News for general public feed https://home.cern/ en Why precision luminosity measurements matter https://home.cern/news/news/physics/why-precision-luminosity-measurements-matter <span>Why precision luminosity measurements matter</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Piotr Traczyk</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Wed, 05/12/2021 - 17:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> and <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> experiments at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC) have performed luminosity measurements with spectacular precision. A recent physics briefing from<a href="https://cms.cern/news/illuminating-counting-lhc-collisions-cms"> CMS</a> complements earlier<a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/new-luminosity-measurement"> ATLAS</a> results and shows that by combining multiple methods, both experiments have reached a precision better than 2%. For physics analyses – such as searches for new particles, rare processes or measurements of the properties of known particles – it is not only important for accelerators to increase luminosity, but also for physicists to understand it with the best possible precision.</p> <p>Luminosity is one of the fundamental parameters to measure an accelerator’s performance. In the LHC, the circulating beams of protons are not continuous beams but are grouped into packets, or “bunches”, of about 100 billion protons. These bunches collide with oncoming bunches 40 million times per second at the interaction points within particle detectors. But when two such bunches pass through each other, only a few protons from each bunch end up interacting with the protons circulating in the opposite direction. Luminosity is a measure of the number of these interactions. Two main aspects of luminosity are instantaneous luminosity, describing the number of collisions happening in a unit of time (for example every second), and integrated luminosity, measuring the total number of collisions produced over a period of time.</p> <p>Integrated luminosity is usually expressed in units of “inverse femtobarns” (fb<sup>-1</sup>). A femtobarn is a unit of cross-section, a measure of the probability for a process to occur in a particle interaction. This is best illustrated with an example: the total cross-section for Higgs boson production in proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV at the LHC is of the order of 6000 fb. This means that every time the LHC delivers 1 fb<sup>-1</sup> of integrated luminosity, about 6000 fb x 1 fb<sup>-1</sup> = 6000 Higgs bosons are produced.</p> <p>Knowing the integrated luminosity allows physicists to compare observations with theoretical predictions and simulations. For example, physicists can look for dark matter particles that escape collisions undetected by looking at energies and momenta of all particles produced in a collision. If there is an imbalance, it could be caused by an undetected, potentially dark matter, particle carrying energy away. This is a powerful method of searching for a large class of new phenomena, but it has to take into account many effects, such as neutrinos produced in the collisions. Neutrinos also escape undetected and leave an energy imbalance, so in principle, they are indistinguishable from the new phenomena. To see if something unexpected has been produced, physicists have to look at the numbers.</p> <p>So if 11 000 events show an energy imbalance, and the simulations predict 10 000 events containing neutrinos, this could be significant. But if physicists only know luminosity with a precision of 10%, they could have easily had 11 000 neutrino events, but there were just 10% more collisions than assumed. Clearly, a precise determination of luminosity is critical.</p> <p>There are also types of analyses that depend much less on absolute knowledge of the number of collisions. For example, in measurements of ratios of different particle decays, such as the <a href="/news/news/physics/intriguing-new-result-lhcb-experiment-cern">recent LHCb measurement</a>. Here, uncertainties in luminosity get cancelled out in the ratio calculations. Other searches for new particles look for <a href="https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAk-9e5KQYEqvdBn_fSMsuVPt-qOBhEEv">peaks in mass distribution</a> and so rely more on the shape of the observed distribution and less on the absolute number of events. But these also need to know the luminosity for any kind of interpretation of the results. </p> <p>Ultimately, the greater the precision of the luminosity measurement, the more physicists can understand their observations and delve into hidden corners beyond our current knowledge.</p> </div> Wed, 12 May 2021 15:31:01 +0000 abelchio 157015 at https://home.cern Connecting the smallest and largest scales https://home.cern/news/news/physics/connecting-smallest-and-largest-scales <span>Connecting the smallest and largest scales </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Matthew Chalmers</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Thu, 05/06/2021 - 15:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2021-05/PM_DESY_Blazar_quer_72DPI_1.jpg" width="842" height="595" alt="DESY Blazar artists impression" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Cosmic particle accelerators like blazars (artist&#039;s impression) are typical objects for multi-messenger astronomy. (Image credit: DESY, Science Communication Lab)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Established in 2019 with its central hub at CERN, the European Consortium for Astroparticle Theory (<a href="https://www.eucapt.org/">EuCAPT</a>) aims to bring together the European community of theoretical astroparticle physicists and cosmologists to tackle some of the greatest mysteries in science.</p> <p>There are strong hints that explanations for dark matter and dark energy, the origin of high-energy cosmic rays, the matter-antimatter asymmetry, and other enigmas about the universe at large lie in the domain of particle physics. Addressing them therefore demands a highly interdisciplinary approach by a strong and diverse community.</p> <p>"Astroparticle physics is undergoing a phase of profound transformation", says EuCAPT Director Gianfranco Bertone of the Centre for Gravitation and Astroparticle Physics at the University of Amsterdam. "We have recently obtained extraordinary results, such as the discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos with IceCube and the direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO and Virgo, and we have witnessed the birth of multi-messenger astrophysics. Yet we have formidable challenges ahead of us."</p> <p>The <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/853904/">symposium</a> featured 29 invited presentations and 42 lightning talks given by young researchers, covering<strong> </strong>every aspect of astroparticle physics and cosmology, from early-universe inflationary dynamics to late-universe structure formation. The event also included a plenary session dedicated to the planning of a community-wide white paper, followed by thematic parallel discussions. An award ceremony congratulated Hannah Banks from the University of Cambridge, Francesca Capel from TU Munich and Charles Dalang from the University of Geneva for the best talks by young scientists.</p> <p>"The symposium has been a successful opportunity for community building and for looking into the future of astroparticle physics and cosmology," said Gian Giudice, the Head of CERN’s Theoretical Physics department. "The emphasis on the future was underlined by our choice of selecting almost all speakers from among young researchers."</p> <p>EuCAPT is led by an international steering committee comprising 12 theorists from institutes in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, and from CERN. Its aim is to coordinate scientific and training activities, help researchers attract adequate resources for their projects, and promote a stimulating and open environment in which young scientists can thrive. CERN will act as the central hub of EuCAPT for the first five years.</p> </div> Thu, 06 May 2021 13:48:28 +0000 katebrad 156962 at https://home.cern A SciFi moment for the LHCb experiment https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/scifi-moment-lhcb-experiment <span>A SciFi moment for the LHCb experiment</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 05/06/2021 - 08:28</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Its name may suggest it is the stuff of science fiction, but it’s not. SciFi – the new scintillating-fibre particle-tracking detector of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb</a> experiment – is very real, and its first pieces have just journeyed 100 metres down to be installed in the underground cavern that houses the experiment. The construction of the detector and its installation in the LHCb cavern are part of the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/transforming-lhcb-whats-store-next-two-years">ongoing upgrade work</a> that is transforming LHCb so it can sustain a fivefold increase in the rate of proton–proton collisions when the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> starts up again in 2022.</p> <p>The scintillating-fibre detector is no ordinary particle detector. As the name indicates, the detector is made of scintillating fibres – optical fibres that emit light when a particle interacts with them. The fibres also contain additional scintillator dyes that shift the light’s wavelength from ultraviolet to blue-green, such that it can travel the length of the fibre and be recorded by devices called silicon photomultipliers, which convert the light to electrical signals.</p> <p>Such detector technology is not new, but it has had to be refined to achieve the scale and precision of the SciFi detector. Scientists had to painstakingly examine and wind more than 10 000 kilometres of fibre to produce the multi-layer ribbons needed for the detector modules – no mean feat.</p> <p>“It took more than a dozen partner institutes in nine different countries working together since 2014 to make SciFi a reality,” says Blake Leverington, who is coordinating the assembly of the 12 separate pieces that will make up the complete detector. “The lowering of the first four SciFi pieces into the LHCb cavern is an exciting and satisfying moment for us.”</p> <p>The remaining eight pieces are being assembled and will be installed before the LHC proton beams return in the spring of 2022. Watch this space for more milestones in the transformation of LHCb in time for the next LHC run.</p> <p>____</p> <p><em>Find out more about the SciFi detector in <a class="bulletin" href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/ls2-report-lhcb-looks-future-scifi-detector">this story</a>.</em></p> </div> Thu, 06 May 2021 06:28:43 +0000 abelchio 156949 at https://home.cern Mining the Future https://home.cern/news/news/engineering/mining-future <span>Mining the Future</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Panagiotis Charitos</div> <div class="field--item">Johannes Gutleber</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Fri, 04/30/2021 - 10:32</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A key recommendation of last year’s update to the European Strategy for Particle Physics is that Europe, in collaboration with the worldwide community, should undertake a feasibility study for a next-generation hadron collider at the highest achievable energy, with an electron-positron collider as a possible first stage. As a result, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) Feasibility Study is committed to investigating the technical and financial viability of such a facility at CERN.