News for general public feed https://home.cern/cern-community/news/rss en ATLAS surveys new supersymmetry territory https://home.cern/news/news/physics/atlas-surveys-new-supersymmetry-territory <span>ATLAS surveys new supersymmetry territory</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 05/23/2019 - 16:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2655587" data-filename="IMG_3801" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-004-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-004-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="ATLAS Cavern - February 2019" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-004-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> A collection of images taken of the ATLAS detector during LS2. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Experiments have confirmed the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics time and again. But the model is incomplete. Among other features, it cannot explain <a href="/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a>, or the small mass of the <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a> or why the forces acting between particles do not unify at high energies. Give each particle a “superpartner”, however, and these three problems could disappear. If such superpartners, which are predicted by an extension of the Standard Model called supersymmetry, exist and are not too weighty, then they could turn up in data from proton collisions collected by experiments at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC).</p> <p>At the <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/687651/">Large Hadron Collider Physics</a> (LHCP) conference, taking place this week in Puebla, Mexico, the ATLAS collaboration reported new searches for three such superpartners around uncharted regions of particle masses.</p> <p>The Standard Model classifies particles as either fermions or bosons depending on a property known as spin, which can be thought of as the rotation of a system around its axis. The fermions, which make up matter, all have half of a unit of spin. The bosons, which carry forces, have 0, 1 or 2 units of spin.</p> <p><a href="/science/physics/supersymmetry">Supersymmetry</a> predicts that each fermion or boson in the Standard Model has a superpartner with a spin that differs by half of a unit. That is, bosons are accompanied by superpartner fermions and vice versa. So, for example, an electron has a superpartner called selectron and a Higgs boson has a superpartner called a Higgsino; superpartners of bosons get the suffix “ino” and those of fermions get the prefix “s”.<br />  <br /> In its latest supersymmetry studies, the ATLAS collaboration has sifted through the entire proton–proton collision data collected by the experiment during the LHC’s second run, which took place between 2015 and 2018, to look for signs of staus and higgsinos; staus are the superpartners of heavier versions of the electron called taus. Such superpartners are expected to be produced in very little amounts at the LHC and to be unstable, so the ATLAS team searched for them by tracking particles into which they can transform, or “decay”.</p> <p>In the search for staus, ATLAS looked for pairs of staus each decaying into a tau and a hypothetical “lightest supersymmetric particle”, which would be invisible and a possible candidate for dark matter. Each tau further decays into composite particles called hadrons and an invisible neutrino. The invisible particles are detected by identifying missing momentum in the collisions: if the combined momentum of the particles that are produced in a proton–proton collision does not match the momentum of the two protons in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the proton beams, it is deduced that an invisible particle carried away the missing momentum.</p> <p>The collaboration explored an unprecedented range of possible masses for the stau, but did not see any signs of this superpartner in the data. However, it was able to place the tightest limits yet on the stau mass.</p> <p>Meanwhile, the higgsinos search focused on higgsinos transforming into pairs of electrons or muons with very low momenta; like the taus, muons are also heavier versions of the electron. Such low-momenta particles are very hard to catch, but the collaboration was able to expand this search to the lowest-yet measured muon momenta for ATLAS. Just like for the staus search, this search did not reveal any signs of higgsinos, but the results led to stronger limits on their mass than those previously obtained by ATLAS and by the LHC’s predecessor the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-electron-positron-collider">Large Electron–Positron collider</a>.</p> <p>For more information about these studies and the mass limits obtained, see the <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/physics-briefing/searching-electroweak-susy">ATLAS website</a>.