em>Bulletin</em> articles on “<a href="">A second factor to the rescue</a>” and “<a href="">Protecting the accelerator from remote evil</a>”).</p> <p>Disturbing “Game Over” #2: Even just opening the attachment (18%!) created a risk to the computer used to open it. If the document had been malicious, it could have easily compromised the local computer. Game Over! In particular, in times of teleworking, the security measures deployed at CERN would not have helped… So it is of the utmost importance that your own personal PCs and laptops at home are always automatically updated and run an up-to-date antivirus solution. In the future, the CERN IT department might offer you a sophisticated anti-malware and EDR (Endpoint Detection and Response) solution for enhanced protection.</p> <p>With those two disturbing facts – if this had been a real attack – CERN accelerator and experiment operations, sensitive HR and financial data and computer centre services would have been put at imminent risk…!</p> <p>Encouraging fact #1: Within the first five minutes of the campaign, the Computer Security team received notifications of this campaign going on. Such quick alerts are essential to raising our defences and protecting, at least, devices and accounts from within CERN. We could have even gone so far as to purge the malicious e-mails from individual inboxes (a task we usually avoid, given privacy implications).</p> <p>Encouraging fact #2: In total, we received more than 800 SNOW tickets on the subject, which implies that our awareness raising is working for many! 80% didn’t open the attachment or follow the link. 90% didn’t enter their account name. Well done, guys!!!!</p> <p>So how can you help to protect your private life and CERN as an organisation? First, be vigilant. Be hesitant. Be suspicious. STOP – THINK – DON’T CLICK!!!</p> <ul><li>Check once more our hints on <a href="">how to best detect fraudulent e-mails</a> and fake login pages;</li> <li>Test yourself on those nice external training pages: <a href=""></a> and <a href=""> phishing-test</a>;</li> <li>Help us deploy a two-factor authentication solution; and</li> <li>Deploy a decent anti-malware solution on your home computers.</li> </ul><p>____</p> <p><em>*In detail: More than 30% of all 21 083 recipients opened the e-mail for further inspection. 18% opened the PDF or Word doc attachment, if present. One quarter followed the embedded link to the fake login page. About 12% did so when that link was hidden within the PDF/Word doc. And an astonishing 50% of those (i.e. 10% of all recipients) tried to log into the fake login page with their CERN account name… </em></p> <p><em>The numbers split by department will be made available to the corresponding department heads and our computer security contacts within each department.</em></p> <p><br /><em>Do you want to learn more about computer security incidents and issues at CERN? Follow our <a href="">Monthly Report</a>. For further information, questions or help, check <a href="">our website</a> or contact us at</em></p> </div> Fri, 17 Jul 2020 09:16:52 +0000 anschaef 155417 at COVID-19: compulsory quarantine for travellers arriving in Switzerland <span>COVID-19: compulsory quarantine for travellers arriving in Switzerland</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Thu, 07/09/2020 - 10:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As of 6 July 2020, people who have been staying in a high-risk country or area (<a class="bulletin" href="">see list here</a>) in the 14 days prior to their arrival in Switzerland are required:</p> <ul><li>to go, immediately following their arrival in Switzerland, to their home or other suitable accommodation and to remain there permanently for 10 days (quarantine);</li> <li>to follow the <a href="">quarantine recommendations</a>;</li> <li>to declare their arrival in Switzerland to the <a href="">competent cantonal authorities</a> within two days and to follow their instructions.</li> </ul><p>For more information, visit: <a href=" "> krankheiten/ausbrueche-epidemien-pandemien/aktuelle-ausbrueche-epidemien/novel-cov/empfehlungen/ empfehlungen-fuer-reisende/quarantaene-einreisende.html </a></p> </div> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 08:31:20 +0000 anschaef 155370 at Suspension of the CERN car-sharing service <span>Suspension of the CERN car-sharing service</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">CERN Mobility Services</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/08/2020 - 14:55</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN’s car-sharing service remains suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future.</p> <p>We are taking advantage of this suspension to change service provider. will therefore no longer operate this service on CERN’s behalf. We hope to be able to improve the range of services we offer in order to better meet your expectations.</p> <p>Thank you for your understanding.</p> </div> Wed, 08 Jul 2020 12:55:59 +0000 anschaef 155366 at The first accelerators are back in action <span>The first accelerators are back in action</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Wed, 07/08/2020 - 12:11</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The CERN Control Centre is back in shift work mode, with walls of screens showing the status of the beams, and coffee flowing freely day and night. On Friday, 3 July, the <a href="">Long Shutdown 2</a> accelerator coordination team handed over the key of the PS Booster to the accelerator operators. <a href="">Linac 4</a> and the <a href="">PS Booster</a> thus become the first two accelerators to be recommissioned, 18 months after the start of LS2.</p> <p>However, recommissioning will be far more complex than simply turning a key. When the operators handed the Booster over to the LS2 teams, they were driving a model built in the last century, and now they find themselves at the wheel of a completely transformed supercar. Work has been carried out on the engine (the power supply and power converters), the accelerator (the radiofrequency cavities), the steering (the magnets), the injection, the cooling circuit, the control and safety systems... in fact, a whole host of components have been replaced or upgraded (see below). “Around 40% of the machine has been replaced,” says David Hay, the “chief mechanic”, or engineer in charge of the coordination of LS2 activities at the PS Booster.</p> <p>The aims of the work on this nearly 50-year-old accelerator, forming part of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, were twofold: to accelerate the particles arriving at higher energies from the brand new Linac 4 and to increase the brightness of, or the concentration of particles in, the beam.