</p> <p>As part of this study, the EU-funded FCC Innovation Study (FCCIS) will deliver a design and implementation plan for the new research infrastructure, consisting of a circular tunnel with a circumference of 90 to 100 kilometres and eight to 12 surface sites.</p> <p>The construction of the underground structures for the FCC would generate about 9 million cubic metres of excavated material – about three and a half times the Cheops pyramid. In line with the EU Circular Economy Action Plan and following the best practices adopted by both of CERN’s Host States (France and Switzerland), the FCC project calls for a strategic approach to the management of excavated materials.</p> <p>The FCCIS is running the international competition “<a href="http://miningthefuture.web.cern.ch/">Mining the Future</a>”, which takes up the challenge of turning the main excavation material, a soft sedimentary rock called molasse, into a resource.</p> <p>This soft rock is commonly found around the Alps. Although it is frequently brought to the surface during construction projects, no relevant re-use case has been made to date. This represents an opportunity to bring together people from different domains to create value for society in the wake of the development of a new research infrastructure.</p> <p>“If ‘Mining the Future’ identifies a suitable approach to use molasse, it will help the FCC feasibility study and be a valuable contribution to making construction projects in Europe more sustainable,” says Johannes Gutleber from CERN, who devised the competition.</p> <p><a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1001465/">Registration</a> opens on 30 April 2021 and the deadline for submissions is 31 October. Proposed technologies and processes must have been demonstrated at laboratory scale before submission. This international contest is open to individuals, non-profit organisations such as universities and research centres, companies and consortia from any nation that is associated with the EU Horizon 2020 programme.</p> <p>“We are proud to have a fine blend of international experts in our jury, covering a wide range of topics from material sciences to large-scale construction project management, economics, circular economy and lifecycle management,” says the organiser of the competition, Professor Robert Galler of the University of Leoben, Austria.</p> <p>The winner will be awarded the financing and supply of services needed to advance the readiness of the proposed technology. Further information about the competition, guidelines and the online application form can be found at <a href="http://miningthefuture.web.cern.ch/">miningthefuture.web.cern.ch</a>.</p> </div> Fri, 30 Apr 2021 08:32:56 +0000 anschaef 156906 at https://home.cern NA64 sets bounds on how much new X bosons could change the electron’s magnetism https://home.cern/news/news/physics/na64-sets-bounds-how-much-new-x-bosons-could-change-electrons-magnetism <span>NA64 sets bounds on how much new X bosons could change the electron’s magnetism</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 04/29/2021 - 14:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics is alive and well. But it is not complete, so physicists continue to search for new particles and forces that could help complete the model and also explain some tensions with the model – or “anomalies” – in the behaviour of known particles. In a <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/accepted/a507bYcfO0110d7b20ef08017217eb9202c10f0c1">paper</a> accepted for publication in <em>Physical Review Letters</em>, the NA64 collaboration describes how a search for new unknown particles – lightweight “X bosons” that could carry a new force – has allowed it to set bounds on how much these particles could contribute to a fundamental property of the electron, in which an apparent anomaly has recently emerged.</p> <p>The property in question is the anomalous magnetic moment. The magnetic moment of a particle is a measure of how the particle interacts with a magnetic field. The anomalous magnetic moment is the part of the magnetic moment caused by the interaction of the particle with “virtual” particles that continually pop into and out of existence. These virtual particles comprise all the known particles, predicted by the Standard Model, but they could also include particles never before observed. Therefore, a difference between the Standard Model prediction of the anomalous magnetic moment of a particle and a high-precision measurement of this property could be a sign of new physics in the form of new particles or forces.</p> <p>The most striking example of such an anomaly is the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment, for which Fermilab in the US recently <a href="https://news.fnal.gov/2021/04/first-results-from-fermilabs-muon-g-2-experiment-strengthen-evidence-of-new-physics/">announced</a> a difference with theory at a significance level of 4.2 standard deviations – just a little below the 5 standard deviations required to claim a discovery of new physics. But there is another example, although at a lower significance level: the Standard Model’s prediction of the electron’s anomalous magnetic moment, based on the measurement of the fundamental constant of nature that sets the strength of the electromagnetic force, differs from the direct experimental measurement at a level of 1.6 or 2.4 standard deviations, depending on which of two measurements of the fundamental constant is used.</p> <p>Like other anomalies, this anomaly may fade away as more measurements are made or as theoretical predictions improve, but it could also be an early indication of new physics, so it is worth investigating. In its new study, the NA64 collaboration set out to investigate whether new lightweight X bosons could contribute to the electron’s anomalous magnetic moment and explain this apparent anomaly.</p> <p><a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/na64">NA64</a> is a fixed-target experiment that directs an electron beam of 100-150 GeV energy, generated using a secondary beamline from the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron</a>, onto a target to look for new particles produced by collisions between the beam’s electrons and the target’s atomic nuclei. In the new study, the NA64 team searched for lightweight X bosons by looking for the “missing” collision energy they would carry away. This energy can be identified by analysing the energy budget of the collisions.</p> <p>Analysing data collected in 2016, 2017 and 2018, which in total corresponded to about three hundred billion electrons hitting the target, the NA64 researchers were able to set bounds on the strength of the interaction of X bosons with an electron and, as a result, on the contributions of these particles to the electron’s anomalous magnetic moment. They found that X bosons with a mass below 1 GeV could contribute at most between one part in a quadrillion and one part in ten trillions, depending on the X boson’s mass.</p> <p>“These contributions are too small to explain the current anomaly in the electron’s anomalous magnetic moment,” says NA64 spokesperson Sergei Gninenko. “But the fact that NA64 reached an experimental sensitivity that is better than the current accuracy of the direct measurements of the electron’s anomalous magnetic moment, and of recent high-precision measurements of the fine-structure constant, is amazing. It shows that NA64 is well placed to search for new physics, and not only in the electron’s anomalous magnetic moment.”</p> </div> Thu, 29 Apr 2021 12:31:16 +0000 abelchio 156893 at https://home.cern CERN approves new LHC experiment https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/cern-approves-new-lhc-experiment <span>CERN approves new LHC experiment</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Fri, 04/23/2021 - 08:34</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator is getting a new experiment. In March 2021, the CERN Research Board approved the ninth experiment at the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a>: SND@LHC, or Scattering and Neutrino Detector at the LHC. Designed to detect and study neutrinos, particles similar to the electron but with no electric charge and very low mass, the experiment will complement and extend the physics reach of the other LHC experiments.</p> <p>SND@LHC is especially complementary to <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/fasers-new-detector-expected-catch-first-collider-neutrino">FASERν</a>, a neutrino subdetector of the FASER experiment, which has <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/ls2-report-faser-born">just recently been installed in the LHC tunnel</a>. Neutrinos have been detected from many sources, but they remain the most enigmatic fundamental particles in the universe. FASERν and SND@LHC will make measurements of neutrinos produced at a particle collider for the first time, and could thus open a new frontier in neutrino physics.</p> <p>SND@LHC is a compact apparatus consisting of a neutrino target followed downstream by a device to detect muons, the heavier cousins of electrons, produced when the neutrinos interact with the target. The target is made from tungsten plates interleaved with emulsion films and electronic tracking devices. The emulsion films reveal the tracks of the particles produced in the neutrino interactions, while the electronic tracking devices provide time stamps for these tracks. Together with the muon detector, the tracking devices also measure the energy of the neutrinos.</p> <p>Like FASERν, SND@LHC will be able to detect neutrinos of all types – electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos. Unlike FASERν, which is located on one side of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> detector and along the LHC’s beamline (the line travelled by particle beams in the collider), SND@LHC will be positioned slightly off the beamline, on the opposite side of ATLAS. This location will allow SND@LHC to detect neutrinos produced at small angles with respect to the beamline, but larger than those covered by FASERν.</p> <p>“The angular range that SND@LHC will cover is currently unexplored,” says SND@LHC spokesperson Giovanni De Lellis. “And because a large fraction of the neutrinos produced in this range come from the decays of particles made of heavy quarks, these neutrinos can be used to study heavy-quark particle production in an angular range that the other LHC experiments can’t access.”</p> <p>What’s more, SND@LHC will also be able to search for new particles – very weakly interacting particles that are not predicted by the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics and could make up <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a>.</p> <p>SND@LHC will be installed in an unused tunnel that links the LHC to the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron</a> over the course of 2021, and it is expected to begin taking data when the LHC starts up again in 2022.</p> <p>____</p> <p><em>Find out more about SND@LHC in <a href="https://ep-news.web.cern.ch/content/designing-sndlhc-experiment">this Experimental Physics newsletter article</a>.