</p> </div> Thu, 23 May 2019 14:04:40 +0000 abelchio 10932 at https://home.cern ATTRACT distingue 170 projets d’innovation https://home.cern/fr/news/news/knowledge-sharing/attract-funding-awarded-170-breakthrough-projects <span>ATTRACT funding is awarded to 170 breakthrough projects</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Tue, 05/21/2019 - 15:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Europe of innovation gathered last week at CERN. The leaders of the <a href="https://attract-eu.com/">ATTRACT</a><sup>1</sup> initiative announced in CERN’s Main Auditorium the 170 breakthrough projects that will receive funding. The ATTRACT project, which is part of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme, finances breakthrough ideas in the fields of detection and imaging. The selection committee had to choose from 1200 proposals from scientists and entrepreneurs in Europe and beyond. “The 170 breakthrough ideas were selected based on a combination of scientific merit, innovation readiness and potential societal impact,” explains Sergio Bertolucci, chair of ATTRACT’s Independent R&amp;D&amp;I Committee. The selection committee gave priority to projects pledging to share their results in an open-innovation philosophy in line with the open-science policy promoted by CERN and its partners.</p> <p>CERN scientists are involved in 19 of these projects. From magnets and cryogenics to electronics and informatics, many CERN teams and technologies were represented. The Laboratory’s scientists were able to showcase their unparalleled expertise in the detection of the infinitesimal and in extreme environment technologies. Several of the selected projects involve the design of sensors or signal-transmission systems that operate at very low temperatures or in the presence of radiation. Many of the 19 projects target applications in the fields of medical imaging and treatment or in the aerospace sector. Others seek industrial applications, such as the high-tech 3D printing of systems equipped with sensors, the inspection of operating cryostats or applications in environmental monitoring.</p> <p>For the 170 winners, the clock now starts ticking again. They have one year to develop their ideas in the form of products or services, using the initial 100 k€ grant they will each receive, together with the support of innovation and business experts. The results will be presented in Brussels in autumn 2020 and the most promising projects will receive further funding.</p> <p>More information on the selected projects can be found in the <a href="https://attract-eu.com/170-projects-disruptive-solutions-societal-challenges/">press release</a> from ATTRACT.</p> <hr /><p>1- The ATTRACT initiative involves CERN, EMBL, ESO, ESRF, the European XFEL, ILL, Aalto University, the EIRMA association and ESADE. It is led by CERN and funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme under grant agreement No 777222.</p> <p> </p> </div> Tue, 21 May 2019 09:52:04 +0000 cmenard 10895 at https://home.cern Lock the Planck: the kilogram has a new definition https://home.cern/news/news/engineering/lock-planck-kilogram-has-new-definition <span>Lock the Planck: the kilogram has a new definition</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Mon, 05/20/2019 - 14:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2675218" data-filename="BWMII_0160" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-049-01"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-049-01" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="METAS Kibble balance (BWM II)" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-049-01/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> The Kibble balance (a.k.a. watt balance) built by the Swiss Federal Institute of Metrology (METAS) to measure the Planck constant with ultra-high precision <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Until today, a kilogram was defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK), a platinum–iridium cylinder located in Paris, France. While all the other <a href="https://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/">base units of the International System of Units (SI)</a> had been redefined over the years based on fundamental constants of nature or atomic properties, the kilogram had remained since the late 19th century the only one to rely on a human-made artefact.</p> <p>This changes today, and metrologists – those who study measurement – are excited. On the occasion of World Metrology Day, which commemorates the signing of the Metre Convention back in 1875, the kilogram has been given a new definition. From now on, it will be defined based on the most precise measurement ever made of the Planck constant, which can be expressed in terms of the SI units kilogram, metre and second. Since the latter two units are already defined by constants of nature, the value of a kilogram can be obtained without relying on comparing it with a physical reference block.</p> <p>But measuring the Planck constant to a suitably high precision of ten parts per billion required decades of work by international teams across continents, and CERN played a small part in the endeavour.