</p> <figure><a href="//"><img alt="Handover,LS2,Coordination,Team,accelerator,PS,Recommissioning,Operation" src="//" /></a> <figcaption>David Hay, who is responsible for LS2 coordination at the PS Booster, hands over a symbolic key to Bettina Mikulec, who leads the operations team for the PS Booster and Linac 4 (BE-OP-PSB). On the left, Julie Coupard, who is in charge of LS2 coordination for the injectors, and on the right, Gian Piero Di Giovanni, LIU project leader for the PS Booster, and Rende Steerenberg, Operations group leader (BE-OP) (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)</figcaption></figure><p><br /> Linac 4, the new first link in the chain, accelerates negative hydrogen ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) up to an energy of 160 MeV (compared to 50 MeV previously for the protons from Linac 2). The higher energy and the new injection system, which converts the H<sup>-</sup> ions into protons, increase the brightness by a factor of two. This means that a beam with the same dimensions will contain twice as many particles. In order to preserve this brightness in the PS, the next accelerator in the chain, the Booster will increase the energy up to 2 GeV (compared to 1.4 GeV previously), thanks to its all-new acceleration system. The electrical repulsion effect between particles of the same charge (Coulomb repulsion) lessens as the energy increases. To put it another way, higher energy helps keep the particles close together and thus contributes to maintaining the brightness. And with more brightness, comes more luminosity. “The Booster is key to increasing the luminosity of the LHC,” explains Gian Piero Di Giovanni, project leader for LIU at the PS Booster, “because it effectively determines the brightness of the beam.” The new injection mode with H<sup>-</sup> ions and a higher energy will also considerably reduce the particle loss rate. “We will lose only 1 to 2% at injection, compared to over 30% with the old system,” says Di Giovanni.</p> <p>The work at the Booster took 20 months above ground and 18 months underground. Despite the large scale of the renovations and the difficulties encountered with certain aspects of the civil-engineering work and of the cooling system for the RF cavities, not to mention lockdown, which froze activities for two months, the project has been completed on time. This achievement is down to the commitment of the teams and meticulous and proactive coordination.</p> <p>Commissioning of some of the new systems started several weeks ago. The operators are now taking charge with new, cutting-edge control software. “We have spent the past two years developing the integration of these new systems,” emphasises Bettina Mikulec, who supervises the operation of the Booster and Linac 4. “We now need to implement and test all the subsystems from the Control Centre and get them working in harmony.” This complex commissioning process will take several months, initially without any beam. Whereas Linac 4 will resume tests with beam this summer, the first particles should be circulating in the PS Booster right at the end of the year.</p> <p><strong>The metamorphosis of the Booster</strong></p> <ul><li><strong>Power supply:</strong> A new power supply system, similar to the one that was installed for the PS (<a href="">POPS</a>), based on power converters and capacitors and known as POPS-B, has been installed in a new building above ground. The power converters will supply the magnets with electrical intensities of 5500 amps, compared with 4000 amps previously. Over 95% of the Booster’s power converters have been replaced since Long Shutdown 1. Some 318 new converters, ranging from 1 kW to several MW, supply all the components of the accelerator.</li> <li><strong>Cooling:</strong> The Booster has a new cooling system, with cooling towers in two renovated buildings.</li> <li><strong>Injection and ejection:</strong> To cope with the increase in energy and the use of negative hydrogen ions at injection, the transfer lines from Linac 4 to the Booster and from the Booster to the PS have all been replaced. This includes new magnets (kickers, septa, dipoles, quadrupoles and correctors), new instrumentation and new beam dumps. Since it comprises four superimposed rings, the Booster requires a particularly sophisticated particle <a href="">distribution system</a>.</li> <li><strong>Acceleration:</strong> The new acceleration system is composed of three structures, each housing <a href="">eight cavities built using a magnetic material known as FineMet</a>.</li> <li><strong>Magnets:</strong> In the transfer lines and the Booster ring itself, around 60 magnets have been replaced or renovated.</li> <li><strong>Safety and instrumentation:</strong> A whole host of new sensors, beam position monitors, beam loss monitors, wire scanners, etc. have been installed to monitor and measure the particle beams. Devices to stop the beam or particles that stray from the trajectory have been added to the ring. Among these, a collimation system known as an “absorber/scraper”, is the latest device to be installed in the Booster. The role of these devices is even more crucial now that the beam is denser.</li> </ul><p>Watch the <a class="bulletin" href=";utm_campaign=loading">Instagram Live session</a> filmed in the PS Booster just before the accelerator was closed.</p> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div> <div id="vidyowebrtcscreenshare_is_installed"> </div></div> Wed, 08 Jul 2020 10:11:06 +0000 cmenard 155365 at 30 July: Annual diesel generators tests <span>30 July: Annual diesel generators tests</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">EN-EL group</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Mon, 07/20/2020 - 10:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN safety network, the annual diesel generators tests of the Meyrin site, SPS, Prévessin, North Area, LHC1 to LHC8 and LHC1.8, are planned <strong>on Thursday 30 July 2020 from 6:00 am to 6:30 am</strong>.</p> <p>Electrical power cut of the networks Normal, General Services, Stable (18 kV, 3.3 kV, 230 V, 400 V) on the Meyrin site, SPS, Prévessin, North Area, LHC1 to LHC8 and LHC 1.8. The EN-EL Group recommends that you turn off your critical equipment and computer equipment.</p> <p>For any further information, please refer to the <em>"note de coupure"</em>: <a href=""> pdf Template/ndc/EN-EL-NdC-156479-3</a>.</p> </div> Mon, 20 Jul 2020 08:31:22 +0000 anschaef 155422 at