</em></p> </div> Fri, 23 Apr 2021 06:34:06 +0000 abelchio 156850 at https://home.cern How CERN intellectual property helps entrepreneurship https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/how-cern-intellectual-property-helps-entrepreneurship <span>How CERN intellectual property helps entrepreneurship</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Antoine Le Gall</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/26/2021 - 09:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2765073" data-filename="IP-day" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-062-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-062-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Distributed I/O Tier System Board layout." src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-062-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Distributed I/O Tier System Board layout. Released under CERN’s Open Hardware Licence, this generic, multipurpose electronic system was originally developed for the CERN accelerator complex in collaboration with external companies. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The novel technologies and expertise developed at CERN can be applied to fields other than high-energy physics. <a href="https://www.wipo.int/ip-outreach/en/ipday/">World Intellectual Property Day</a>, observed annually on 26 April, is an opportunity to highlight how <a href="https://kt.cern/activities-services/intellectual-property-management">intellectual property</a> (IP) is at the core of transferring unique CERN knowledge to its industrial and institutional partners, from large, long-standing companies to recent start-ups.</p> <p>In order to share its knowledge, CERN encourages the creation of spin-offs – companies based, partially or wholly, on CERN technologies – and has adopted a dedicated <a href="https://kt.cern/intellectual-property-management/cern-spin-policy">spin-off policy</a> in 2018. One such company is <a href="https://kt.cern/article/cern-air-quality-data-analysis-spin-raises-12-million-euros-funding">PlanetWatch</a>. Founded in 2020, this spin-off bases its air-quality data-analysis activities on <a href="https://kt.cern/technologies/cern-control-and-monitoring-framework-c2mon">C2MON</a>, a data-acquisition framework developed at CERN.</p> <p>CERN also offers special licensing opportunities to promote the use of CERN technology in existing start-ups. These technologies range from innovative detector technologies to complex software, from radiation-hardened components to robotic platforms. As Marco Silari, section leader in the Radiation Protection group, explains “CERN technology can become much more than originally planned”. Together with his team, he <a href="https://kt.cern/article/when-research-radiates-beyond-lab">developed several detector technologies</a> now used by start-ups and companies around Europe. The complete list of current start-ups &amp; spin-offs using CERN technology &amp; know-how is available <a href="https://kt.cern/entrepreneurship/current-start-ups-spin-offs-using-cern-technology-know-how">here</a>.</p> <p>Depending on the nature of the technology and its application, it may benefit from Open Source licencing. This is the case for the <a href="https://kt.cern/article/making-hardware-design-open-and-free">White Rabbit technology</a> – a tool used to provide control and data-acquisition systems with sub-nanosecond accuracy and a synchronisation precision of a few picoseconds – available on CERN’s <a href="https://ohwr.org/welcome">Open Hardware Repository</a> under the CERN <a href="https://kt.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/open-source-initiative-osi-endorses-cern-open-hardware-licence">Open Hardware Licence</a>, to a large user community.</p> <p>Intellectual property enables successful knowledge transfer, ensuring the application of CERN technology and expertise in a way that aligns with CERN’s values, and maximises their societal impact. CERN’s policy is to disseminate its technologies as widely as possible to industrial and institutional partners within its <a href="/about/who-we-are/our-governance/member-states">Member States</a>.</p> <p>Find out more about CERN’s management of Intellectual Property: <a href="https://kt.cern/activities-services/intellectual-property-management">https://kt.cern/activities-services/intellectual-property-management</a></p> </div> Mon, 26 Apr 2021 07:48:57 +0000 katebrad 156865 at https://home.cern On Earth Day, CERN underlines its commitment to a better planet https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/earth-day-cern-underlines-its-commitment-better-planet <span>On Earth Day, CERN underlines its commitment to a better planet</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Cristina Agrigoroae</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Thu, 04/22/2021 - 11:45</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2741140" data-filename="202010-140_07" id="CERN-PHOTO-202010-129-7"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-202010-129-7" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Aerial view of the Science Gateway land near Globe" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-202010-129-7/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Aerial view of the Science Gateway project before, construction starts, and several views of the Globe of Science and Innovation, right next to the construction site. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today marks Earth Day, an annual internationally coordinated event to promote environmental awareness and action. High-energy physics technologies and knowledge transfer from CERN have had a considerable impact on society, and the environment is one of the many areas concerned. Indeed, CERN is tapping into its technologies and creativity to help tackle the colossal challenge of making the planet healthier and more sustainable.</p> <p>Through its Knowledge Transfer group, the Laboratory works with industry, in particular with start-ups, to drive innovation using technologies developed at CERN. Several of these technologies are being put to good use in areas from clean energy solutions to pollution prevention and agricultural optimisation.</p> <p>One such technology is <a href="https://kt.cern/startups/planetwatch">PlanetWatch</a>, a CERN spin-off that aims to provide a tool to generate, validate, analyse and record air-quality data. Its environmental sensor uses the CERN technology C2MON, a modular Java framework for large-scale industrial monitoring and control. Currently, PlanetWatch has over 500 sensors installed across Europe and the US. Proprietary algorithms and mobile phone and web apps leverage a wide range of leading-edge technologies. These include Algorand, one of the most advanced blockchains in the world, as well as a data acquisition framework developed at CERN and a wide range of IoT-enabled sensors. PlanetWatch will help detect local air pollution peaks and identify local triggers.</p> <p>Another example is <a href="https://kt.cern/success-stories/baq-start-tackle-radon-gas">BAQ</a> (Better Air Quality), a start-up that tackles radon gas using RaDoM (Radon Dose Monitor), an innovative radon-monitoring instrument developed at CERN. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that easily escapes from the soil and accumulates in homes and other buildings. The progeny from radon decay is radioactive and, over time, can lead to health issues such as lung cancer. The RaDoM technology includes a cloud-based service to collect and analyse data, check the measurements and drive mitigation measures based on real-time data. It was field-tested in several successful pilot projects along the lines of Smart Cities and Smart Homes. In 2019, the project resulted in the spin-off BAQ, with CERN and BAQ signing a licence agreement on the technology in December. The future plans for the spin-off are to focus on the European B2B market and to establish BAQ as an innovative player in the field of radon monitoring and mitigation, bringing a positive impact on society by helping to prevent public health problems.</p> <p>In terms of sustainable agriculture, a collaboration known as <a href="https://kt.cern/success-stories/foss4-irrigation-how-can-high-energy-physics-help-water-shortage">Fibre Optic Sensor System for Irrigation (FOSS4I</a>) uses environmental measurement technology from the CMS experiment at CERN to develop a smart water-saving solution for agriculture. FOSS4I aims at optimising irrigation systems at low cost through the online measurement of key soil parameters such as temperature, humidity, and the concentration of pesticides, fertilisers and enzymes. The goal of the resulting system is to save water, increase crop yields and reduce the use of undesirable chemical products.</p> <p>CERN is also coordinating a project, ARIES, aimed at finding ways to improve the performance, availability and sustainability of particle accelerators. The ARIES team has identified promising R&amp;D projects that could significantly help to reduce air pollution from maritime traffic using particle accelerators, thus making maritime transport greener. One of them is testing a system to break down pollutants with an electron-beam accelerator before safely extracting them.</p> <p>The CERN Laboratory, nested among islands of greenery, is home to a typical dry grassland flora with a rich <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/cern/nature-lovers-guide-cern">biodiversity</a>, notably featuring the largest variety of orchid species in the Geneva region. CERN is committed to continued development as a green lab by designing environmentally sustainable infrastructures for the future. These include the energy-efficient Prévessin Computing Centre and the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/peek-science-gateways-planned-content">Science Gateway</a>, CERN’s future education and outreach facility currently under construction. The latter will be surrounded by green spaces with rich and diverse vegetation and its infrastructure will be carbon-neutral thanks to the use of geothermal energy and solar panels.</p> <p>As well as answering questions about the origins of our universe, fundamental science can play a key role in providing breakthrough solutions for a greener future. Read <a class="bulletin" href="https://www.eiroforum.org/news/eiroforum-statement-on-earth-day-2021/">here</a> the Earth Day 2021 statement from the European Intergovernmental Research Organisation forum (EIROForum) Council, of which CERN is a member.</p> </div> Thu, 22 Apr 2021 09:45:38 +0000 cagrigor 156843 at https://home.cern Latvia to join CERN as an Associate Member State https://home.cern/news/press-release/cern/latvia-join-cern-associate-member-state <span>Latvia to join CERN as an Associate Member State</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/139" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ssanchis</span></span> <span>Wed, 04/14/2021 - 08:27</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2763410" data-filename="202104-049_135" id="CERN-PHOTO-202104-049-17"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-202104-049-17" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="His Excellency Dr Arturs Krišjānis Kariņš Prime Minister Republic of Latvia" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-202104-049-17/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> His Excellency Krišjānis Kariņš, Prime Minister Republic of Latvia and Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the remote signature of the agreement between the Republic of Latvia and CERN granting the status of Associate Member State of CERN to the Republic of Latvia. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Representatives of CERN and the Republic of Latvia gathered in a virtual ceremony today to sign an Agreement admitting Latvia into the Organization as an Associate Member State. The Associate Membership will enter into force once CERN has been informed that all the necessary accession and ratification processes have been completed by Latvia. Latvia is the third of the Baltic States to join the CERN family after agreements were signed with Lithuania and Estonia in recent years. </p> <p>“We are delighted to welcome Latvia as a new Associate Member State,” said Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, at the signing ceremony. “The present Agreement contributes to strengthening the ties between CERN and Latvia, thereby offering  opportunities for the further growth of particle physics in Latvia through partnership in research, technological development and education.”  </p> <p>“As we become CERN’s newest Associate Member State, we look forward to enhancing our contribution to the Organization’s major scientific endeavours, as well as to investing the unparalleled scientific and technological excellence gained by this membership in further building the economy and well-being of our societies,” said Krišjānis Kariņš, Latvia’s Prime Minister. “Over the last years, the Latvian scientific community has already participated in various CERN projects, and now the status of CERN Associate Member State will allow us to cooperate closer on advancing the scientific excellence of Europe.”</p> <p>Latvia became involved in CERN activities in the early 1990s and has participated, through its leading research institutions, in activities spanning accelerator and detector technology, power electronics, robotics, data processing and other domains. In 1996, this involvement led to a contribution, through the country’s Institute of Electronics and Computer Science, to the Hadron Calorimeter of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/cms">CMS detector</a>, one of the four main experiments at CERN’s flagship accelerator, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC).</p> <p>A series of agreements in the 2010s, including a Framework Collaboration Agreement in 2012 and a Cooperation Agreement in 2016, intensified and formalised the relations between CERN and Latvia. Riga Technical University (RTU) joined the study group for the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/future-circular-collider">Future Circular Collider</a> in 2015 and a consortium of the University of Latvia and RTU then joined the CMS collaboration in 2017. This framework also provided opportunities for Latvian researchers to participate in CERN’s activities through PhD theses and project associateships.</p> <p>As an Associate Member State, Latvia will be entitled to appoint representatives to attend meetings of the CERN Council and Finance Committee. Its nationals will be eligible for limited-duration staff positions and fellowships, and its industry will be entitled to bid for CERN contracts, increasing opportunities for industrial collaboration in advanced technologies.</p> </div> Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:27:24 +0000 ssanchis 156809 at https://home.cern Arts at CERN and Pro Helvetia extend their partnership with the launch of “Connect” https://home.cern/news/news/cern/arts-cern-and-pro-helvetia-extend-their-partnership-launch-connect <span>Arts at CERN and Pro Helvetia extend their partnership with the launch of “Connect”</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/29677" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">sandrika</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/12/2021 - 16:16</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2763282" data-filename="Connect%20Press%20Note%20Cover%20Image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-056-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-056-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Connect Poster designed by Rafa Yuste" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-056-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Arts at CERN and Pro Helvetia extend their partnership with the launch of “Connect” <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Since 2014, Arts at CERN and the Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia have been working together to foster experimentation through the arts in connection with fundamental research. For the next four years, this partnership will be taken to the next level as part of Pro Helvetia’s “Arts, Science and Technology” focus to support artistic exploration across different fields. Together, Arts at CERN and Pro Helvetia are launching “Connect”, a new collaboration framework that will serve as a platform for interaction and dialogue between artistic and scientific communities in different countries.</p> <p>“Connect” is a programme of residencies for artists who are keenly interested in a cross-disciplinary approach and strongly motivated by scientific thinking and fundamental science. The new programme offers two residency formats: a three-month residency at CERN for Swiss artists, which will be announced biennially; and a combined residency at CERN and another international location in collaboration with prestigious scientific and cultural organisations in Chile, South Africa, Brazil and India, which will happen annually. A call for entries for both types of residency is being launched today, 14 April 2021, with submissions accepted until 26 May 2021.</p> <p>This first edition of the Connect collaboration ushers in two opportunities for artists in Switzerland and South Africa. The<strong> </strong>national format offers a Swiss artist or collective a three-month residency at CERN in Geneva, during which they will benefit from a curated residency and dedicated time and space within the CERN community and alongside a scientist. The<strong> </strong>international<strong> </strong>residency invites one Swiss artist and one artist from Southern, East or West Africa to spend three weeks together at CERN in Geneva, followed by five weeks in South Africa in collaboration with the <a href="https://www.saao.ac.za/">South African Astronomical Observatory</a> (SAAO) and the <a href="https://www.sarao.ac.za/about/sarao/">South African Radio Astronomy Observatory</a> (SARAO).</p> <p>“We are thrilled to deepen our long-standing partnership with Pro Helvetia to explore new ways in which science can engage with arts. <strong>Connect </strong>will provide unique opportunities for artists and scientists to enrich each other’s thinking and work in a global setting, to enable fresh perspectives on the evolution of our universe and on the role of science in society today,” says Charlotte Lindberg Warakaulle, CERN’s Director for International Relations.</p> <p>“As part of Pro Helvetia’s <strong>Art, Science and Technology</strong> focus, <strong>Connect</strong> is an important first step in recognising the artistic expertise at the forefront of exploring processes of societal transformation and innovation. To this end, we share with Arts at CERN a common vision of exploring the great potential of new models of transdisciplinary collaboration by fostering the further development of a global arts, science and technology community,” says Philippe Bischof, Director of Pro Helvetia.</p> <p>Following the call for entries, Arts at CERN will be leading the work with the Swiss artists interested in applying to Connect. Travel restrictions permitting, the residencies are expected to take place at the end of 2021 and in the first few months of 2022.</p> <p>____</p> <p>You can find more information and apply to the programme at the following links:</p> <ul><li><a href="https://arts.cern/entry/open-call-connect">Link to apply for Connect </a> </li> <li><a href="https://arts.cern/entry/open-call-connect-south-africa">Link for Swiss artists to apply for Connect South Africa </a></li> <li><a href="https://prohelvetia.ch/en/2021/04/connect-art-and-science/">Link for artists from East, West or Southern Africa to apply for Connect South Africa </a></li> <li><a href="https://arts.cern/">About Arts at CERN</a></li> </ul></div> Mon, 12 Apr 2021 14:16:02 +0000 sandrika 156799 at https://home.cern CERN proposes “space elevator” accelerator https://home.cern/news/news/cern/cern-proposes-space-elevator-accelerator <span>CERN proposes “space elevator” accelerator</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Craig Edwards</div> <div class="field--item">Mark Rayner</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/31/2021 - 10:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2759551" data-filename="EIFFEL-Globe-swap-02%20(00000)" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-049-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-049-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="EIFFEL accelerator" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-049-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> EIFFEL accelerator <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><strong>Update: Did you enjoy our April Fools’ day story? If you want to find out about the antimatter research that is really going on at CERN, check out this recent update: <a href="https://home.cern/news/press-release/experiments/alpha-cools-antimatter-using-laser-light-first-time">https://home.cern/news/press-release/experiments/alpha-cools-antimatter-using-laser-light-first-time</a>, and read all about the Antiproton Decelerator: <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">https://home.cern/science/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator</a>.</strong></p> <hr /><p>“Do antimatter apples fall up?” is a question that is certain to aggravate physicists working on a new vertical accelerator proposed for CERN. The true question, they say, is whether antimatter apples fall down differently. If a difference were spotted, it would spell the end of “CPT invariance” – a principle that has underpinned every theory of physics since the invention of quantum mechanics.</p> <p>“The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful, but it can’t explain the 95% of the universe which is ‘dark’, and neither Einstein nor any physicist since has been able to cook up a working theory of quantum gravity,” says theorist Flora Oilp. “It’s time to challenge its most fundamental principle head-on.”</p> <p>The way forward, according to Oilp and her colleagues, is to build a vertical accelerator that will put gravity to the test directly. Every previous particle accelerator has been horizontal. A combination of high speeds and frequent course corrections using focusing magnets has always meant that the effect of gravity can be neglected. But by utilising a range of new, revolutionary techniques, including accelerating particles upwards inside a vacuum vessel, and timing how long they take to fall back down to Earth, physicists can study the elusive fourth force directly. Furthermore, by comparing results with protons and antiprotons, they can watch for signs of “CPT violation”. Such behaviour cannot be explained using conventional theories, which rely on this principle to ensure the conservation of probability.