</p> <p>In 1975, British physicist Bryan Kibble proposed a device, then known as a watt balance and now called the Kibble balance in his honour, which would allow the Planck constant to be measured precisely based on the IPK. Once the precision was achieved, the Planck constant’s value could be fixed and the definitions inverted, removing the kilogram’s dependence on the IPK. Several Kibble balances around the world were constructed to compare measurements, including one in Switzerland. METAS, the Swiss Federal Institute of Metrology, has been working on their Kibble balance project for almost two decades, the activity being led by Ali Eichenberger and Henri Baumann. Knowing CERN’s expertise in magnet systems, Eichenberger and Baumann <a href="/news/news/engineering/taking-measure-kilogram">reached out to the Laboratory to help prepare the required magnets</a>.</p> <p>“I am extremely proud to have participated in this adventure,” says Davide Tommasini from CERN’s <a href="http://te-dep.web.cern.ch/content/magnets-superconductors-and-cryostats-msc">Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostats group</a>, who was directly involved in the project. “I do not know if the redefinition of the kilogram has a direct impact on the experiments at CERN, but the past teaches us that there are many new advancements which, at their initial moment, may not appear in their whole potential.”</p> <p>In 2018, the Kibble balance in Canada measured the Planck constant with necessary ultrahigh precision, allowing a combination of measurements from around the world to help fix its value. But does it affect the value of the kilogram itself? Not really. “The Plank constant has been fixed at 6.626070150 × 10<sup>−34</sup> kg⋅m<sup>2</sup>/s using the IPK as standard,” explains Eichenberger. “So from today, one kilogram will stay the same. If the IPK drifts further with time then its value will change, but any mass calibration will have an uncertainty of the order of 20 parts per billion.”</p> <p>So while it is a momentous occasion worthy of celebration, you won’t have to recalibrate your bathroom scales just yet.</p> </div> Mon, 20 May 2019 12:01:12 +0000 achintya 10890 at https://home.cern In Granada, the European particle physics community prepares decisions for the future of the field https://home.cern/news/press-release/knowledge-sharing/granada-european-particle-physics-community-prepares-decisions <span>In Granada, the European particle physics community prepares decisions for the future of the field</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/199" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abha</span></span> <span>Mon, 05/13/2019 - 09:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2019-05/Picture1.png" width="1047" height="679" alt="Image for European Strategy for Particle Physics" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">(Image: CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Geneva and Granada. The European particle physics community is meeting this week in Granada, Spain, to discuss the roadmap for the future of the discipline. The aim of the symposium is to define scientific priorities and technological approaches for the coming years and to consider plans for the medium- and long-term future. An important focus of the discussions will be assessing the various options for the period beyond the lifespan of the Large Hadron Collider.</p> <p>“The Granada symposium is an important step in the process of updating the <a href="https://europeanstrategy.cern/european-strategy-for-particle-physics">European Strategy for Particle Physics</a>¹ and aims to prioritise our scientific goals and prepare for the upcoming generation of facilities and experiments,” said the President of the CERN Council, Ursula Bassler. “The discussions will focus on the scientific reach of potential new projects, the associated technological challenges and the resources required.”</p> <p>The European Strategy Group, which was established to coordinate the update process, has received 160 contributions from the scientific community setting out their views on possible future projects and experiments. The symposium in Granada will provide an opportunity to assess and discuss them.</p> <p>“The intent is to make sure that we have a good understanding of the science priorities of the community and of all the options for realising them,” said the Chair of the European Strategy Group, Professor Halina Abramowicz. “This will ensure that the European Strategy Group is well informed when deciding about the strategy update.”</p> <p>The previous update of the European Strategy, approved in May 2013, recommended that design and feasibility studies be conducted in order for Europe “to be in a position to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project”. Over the last few years, in collaboration with partners from around the world, Europe has therefore been engaging in Research and Development and design projects for a range of ambitious post-LHC facilities under the <a href="https://clic.cern/">CLIC</a> and <a href="https://fcc.web.cern.ch/Pages/default.aspx">FCC</a> umbrellas. A study to investigate the potential to build projects that are complementary to high-energy colliders, exploiting the opportunities offered by CERN’s unique accelerator complex, was also launched by CERN in 2016. These contributions will feed into the discussion, which will also take into account the worldwide particle physics landscape and developments in related fields.