</p> <p>The accelerator would be built in two stages. Stage one proposes a 500 m vertical accelerator, starting from the base of the LHC shafts. An exciting collaboration with NASA may come to fruition by utilising detectors on the International Space Station (ISS) to detect beams of particles fired by the accelerator every time the ISS is overhead. This “reverse cosmic-ray” experiment would allow the measurement of Earth’s gravity on particle trajectories at unprecedented levels. Stage one will seek to match the roughly 1% precision on measurements of the gravitational constant “g”, which is currently being targeted in parallel by experiments with antihydrogen at the Laboratory’s <a href="/science/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">Antimatter Factory</a>. This moderate build will also allow engineers and physicists to understand the intricacies of running a vertical accelerator in preparation for stage two – the space elevator.</p> <figure class="cds-image align-right" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-049-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-049-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Miscellaneous" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2021-049-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>The height of stage one of EIFFEL when compared to buildings of a similar height. With the accelerator starting 175 m deep in the LHC shafts, EIFFEL will actually be very comparable in height to its namesake, the Eiffel Tower. <span> (Image: D. Dominguez/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>First proposed by Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1895, a true space elevator would rise from the equator to a height of 35 786 km – the altitude of a geostationary orbit. CERN’s proposed structure is far more modest, rising a mere 2.5 km above the Swiss countryside. If built, however, this advanced particle accelerator would nevertheless be three times taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, which has been the tallest structure in the world since 2009. Each bunch of protons and antiprotons would need to be sent into a so-called “radial elliptic orbit” so that they return to the same point from which they were launched, calling for minute transverse focusing along the way.</p> <p>Though the technological challenges are formidable, links to industrial and medical applications are promising, and the physics reach of such a machine is compelling. While appearing somewhat outlandish at first sight, the key advantage of the design is that its sensitivity would scale rapidly with its height. With the project eventually being ramped up to 2.5 km – the maximum height thought to be structurally sound, the CPT invariance could be tested with exquisite precision, approaching 0.005%.</p> <p>“The sky’s the limit!” says CERN’s Pilar Olof, who was recently elected spokesperson of the new Elevator-Inspired Fast-Fermion Endwise Linac collaboration (EIFFEL). “Recent years have seen debates over whether the next accelerator should be linear or circular, but a consensus is now building that it should be vertical. We can’t wait for the world to see the EIFFEL.”</p> </div> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 08:07:49 +0000 katebrad 156747 at https://home.cern ALPHA cools antimatter using laser light for the first time https://home.cern/news/press-release/experiments/alpha-cools-antimatter-using-laser-light-first-time <span>ALPHA cools antimatter using laser light for the first time</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/30/2021 - 16:25</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2121303" data-filename="MAX_7755" id="CERN-PHOTO-201601-005-5"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201601-005-5" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Alpha Experiment in 2016" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201601-005-5/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Alpha Experiment <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Geneva, 31 March 2021. The ALPHA collaboration at CERN has succeeded in cooling down antihydrogen atoms – the simplest form of atomic antimatter – using laser light. The technique, known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40 years ago on normal matter and is a mainstay of many research fields. Its first application to antihydrogen by ALPHA, described in a paper published today in <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03289-6"><em>Nature</em></a>, opens the door to considerably more precise measurements of the internal structure of antihydrogen and of how it behaves under the influence of gravity. Comparing such measurements with those of the well-studied hydrogen atom could reveal differences between matter and antimatter atoms. Such differences, if present, could shed light on why the universe is made up of matter only, an imbalance known as matter–antimatter asymmetry.</p> <p>“The ability to laser-cool antihydrogen atoms is a game-changer for spectroscopic and gravitational measurements, and it could lead to new perspectives in antimatter research, such as the creation of antimatter molecules and the development of anti-atom interferometry,” says ALPHA spokesperson, Jeffrey Hangst. “We’re over the moon. About a decade ago, laser cooling of antimatter was in the realm of science fiction.”</p> <p>The <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/alpha">ALPHA</a> team makes antihydrogen atoms by taking antiprotons from CERN’s <a href="https://home.cern/about/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">Antiproton Decelerator</a> and binding them with positrons originating from a sodium-22 source. It then confines the resulting antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap, which prevents them from coming into contact with matter and annihilating. Next, the team typically performs spectroscopic studies, that is, it measures the anti-atoms’ response to electromagnetic radiation – laser light or microwaves. These studies have allowed the team to, for example, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/new-era-precision-antimatter-research">measure the 1S–2S electronic transition in antihydrogen with unprecedented precision</a>. However, the precision of such spectroscopic measurements and of planned future measurements of the behaviour of antihydrogen in the Earth’s gravitational field in <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/new-antimatter-gravity-experiments-begin-cern">ongoing experiments</a> is limited by the kinetic energy or, equivalently, the temperature, of the antiatoms.</p> <p>This is where laser cooling comes in. In this technique, laser photons are absorbed by the atoms, causing them to reach a higher-energy state. The anti-atoms then emit the photons and spontaneously decay back to their initial state. Because the interaction depends on the atoms’ velocity and as the photons impart momentum, repeating this absorption–emission cycle many times leads to cooling of the atoms to a low temperature.</p> <p>In their new study, the ALPHA researchers were able to laser-cool a sample of magnetically trapped antihydrogen atoms by repeatedly driving the anti-atoms from the atoms’ lowest-energy state (the 1S state) to a higher-energy state (2P) using pulsed laser light with a frequency slightly below that of the transition between the two states. After illuminating the trapped atoms for several hours, the researchers observed a more than tenfold decrease in the atoms’ median kinetic energy, with many of the anti-atoms attaining energies below a microeletronvolt (about 0.012 degrees above absolute zero in temperature equivalent).</p> <p>Having successfully laser-cooled the anti-atoms, the researchers investigated how the laser cooling affected a spectroscopic measurement of the 1S–2S transition and found that the cooling resulted in a narrower spectral line for the transition – about four times narrower than that observed without laser cooling. </p> <p>“Our demonstration of laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms and its application to 1S–2S spectroscopy represents the culmination of many years of antimatter research and developments at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator. This is by far the most difficult experiment we have ever done,” says Hangst.</p> <p>“Historically, researchers have struggled to laser-cool normal hydrogen, so this has been a bit of a crazy dream for us for many years,” says Makoto Fujiwara, the first proponent of the idea of using a pulsed laser to cool trapped antihydrogen in ALPHA. “Now, we can dream of even crazier things with antimatter.”</p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" scrolling="no" src="https://videos.cern.ch/video/CERN-FOOTAGE-2021-002-003" width="560"></iframe></p> <p><strong>Further information</strong><br /><a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2759406">Video News Release</a><br /><a href="https://alpha.web.cern.ch/virtual-tour-alpha">Virtual tour of ALPHA</a></p> </div> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 14:25:26 +0000 cagrigor 156743 at https://home.cern ATLAS searches for pairs of Higgs bosons in a rare particle decay https://home.cern/news/news/physics/atlas-searches-pairs-higgs-bosons-rare-particle-decay <span>ATLAS searches for pairs of Higgs bosons in a rare particle decay</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Mon, 03/29/2021 - 12:28</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2759322" data-filename="event_display_HighResolution_long" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2021-017-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2021-017-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="ATLAS Event Display: candidate pair of Higgs bosons decay in ATLAS" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2021-017-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> ATLAS candidate event display of a pair of Higgs bosons decaying to two b-quarks and two photons (HH → bbɣɣ) in data taken in 2017. Charged-particle tracks are shown in green, the two candidate b-jets are shown as red cones, and the two candidate photons are shown as cyan towers. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p style="margin-bottom:16px">Since the <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a> was discovered in 2012, scientists at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC) have been studying the properties of this very special particle and its relation to the fundamental mechanism essential to the generation of mass of elementary particles. One property that remains to be experimentally verified is whether the Higgs boson is able to couple to itself, known as self-coupling. Such an interaction would contribute to the production of a pair of Higgs bosons in the LHC's high-energy proton–proton collisions, an incredibly rare process in the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> – more than 1000 times rarer than the production of a single Higgs boson! Measuring a Higgs boson self-coupling that is different from the predicted value would have important consequences; the universe might be able to transition into a lower energy state and the laws that govern the interactions of matter could take a very different shape.</p> <p>At the ongoing <a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/2021/">Rencontres de Moriond</a> conference, the ATLAS collaboration presented the <a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2021-016">result</a> of a study that further explores this question. ATLAS physicists looked for the two intimately related Higgs-pair production processes that could be present in LHC collisions, though only one of these is related to the Higgs boson self-coupling and contributes favourably to the production of Higgs pairs when their total mass is low. These two processes interfere quantum mechanically and suppress Higgs boson pair production in the Standard Model. If a new physics phenomenon is at play, it could change the Higgs boson self-coupling and ATLAS might see more pairs of Higgs bosons than expected – or in particle physics parlance, measure a higher cross-section.