</p> <p>“At least two decades will be needed to design and build a new collider to succeed the LHC. Such a machine should maximise the potential for new discoveries and enable major steps forward in our understanding of fundamental physics,” said CERN Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti. “It is not too early to start planning for it as it will take time to develop the new technologies needed for its implementation.”</p> <p>The Granada symposium will be followed up with the compilation of a “briefing book” and with a Strategy Drafting Session, which will take place in Bad Honnef, Germany, from 20 to 24 January 2020. The update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics is due to be completed and approved by the CERN Council in May 2020.</p> <p>An online Question-and-Answer session will be held on Thursday, 16 May at 4 p.m. CEST</p> <p>Reporters interested in participating are invited to register by sending an e-mail to <a href="mailto:press.office@cern.ch">press@cern.ch</a></p> <p>More information:<br /><a href="https://europeanstrategy.cern">https://europeanstrategy.cern</a></p> <hr /><p>¹ The European Strategy for Particle Physics is the cornerstone of Europe’s decision-making process for the long-term future of the field. In accordance with the mandate set by the CERN Council, it is formed through broad consultation of the grass-roots particle physics community, actively solicits the opinions of physicists from around the world and is developed in close coordination with similar processes in the US and Japan in order to ensure coordination between regions and optimal use of global resources.</p> </div> Mon, 13 May 2019 07:48:07 +0000 abha 10849 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: consolidating the energy extraction systems of LHC superconducting magnet circuits https://home.cern/news/news/engineering/ls2-report-consolidating-energy-extraction-systems-lhc-superconducting-magnet <span>LS2 Report: consolidating the energy extraction systems of LHC superconducting magnet circuits </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Anaïs Schaeffer</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 05/14/2019 - 12:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In the LHC, 1232 superconducting dipole magnets and 392 quadrupole magnets guide and focus the beams around the accelerator’s 27-kilometre ring, which is divided into eight sectors. These magnets operate at very low temperatures – 1.9 K or −271.3 °C – where even a tiny amount of energy released inside a magnet can warm its windings to above the critical temperature, causing the loss of superconductivity: this is called a quench. When this happens, the energy stored in the affected magnet has to be safely extracted in a short time to avoid damage to the magnet coil.</p> <p>To do so, two protection elements are activated: at the level of the quenching magnet, a diode diverts the current into a parallel by-pass circuit in less than a second; at the level of the circuit, 13 kA energy extraction systems absorb the energy of the whole magnet circuit in a few minutes. There are equivalent extraction systems installed for about 200 corrector circuits with currents up to 600 A.</p> <p>“In the framework of a long-lasting and fruitful collaboration between CERN and the Russian Federation, energy extraction systems for quench protection of the LHC superconducting magnets were designed in close partnership with two Russian institutes, the NRC Kurchatov-IHEP Institute in Protvino for the 13 kA systems and the Budker Institute in Novosibirsk for the 600 A systems. Russian industry was involved in the manufacturing of the parts of these systems,” explains Félix Rodríguez Mateos, leader of the Electrical Engineering (EE) section in the Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity (MPE) group of CERN’s Technology department.</p> <p>With a wealth of expertise and know-how, the Russian teams have continuously provided invaluable support to the MPE group. “Our Russian colleagues come to CERN for every year-end technical stop (YETS) and long shutdown to help us perform preventive maintenance and upgrade activities on the energy extraction systems,” says Rodríguez Mateos.</p> <p>During LS2, an extensive maintenance campaign is being performed on the 13 kA systems, which already count 10 years of successful operation in the LHC. “We are currently replacing an element, the arcing contact, in each one of the 256 electromechanical switches of the energy extraction systems to ensure their continuous reliable operation throughout the next runs,” adds Rodríguez Mateos. “In February, we fully replaced 32 switches at Point 8 of the accelerator in anticipation of consolidation for the future HL-LHC.”</p> <p>During LS2, the Electrical Engineering section is involved in many other activities that will be the subject of future articles.