</p> <p>For their new study, ATLAS physicists have developed new analysis techniques to search for the rare process in which one of the two Higgs bosons decays to two photons and the other decays to two bottom quarks (HH → γγbb). First, they divided the proton–proton collision events into low and high mass regions, so as to optimise the sensitivity to the Higgs boson self-coupling. Then, using a machine-learning algorithm, they separated the events that look like the HH → γγbb process from those that don’t. Finally, they determined the cross-section for Higgs-pair production and observed how it varies as a function of the ratio of the Higgs boson self-coupling to its Standard Model value. This allowed ATLAS to constrain the Higgs boson self-coupling, between –1.5 and 6.7 times the Standard Model prediction, and also the Higgs-pair production cross-section. The result on the Higgs boson self-coupling is more than twice as powerful as the <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP11%282018%29040">previous ATLAS</a> result in the same Higgs-pair decay channel.</p> <p>Although this result sets the world’s best constraints on the size of the Higgs boson self-coupling, the work is just beginning. This is a preview of what is to come, as much more data would be needed to observe the Higgs boson self-coupling if it were close to its Standa­­­rd Model prediction. Observing the Higgs boson self-coupling is indeed one of the <em>raisons d’être</em> of the <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a> (HL-LHC) programme, an upgrade to the LHC scheduled to begin operations in the late 2020s. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver a dataset more than 20 times larger than the one used in this analysis and to operate at higher collision energy. If Higgs-pair production is as predicted by the Standard Model, it should be observed in this huge dataset, and a more quantitative statement will be made on the strength of the Higgs boson coupling to itself.</p> <p>_____</p> <p><em>Read more on the <a class="bulletin" href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/twice-higgs-twice-challenge">ATLAS website</a>.</em></p> </div> Mon, 29 Mar 2021 10:28:54 +0000 abelchio 156739 at https://home.cern CERN approves two new experiments to transport antimatter https://home.cern/news/news/physics/cern-approves-two-new-experiments-transport-antimatter <span>CERN approves two new experiments to transport antimatter</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 03/25/2021 - 15:54</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2748765" data-filename="Zone%20Top" id="OPEN-PHO-EXP-2021-002-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2021-002-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="The BASE experiment" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2021-002-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> A bird's-eye view of the BASE experiment. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN’s Antimatter Factory is the only place in the world where low-energy antiprotons – the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/antimatter">antimatter</a> counterparts of protons – are produced. But in the not-so-distant future it could also be the first place to dispatch trapped antiprotons to another location. On 17 March 2021, the CERN Research Board approved the development of two new experiments to carry antiprotons from the Antimatter Factory to other facilities, for antimatter and nuclear-physics studies. BASE-STEP and PUMA, as the experiments are called, are compact enough to be transported in a small truck or van.</p> <p>BASE-STEP is based on the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/base">BASE experiment</a> – a set-up of traps to store and study in detail antiprotons produced at the Antimatter Factory. Using this set-up, the BASE team measures the properties of the antiproton and compares them with those of the proton to see if there are differences between the two – if found, such differences could shed light on the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem">imbalance between matter and antimatter</a> in the universe. BASE has been performing ever more precise antiproton measurements, but the precision of these measurements is limited by disturbances to the set-up’s magnetic field caused by the magnetic environment of the Antimatter Factory.</p> <p>BASE-STEP is a variant of the BASE set-up that has been designed to be carried to a facility at CERN or elsewhere, one that has a calmer magnetic environment and thus allows higher-precision measurements to be made. The device will feature a first trap to receive and release the antiprotons produced at the Antimatter Factory and a second trap to store the antiprotons.</p> <p>PUMA is based on a different transportable antiproton trap system and has a different scientific goal. It will transport antiprotons from the Antimatter Factory to CERN’s nuclear-physics facility, <a href="https://home.cern/about/experiments/isolde">ISOLDE</a>, for investigation of exotic nuclear-physics phenomena. It will consist of a first trapping zone to stop antiprotons, and a second trapping zone to host collisions between the antiprotons and radioactive atomic nuclei that are routinely produced at ISOLDE but decay too rapidly to be transported anywhere themselves.</p> <p>Analysis of the outcome of these collisions, which will be detected by a particle detector surrounding the collision zone, will help researchers determine the relative densities of protons and neutrons at the surface of nuclei. These densities could reveal whether the nuclei have exotic properties such as thick neutron “skins” or extended halos of protons or neutrons around their core. Such knowledge could shed light on the interior of neutron stars.</p> <p>PUMA and BASE-STEP are expected to be operational in 2023.</p> <p>_____</p> <p><em>Find out more about BASE-STEP and PUMA <a class="bulletin" href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/transportable-antiproton-trap-unlock-secrets-antimatter">here</a> and <a class="bulletin" href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/making-antimatter-transportable">here</a></em>.</p> </div> Thu, 25 Mar 2021 14:54:22 +0000 abelchio 156734 at https://home.cern Intriguing new result from the LHCb experiment at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/physics/intriguing-new-result-lhcb-experiment-cern <span>Intriguing new result from the LHCb experiment at CERN</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/139" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ssanchis</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/23/2021 - 06:26</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2315350" data-filename="CCApr18_LEPTON-frontis" id="OPEN-PHO-EXP-2018-004-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2018-004-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="The decay of a B0 meson into a K*0 and an electron–positron pair in the LHCb detector, which is used for a sensitive test of lepton universality in the Standard Model" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2018-004-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Very rare decay of a beauty meson involving an electron and positron observed at LHCb <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today the LHCb experiment at CERN announced new results which, if confirmed, would suggest hints of a violation of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics. The results focus on the potential violation of lepton flavour universality and were announced at the <a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/2021/">Moriond conference</a> on electroweak interactions and unified theories, as well as at a seminar held online at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research.</p> <p>The measurement made by the LHCb (<a href="https://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/">Large Hadron Collider beauty</a>) collaboration, compares two types of decays of beauty quarks. The first decay involves the electron and the second the muon, another elementary particle similar to the electron but approximately 200 times heavier. The electron and the muon, together with a third particle called the tau, are types of leptons and the difference between them is referred to as “flavours”. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts that decays involving different flavours of leptons, such as the one in the LHCb study, should occur with the same probability, a feature known as lepton flavour universality that is usually measured by the ratio between the decay probabilities. In the Standard Model of particle physics, the ratio should be very close to one.</p> <p>The new result indicates hints of a deviation from one: the statistical significance of the result is 3.1 standard deviations, which implies a probability of around 0.1% that the data is compatible with the Standard Model predictions. “If a violation of lepton flavour universality were to be confirmed, it would require a new physical process, such as the existence of new fundamental particles or interactions,” says LHCb spokesperson Professor Chris Parkes from the University of Manchester and CERN. “More studies on related processes are under way using the existing LHCb data. We will be excited to see if they strengthen the intriguing hints in the current results.”</p> <p>The deviation presented today is consistent with a pattern of anomalies measured in similar processes by LHCb and other experiments worldwide over the past decade. The new results determine the ratio between the decay probabilities with greater precision than previous measurements and use all the data collected by the LHCb detector so far for the first time.</p> <p>The LHCb experiment is one of the four large experiments at the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> at CERN, situated underground on the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva. The experiment is designed to study decays of particles containing a beauty quark, a fundamental particle that has roughly four times the mass of the proton. The results presented today focus on lepton flavour universality, but the LHCb experiment also studies matter-antimatter differences. </p> <p>Looking towards the future, the LHCb experiment is well placed to clarify the potential existence of new physics effects hinted at in the decays presented today. The LHCb experiment is expected to start collecting new data next year following an upgrade to the detector.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Additional material: </strong></p> <p><em>Photo of the LHCb experiment </em>: <a href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2302374?ln=fr#24">http://cds.cern.ch/record/2302374?ln=fr#24</a></p> <p>Caption: “The LHCb experiment is one of the four large experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, situated underground on the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva.”