</p> </div> Tue, 14 May 2019 10:48:24 +0000 anschaef 10859 at https://home.cern CERN's flagship travelling exhibition goes to India https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/cerns-flagship-travelling-exhibition-goes-india <span>CERN&#039;s flagship travelling exhibition goes to India</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Rolf Landua</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Mon, 05/06/2019 - 17:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2673612" data-filename="Visitors%20POD%202_image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-046-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-046-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Visitors attending the 'Accelerating Science' exhibition when it travelled to Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark science museum in 2011" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-046-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Visitors attending the 'Accelerating Science' exhibition when it travelled to Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark science museum in 2011 <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>With India having become an Associate Member State in 2017 following the long-standing collaboration between Indian scientists and CERN, it is high time for CERN's flagship travelling exhibition 'Accelerating Science' to tour India. The exhibition will be inaugurated today at a science museum in Mumbai and will later head to museums in Bengaluru and Kolkata.</p> <p>The 300-square-metre exhibition uses animations, videos and interactive media to inspire the general public, particularly high-school and college students, with the wonders of fundamental science and technology. Its main themes are cosmology, particle physics and CERN's research activities. The exhibition also shows how fundamental research often leads to technological advances that we take for granted in our daily life.</p> <p>The exhibition is hosted and funded by India’s Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), and is being shown at three museums that are members of the country’s National Council of Science Museums: the Nehru Science Centre in Mumbai between May and July, the Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museum in Bengaluru from July to September, and the Science City in Kolkata from November to December.</p> <p>Other mega-science projects in which India participates will be showcased alongside the CERN exhibition, such as the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the Square Kilometre Array telescope (SKA), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). In addition to the main exhibition, there will also be seminars, interactions with scientists and industry events.</p> <p>The ongoing production of a clone of ‘Accelerating Science’ will allow the exhibition to take place simultaneously at a second location. Since Estonia applied for CERN membership in September 2018, the second travelling exhibition will visit the AHHAA Science Centre, the Baltic's biggest science centre in Tartu, Estonia, for several months from November 2019 to March 2020. Several countries are eager to host the exhibition afterwards, but the exact itinerary is still being discussed.</p> <p>An attractive but smaller alternative in CERN's exhibition portfolio is the 'LHC interactive tunnel' (LIT). This exhibition features the popular 'Proton Football’ game, which invites visitors to play football with protons, and an interactive game showing how proton therapy works. The LIT has already been shown at the Liverpool Arena and Convention Centre (also featuring the <a class="bulletin" href="/science/accelerators/future-circular-collider">Future Circular Collider</a> project) in March and April, and will travel to Lefkosia, Cyprus, in late May, and Rust, Germany, in October.</p> </div> Mon, 06 May 2019 15:01:22 +0000 abelchio 10815 at https://home.cern Successful tests of a cooler way to transport electricity https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/successful-tests-cooler-way-transport-electricity <span>Successful tests of a cooler way to transport electricity</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Camille Monnin</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/7476" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">camonnin</span></span> <span>Thu, 04/18/2019 - 14:52</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Like a metal python, the huge pipe snaking through a CERN high-tech hall is actually a new electrical transmission line. This superconducting line is the first of its kind and allows vast quantities of electrical current to be transported within a pipe of a relatively small diameter. Similar pipes could well be used in towns in the future.</p> <p>This 60-metre-long line has been developed for CERN’s future accelerator, the High-Luminosity LHC, which is due to come into operation in 2026. Tests began last year and the line has transported 40 000 amps. This is 20 times more than what is possible at room temperature with ordinary copper cables of a similar cross-section. The line is composed of superconducting cables made from magnesium diboride (MgB<sub>2</sub>) and offers no resistance, enabling it to transport much higher current densities than ordinary cables, without any loss. The snag is that, in order to function in a superconducting state, the cables must be cooled to a temperature of 25 K (-248°C). It is therefore placed inside a cryostat, a thermally insulated pipe in which a coolant, namely helium gas, circulates. The real achievements are the development of a new, flexible superconducting system and the use of a new superconductor (MgB<sub>2</sub>). “The line is more compact and lighter than its copper equivalent, and it is cryogenically more efficient than a classical low temperature superconducting link that must be cooled to 4.5 K”, says Amalia Ballarino, the project leader. </p> <p>Having proven that such a system is feasible, at the end of March the team tested the connection to the room temperature end of the system. In the High-Luminosity LHC, these lines will connect power converters to the magnets. These converters are located at a certain distance from the accelerator. The new superconducting transmission lines, which measure up to 140 m in length, will feed several circuits and transport electrical current of up to 100 000 amps.