</p> <p><em>VNR</em> : <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2758757">https://videos.cern.ch/record/2758757</a></p> <p><em>LHCb paper </em>:  <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.11769">https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.11769</a></p> <p><em>LHCb article </em>: <a href="https://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/Welcome.html#RK2021">https://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/Welcome.html#RK2021</a></p> </div> Tue, 23 Mar 2021 05:26:02 +0000 ssanchis 156710 at https://home.cern CERN launches Technology Impact Fund to address global challenges https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/cern-launches-technology-impact-fund-address-global-challenges <span>CERN launches Technology Impact Fund to address global challenges</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/29677" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">sandrika</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/17/2021 - 16:56</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2756147" data-filename="1_KT_Infographies_7-Applications-Domains_Better-Planet" id="CERN-GRAPHICS-2021-004-4"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-GRAPHICS-2021-004-4" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Knowledge Transfer Applications Infographics" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-GRAPHICS-2021-004-4/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> The applications of CERN technologies extend beyond high-energy physics to a vast range of areas such as aerospace, medical & biomedical, industry 4.0, cultural heritage, safety and towards a better planet. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN is launching a new Technology Impact Fund to bridge the gap between the technology developed for research at CERN and its potential applications to address societal challenges. The Fund was launched with support from CERN’s <a href="https://kt.cern/">Knowledge Transfer group</a> and the <a href="https://cernandsocietyfoundation.cern">CERN &amp; Society Foundation</a>, which is actively seeking external donors.</p> <p>Financial support provided via the CERN Technology Impact Fund will enable CERN technologies to be adapted for use in wider society, with a particular focus on potential contributions to the 17 <a href="https://sdgs.un.org/goals">Sustainable Development Goals</a> (SDGs) adopted by all United Nations Member States.</p> <p>“The CERN Technology Impact Fund has the ambition to increase CERN’s contribution to the common good,” says Olivier Coutau, Delegate representing the Geneva Canton to International Geneva and member of the CERN &amp; Society Foundation Board. “It is particularly appropriate to launch this initiative in Geneva, where most of the international organisations in charge of building a better world are based.”</p> <p>CERN personnel will be able to propose innovative CERN technologies with high potential to create societal impact. Thanks to funds sought through the CERN &amp; Society Foundation, these technologies will be actively developed to the level of maturity needed for their proposed application in areas beyond particle physics. The projects will, whenever possible, take place in partnership with external organisations in academia, the public sector and industry to maximise the chances of a successful technology transfer to society.</p> <p>The first technology selected under the Fund is the Compact Precision Laser Inclinometer (CPLI), originally proposed by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia, and jointly developed by CERN and JINR, to measure the ground movements around CERN’s ATLAS detector. This novel solution could serve as a lower-cost and more precise alternative to existing earthquake detection devices. Every year millions of lives are at risk of being devastated by earthquakes, disproportionately affecting already vulnerable communities. While existing seismic monitoring solutions rely on a network of expensive devices to provide early-warning information, the CPLI measures fluctuations of the local gravity field. Its high precision means it has potential also to provide early warning for other natural disasters, such as landslides and rapid glacial melt.</p> <p>The CPLI would contribute to three SDGs in practice: making cities and human settlements safer (SDG 11), helping to reduce poverty (SDG 1), and helping to combat the impact of climate change (SDG 13).</p> <p>“The CERN Technology Impact Fund is an exciting new initiative. Supporting technological solutions that target some of the most difficult challenges facing our world will ensure that society will benefit further from the innovation taking place at CERN,” explains Amy Bilton, a CERN Knowledge Transfer Officer.</p> <p><strong>About the CERN &amp; Society Foundation</strong></p> <p>The CERN &amp; Society Foundation is a private charitable foundation, established by CERN and funded by individuals, trusts, organisations and companies. Its mission is to spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity, for the inspiration and benefit of society. All CERN &amp; Society projects are inspired or enabled by CERN, but lie outside of its specific research mandate. To learn about partnership opportunities, contact <a href="mailto:partnerships.fundraising@cern.ch">partnerships.fundraising@cern.ch</a>.</p> <p>_____</p> <p><em><strong>For more information: </strong></em></p> <ul><li><em><a class="bulletin" href="https://cernandsocietyfoundation.cern/projects/cern-technology-impact-fund">CERN Technology Impact Fund</a></em></li> <li><em><a class="bulletin" href="https://cernandsocietyfoundation.cern/page/precision-laser-inclinometer">Precision Laser Inclinometer</a></em></li> </ul></div> Wed, 17 Mar 2021 15:56:32 +0000 sandrika 156683 at https://home.cern AMS reveals properties of iron cosmic rays https://home.cern/news/news/physics/ams-reveals-properties-iron-cosmic-rays <span>AMS reveals properties of iron cosmic rays</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/16/2021 - 16:28</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">The AMS detector on the International Space Station (Image: NASA) </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The more results it delivers, the more surprises it reveals. That pretty much sums up the outcome so far of the <a href="https://ams02.space/">AMS experiment</a> – a space-based detector that was assembled at CERN and has been detecting electrically charged particles from outer space, known as cosmic rays, since 2011. And, surprise, surprise, the latest result from the experiment, described in a paper published in <em><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.041104">Physical Review Letters</a></em>, is no exception. The new result shows that the properties of iron nuclei – the most abundant primary cosmic rays beyond silicon nuclei and the heaviest cosmic rays measured by AMS until now – are surprisingly different from those of other heavy primary cosmic rays.</p> <p>Historically, cosmic rays are classified into two classes, primaries and secondaries. Primary cosmic rays are produced in supernovae explosions in the Milky Way and beyond, whereas secondary cosmic rays are produced by interactions between the primary cosmic rays and the interstellar medium. But an <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/cosmic-rays-throw-surprises-again">AMS study</a> from last year revealed that, contrary to expectations, primary cosmic rays have at least two distinct classes, one made of light nuclei and another made of heavy nuclei. And now the new AMS study shows that iron nuclei, which are much heavier than any other nuclei measured by AMS so far, belong unexpectedly not to the same class as the other heavy nuclei but instead to the class of light nuclei.</p> <p>The AMS team arrived at this conclusion using AMS data on the number, or more accurately the flux, of iron nuclei and how this flux varies with rigidity – a measure of a charged particle’s momentum in a magnetic field. Analysing the data in the rigidity range from 2.65 GV to 3.0 TV, the team found that, above a rigidity of 80.5 GV, the rigidity dependence of the flux of iron cosmic rays is identical to the rigidity dependence of the fluxes of the light primary helium, carbon and oxygen cosmic rays, which is different from the rigidity dependence of the fluxes of the heavy primary neon, magnesium and silicon cosmic rays.</p> <p>“Our results are mind-bending, defying again conventional models of cosmic-ray origin and propagation in the interstellar medium,” says AMS-experiment spokesperson Samuel Ting. “It will no doubt be interesting to see what theorists and modellers make of them.”</p> </div> Tue, 16 Mar 2021 15:28:49 +0000 abelchio 156673 at https://home.cern TOTEM and DØ collaborations announce odderon discovery https://home.cern/news/news/physics/totem-and-do-collaborations-announce-odderon-discovery <span>TOTEM and DØ collaborations announce odderon discovery</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/139" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ssanchis</span></span> <span>Thu, 03/11/2021 - 13:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2215532" data-filename="04_MA27890" id="CERN-PHOTO-201609-210-4"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201609-210-4" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Nicola Turini, Deputy-Spokesperson TOTEM experiment in the LHC tunnel" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201609-210-4/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Nicola Turini, deputy spokesperson of the TOTEM experiment, in front of TOTEM's Roman Pots in the LHC tunnel at IP 5 <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span>The TOTEM collaboration at the LHC, together with the DØ collaboration at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab, have announced the discovery of the odderon – an elusive state of three fundamental particles called gluons that was predicted almost 50 years ago. The result was presented on Friday 5 March during a <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/955960/overview">meeting</a> at CERN, and follows the <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2012.03981">joint submission</a> in December 2020 of a CERN/Fermilab preprint by TOTEM and DØ reporting the observation.</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span> “This result probes the deepest features of the theory of quantum chromodynamics, notably that gluons interact between themselves and that an odd number of gluons are able to be “colourless”, thus shielding the strong interaction,” says TOTEM spokesperson Simone Giani of CERN. “A notable feature of this work is that the results are produced by combining the LHC and Tevatron data at different energies.”</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>States comprising two, three or more gluons are usually called “glueballs”, and are peculiar objects made only of the carriers of the strong force. The advent of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) led theorists to predict the existence of the odderon in 1973. Proving its existence has been a major experimental challenge, however, requiring detailed measurements of protons as they glance off one another in high-energy collisions.</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>While most high-energy collisions cause protons to break into their constituent quarks and gluons, roughly 25% are elastic collisions where the protons remain intact but emerge on slightly different paths (deviating by around a millimetre over a distance of 200 m at the LHC). TOTEM measures these small deviations in proton–proton scattering using two detectors located on either side of the CMS experiment 220 m from the interaction point , while DØ employed a similar setup at the Tevatron proton–antiproton collider.