</p> <p>“The magnesium diboride cable and the current leads that supply the magnets are connected by means of high-temperature ReBCO (rare-earth barium copper oxide) superconductors, also a challenging innovation for this type of application,” explains Amalia Ballarino.  These superconductors are called “high-temperature” because they can operate at temperatures of up to around 90 kelvins (-183 °C), as opposed to just a few kelvins in the case of classical low-temperature superconductors. They can transport very high current densities, but are very tricky to work with, hence the impressiveness of the team’s achievement.</p> <p>Tests of the line with its new connection represent an important milestone in the project, as it proves that the whole system works correctly. “We have new materials, a new cooling system and unprecedented technologies for supplying the magnets in an innovative way,” says Amalia Ballarino. </p> <p>The project has also caught the attention of the outside world. Companies are using the work done at CERN to study the possibility of using similar transmission lines (at high voltage), instead of conventional systems, to transport electricity and power over long distances. </p> <p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="400" src="https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/surBsH3xO1U"></iframe></p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" scrolling="no" src="https://cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201904-080/export?format=sspp&amp;ln=fr&amp;captions=true" width="480"></iframe></p> </div> Thu, 18 Apr 2019 12:52:51 +0000 camonnin 10681 at https://home.cern Serbian flag raised at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/cern/serbian-flag-raised-cern <span>Serbian flag raised at CERN</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Abha Eli Phoboo</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Tue, 04/23/2019 - 09:49</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Serbian flag was raised today at a ceremony on the <em>Esplanade des Particules</em> to mark <a href="/news/press-release/cern/serbia-joins-cern-its-23rd-member-state">the country’s accession as CERN’s 23rd Member State</a>. The ceremony was attended by the Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia, Ana Brnabić, the President of the CERN Council, Ursula Bassler, and the CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, together with representatives of <a href="/about/who-we-are/our-governance/member-states">CERN’s Member and Associate Member States</a> and the CERN community.</p> <p>“The 23<sup>rd</sup> of April is a great day for Serbia and its science, as the flag of the Republic of Serbia is officially hoisted in front of CERN in Geneva, marking Serbia’s accession as its 23<sup>rd</sup> full Member. This will allow our researchers to work in higher capacity and on a global level with their colleagues from CERN, while enabling our economy to participate in CERN projects on a larger scale. Membership in CERN presents Serbia in the best light, as a modern, competitive country whose economic development increasingly relies on science and innovation, driven by our young scientists and innovators,” said Ana Brnabić, Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia.</p> <p> “This is the moment when the commitment of a new Member State becomes visible: the commitment to support fundamental science, to foster peaceful collaboration and to engage in multilateral initiatives for the benefit of all. We are pleased to raise the Serbian flag among those of our Member States,” said Ursula Bassler, President of the CERN Council.</p> <p>“It is a great pleasure to welcome Serbia to the CERN family. This day recognises the long history of <a href="https://international-relations.web.cern.ch/stakeholder-relations/states/serbia">fruitful scientific cooperation between Serbia</a> and CERN, and Serbia’s commitment to fundamental research. We look forward to strengthening our collaboration in particle physics, innovation, and training and education of the young generations, with Serbia as a Member State,” said Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General.</p> </div> Tue, 23 Apr 2019 07:49:53 +0000 cmenard 10689 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: before the return of the cold https://home.cern/news/news/engineering/ls2-report-return-cold <span>LS2 Report: before the return of the cold</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Anaïs Schaeffer</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 04/30/2019 - 09:41</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Since the start of January, the liquid helium flowing through the veins of the LHC’s cooling system has gradually been removed from the accelerator and, one by one, the eight sectors of the LHC have been brought back to room temperature. “It takes about four weeks to bring a single sector from its nominal temperature of 1.9 K (-271°C) back to room temperature,” explains Krzysztof Brodzinski, an engineer working on the operation of the LHC’s cryogenic system. At least 135 tonnes of helium are required to supply the whole of the LHC’s cryogenic system. Once it has been brought up to the surface, some of this precious cooling agent is stored at CERN and the remainder (about 80 tonnes) is entrusted to the suppliers for the duration of LS2.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-043-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-043-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-043-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>Schedule for warming up all the LHC sectors for LS2<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The 70 helium compressors are the first links in the LHC’s cryogenic chain. They compress the helium, which is then cooled through expansion in the turbines of the cold boxes. During LS2, all the compressors will be sent away for a full service, mostly to two specialist centres, in Germany and Sweden. “Each of the 70 compressors must be taken apart and then reassembled, in order to check the condition of all parts and make replacements if necessary,” explains Gérard Ferlin, leader of the Operations section in the Cryogenics group. “The 70 electric motors that power the compressors will be sent to Italy to be serviced.”</p> <p>As for the cold compressors used to lower the temperature of the helium from 4.5 K to 1.9 K, they’re off to Japan. Six of them (of the 28 in the accelerator) showed signs of weakness after the last four years of LHC running and need to be worked on by specialists.</p> <p>Of course, here at CERN too, the Cryogenics group has a lot on its plate: over 4000 preventive and corrective maintenance operations are planned between now and mid-2020, when cooling of the first sectors of the LHC will start all over again! “Many maintenance operations have been planned for a long time, particularly on the LHC’s eight cold boxes (one per sector). The sensors, thermometers, valves, turbines, filters, etc. will be checked and validated or replaced,” explains Gérard Ferlin. “We will also use the opportunity of LS2 to do some advance upgrades of one of the cold boxes with a view to increasing its power ready for the HL-LHC.”</p> <p>Throughout LS2, the instrumentation team in the Cryogenics group will also support the DISMAC (Diode Insulation and Superconducting Magnets Consolidation – an article on this subject is coming soon) project team, particularly for the validation of the instrumentation of the cryogenic system. This is especially important given that certain magnets are being replaced and new diagnostic instrumentation is being installed on a pre-determined selection of beam screens.</p> </div> Tue, 30 Apr 2019 07:41:01 +0000 anschaef 10775 at https://home.cern CERN unveils its Science Gateway project https://home.cern/news/press-release/knowledge-sharing/cern-unveils-its-science-gateway-project <span>CERN unveils its Science Gateway project</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/08/2019 - 09:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Artistic view of the Science Gateway. (Image: RPBW)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><a href="/about/who-we-are">CERN</a> is launching the <a href="https://cern.ch/sciencegateway">Science Gateway</a>, a new scientific education and outreach centre targeting the general public of all ages. The building will be designed by world-renowned architects, Renzo Piano Building Workshop. The project will be funded through external donations, with the leading contribution coming from FCA Foundation, a charitable foundation created by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Construction is planned to start in 2020 and to be completed in 2022.</p> <p>As part of its mission to educate and engage the public in science, and to <a href="/about/what-we-do/our-impact">share knowledge and technology with society</a>, CERN is launching the Science Gateway, a new facility for scientific education and outreach. The purpose of the project is to create a hub of scientific education and culture to inspire younger generations with the beauty of science. Aimed at engaging audiences of all ages, the Science Gateway will include inspirational exhibition spaces, laboratories for hands-on scientific experiments for children and students from primary to high-school level, and a large amphitheatre to host science events for experts and non-experts alike.