</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>At lower energies, differences in proton–proton vs proton–antiproton scattering are due to the exchange of different virtual mesons – particles made up of a quark and an antiquark. At multi-TeV energies, on the other hand, proton interactions are expected to be mediated purely by gluons. In particular, elastic scattering at low-momentum transfer and high energies has long been explained by the exchange of a pomeron – a “colour-neutral” virtual glueball made up of an even number of gluons.</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>However, in 2018, TOTEM <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/oddball-antics-in-proton-proton-collisions/">reported</a> measurements at high energies that could not easily be explained by this traditional idea. Instead, a further QCD object seemed to be at play, supporting models in which a three-gluon compound, or one containing higher odd numbers of gluons, was being exchanged. The results were sufficient to claim evidence for the odderon, although not yet its definitive observation. </span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>The new work is based on a model-independent analysis of data at medium-range momentum transfer. The TOTEM and DØ teams compared LHC proton–proton data (recorded at collision energies of 2.76, 7, 8 and 13 TeV and extrapolated to 1.96 TeV), with Tevatron proton–antiproton data measured at 1.96 TeV, and found evidence again for the odderon. When the teams combined the result with measurements at much smaller scattering angles at 13 TeV by the TOTEM collaboration, the significance of the result was boosted to the discovery level.</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>“When combined with the measurements at 13 TeV, the significance of the result is in the range of 5.2–5.7 standard deviations and thus constitutes the first experimental observation of the odderon,” said Christophe Royon of the University of Kansas, who presented the results on behalf of DØ and TOTEM last week. “This is a major discovery by CERN and Fermilab.”</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>In addition to the new TOTEM-DØ model-independent study, several theoretical papers based on data from the Intersecting Storage Rings, the Super Proton Synchrotron, the Tevatron and the LHC, and on model-dependent inputs, provide additional evidence supporting the conclusion that the odderon exists.</span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><i>______</i></span></span></p> <p><span><span><i>This update is a modified version of a story originally published in the </i><a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/odderon-discovered/">CERN Courier</a><i>.</i></span></span></p> <p><span><span></span></span></p> <p><span><span>Video: <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2754247">https://videos.cern.ch/record/2754247</a> </span></span></p> </div> Thu, 11 Mar 2021 12:23:03 +0000 ssanchis 156647 at https://home.cern Meet AMBER https://home.cern/news/news/physics/meet-amber <span>Meet AMBER</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/05/2021 - 08:51</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Protons are one of the main building blocks of the visible universe. Together with neutrons, they make up the nuclei of every atom. Yet, several questions loom about some of the proton’s most fundamental properties, such as its size, internal structure and intrinsic spin. In December 2020, the CERN Research Board approved the first phase (“phase-1”) of a new experiment that will help settle some of these questions. <a href="https://nqf-m2.web.cern.ch/">AMBER</a>, or Apparatus for Meson and Baryon Experimental Research, will be the next-generation successor of the Laboratory’s <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/compass">COMPASS</a> experiment.</p> <p>COMPASS receives particle beams from CERN’s <a href="https://home.cern/about/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron</a> and directs them onto various targets to study how quarks and gluons form hadrons (such as protons, pions and kaons) and give these composite particles their distinctive properties. Using this approach, COMPASS has obtained many important results, including several results linked to the proton’s spin structure and a measurement of the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/compass-pinpoints-polarisability-pions">pion’s polarisability</a>; the polarisability of a hadron is the degree to which its constituent positive and negative electric charges can be separated in an electric field.</p> <p>AMBER will build on COMPASS’s legacy and take it to the next level. By upgrading existing COMPASS components and introducing new detectors and targets, as well as using state-of-the-art read-out technology, the team behind AMBER plans to take three kinds of measurements in the experiment’s first phase.</p> <p>First, by sending muons, heavier cousins of the electron, onto a hydrogen target, the AMBER team plans to determine with high precision the proton’s charge radius – the extent of the spatial distribution of the particle’s electric charge. This measurement would help resolve the proton radius puzzle, which emerged in 2010 when a new measurement of the proton radius was found to be substantially different from the previously accepted measurements.</p> <p>Second, by directing protons onto proton and helium-4 targets, AMBER will determine the little-known production rate of antiprotons, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/antimatter">antimatter</a> counterparts of protons, in these collisions. These measurements will improve the accuracy of predictions of the flux of antiprotons in <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/cosmic-rays-particles-outer-space">cosmic rays</a>, which are needed to interpret data from experiments searching for evidence of <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a> in the flux of antiproton cosmic rays.</p> <p>Third, by focusing pions on nuclear targets, AMBER will measure the momentum distributions of the quarks and gluons that form the pion. These measurements will cast light on the particle dynamics that holds the pion together and ultimately on the origin of the masses of hadrons, which is known technically as the emergence of hadron mass.</p> <p>Further insights into the emergence of hadron mass are anticipated from studies of the internal structure of kaons in the second phase (“phase-2”) of AMBER. These studies require the beamline that feeds COMPASS to be upgraded to deliver a charged-kaon beam of high energy and intensity.</p> <p>Combining AMBER’s pion and kaon results will lead to a better understanding of the interplay between nature’s two mass-generating mechanisms: the mechanism that gives hadrons their masses and the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/origins-brout-englert-higgs-mechanism">Higgs mechanism</a>, which endows massive elementary particles with mass.</p> <p>AMBER is expected to start taking data in 2022, after the completion of the last run of COMPASS in 2021–2022.</p> <p>_____</p> <p><em>Read more about COMPASS and AMBER in <a class="bulletin" href="https://ep-news.web.cern.ch/compass-amber-exploring-fundamental-properties-hadrons">this Experimental Physics newsletter article</a>.</em></p> </div> Fri, 05 Mar 2021 07:51:17 +0000 abelchio 156612 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: CERN’s oldest accelerator awakens https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-cerns-oldest-accelerator-awakens <span>LS2 Report: CERN’s oldest accelerator awakens</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Thomas Hortala</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/03/2021 - 14:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>“Synchrotron (PS) is the beating heart of CERN’s accelerator system. Situated at the centre of the complex, it feeds particle beams not only to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), but to many of CERN’s major facilities, including the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">Antimatter Factory</a> and the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-getting-ready-future-physics-east-area">East Area</a>.” Klaus Hanke, head of <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron">the Proton Synchrotron</a> operations team, chooses his words carefully to describe CERN’s oldest accelerator still in operation. On 4 March, the veteran accelerator received its first particle beam after a two-year shutdown, during which it underwent significant upgrades to prepare it for higher luminosity (an indicator of the number of collisions).</p> <p>Within CERN’s accelerator complex, protons extracted from a hydrogen gas source are accelerated in the brand new <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/linear-accelerator-4">Linac4</a> and in the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron-booster">PS Booster</a> before injection into the PS, which then feeds, either directly or indirectly, the vast majority of CERN’s accelerators and experiments. The new Linac4 and the upgraded PS Booster now provide the PS with a beam accelerated to up to 2 GeV, a 0.6 GeV increase compared to past beam. To ensure that the 60-year-old PS can withstand these higher energies, the accelerator ring has been fitted out with cutting-edge equipment in recent years, including <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-proton-synchrotrons-magnets-prepare-higher-energies">refurbished magnets</a>, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-innovation-stop-protons-their-tracks">new beam-dump systems</a> and <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-making-movie-ps-beam">beam instrumentation devices</a>, and upgraded radiofrequency and cooling systems.</p> <p>The injection of the first beam into the PS marks the end of more than ten years of research and development focused on this equipment as part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project. Months of dry test runs (without beam) and system checks ensured the success of this important milestone on the road to the broader reactivation of CERN’s accelerators. “The injection is not a rocket launch, we do not push a button and watch as the PS roars to full capacity. We inject protons gradually, tweaking settings and fixing things along the way until we reach a satisfactory energy level,” explains Klaus Hanke.  </p> <p>The injection of the first beam will be followed by a commissioning period of a few months to fine-tune the accelerator’s specs while the rest of CERN’s accelerator system gradually emerges from its two-year slumber. These machines, and the many experiments they are connected to, will benefit from the higher energy levels during the next experimental run starting next year: with higher energies come more focused, denser particle beams, which translates into more precision in experiment results. But it isn’t until the advent of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a> that the upgrades of the PS and the broader accelerator system will show their true potential: the sturdier and more efficient rings will be key in delivering a final luminosity in the LHC that is expected to be ten times higher than previously.</p> </div> Wed, 03 Mar 2021 13:48:35 +0000 thortala 156602 at https://home.cern