</p> <p>With a footprint of 7000 square metres, the iconic Science Gateway building will offer a variety of spaces and activities, including exhibitions explaining the <a href="/science/physics">secrets of nature</a>, from the very small (elementary particles) to the very large (the structure and evolution of the universe). The exhibitions will also feature CERN’s <a href="/science/accelerators">accelerators</a>, <a href="/science/experiments">experiments</a> and <a href="/science/computing">computing</a>, how scientists use them in their exploration and how CERN technologies benefit society. Hands-on experimentation will be a key ingredient in the Science Gateway’s educational programme, allowing visitors to get first-hand experience of what it’s like to be a scientist. The immersive activities available in the Science Gateway will foster critical thinking, evidence-based assessment and use of the scientific method, important tools in all walks of life.</p> <p>“The Science Gateway will enable CERN to expand significantly its education and outreach offering for the general public, in particular the younger generations. We will be able to share with everybody the fascination of exploring and learning how matter and the universe work, the advanced technologies we need to develop in order to build our ambitious instruments and their impact on society, and how science can influence our daily life,” says CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. “I am deeply grateful to the donors for their crucial support in the fulfilment of this beautiful project.”</p> <p>The overall cost of the Science Gateway is estimated at 79 million Swiss Francs, entirely funded through donations. As of today, 57 million Swiss Francs have been already secured, allowing construction to start on schedule, thanks in particular to a very generous contribution of 45 million Swiss Francs from the FCA Foundation, which will support the project as it advances through the construction phases.</p> <p>Other donors include a private foundation in Geneva and <em>Loterie Romande</em>, which distributes its profits to public utility projects in various areas including research, culture and social welfare. CERN is looking for additional donations in order to cover the full cost of the project.</p> <p>John Elkann, Chairman of FCA and the FCA Foundation, said: “The new Science Gateway will satisfy the curiosity of 300 000 visitors every year – including many researchers and students, but also children and their families – providing them with access to tools that will help them understand the world and improve their lives, whatever career paths they eventually choose. At FCA we’re delighted to be supporting this project as part of our social responsibility which also allows us to honour the memory of Sergio Marchionne: in an open and stimulating setting, it will teach us how we can work successfully together, even though we may have diverse cultures and perspectives, to discover the answers to today’s big questions and to those of tomorrow.”</p> <p>As part of the educational portfolio of the Science Gateway, CERN and FCA Foundation will develop a programme for schools, with the advice of Fondazione Agnelli. The main goal will be to transmit concepts of science and technology in an engaging way, in order to encourage students to pursue careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics).</p> <p>According to the approach of enquiry-based learning, students will be involved in hands-on educational modules and experiments in physics. Special kits will be delivered to classes, containing all necessary materials and instructions to run modules throughout the school year. As a follow-up, classes will be invited to take part in a contest, with the winners awarded a two- or three-day visit to the Science Gateway and CERN. There will be an initial period of experimentation, with a pilot programme in Italy focusing on junior high schools and involving up to 550 000 students. After the pilot, CERN plans to extend this initiative to all its <a href="/about/who-we-are/our-governance/member-states">Member States</a>.</p> <p>The Science Gateway will be hosted in a new, iconic building, designed by world-renowned architects Renzo Piano Building Workshop, on CERN’s Meyrin site adjacent to another of CERN’s iconic buildings, the <a href="https://visit.cern/globe">Globe of Science and Innovation</a>. The vision for the Science Gateway is inspired by the fragmentation and curiosity already intrinsic to the nature of the CERN site and buildings, so it is made up of multiple elements, embedded in a green forest and interconnected by a bridge spanning the main road leading to Geneva. “It’s a place where people will meet,” says Renzo Piano. “Kids, students, adults, teachers and scientists, everybody attracted by the exploration of the Universe, from the infinitely vast to the infinitely small. It is a bridge, in the metaphorical and real sense, and a building fed by the energy of the sun, nestling in the midst of a newly grown forest.”</p> <p>Also inspired by CERN’s unique facilities, such as the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a>, the world’s largest particle accelerator, the architecture of the Science Gateway celebrates the inventiveness and creativity that characterise the world of research and engineering. Architectural elements such as tubes that seem to be suspended in space evoke the cutting-edge technology underpinning the most advanced research that is furthering our understanding of the origins of the universe.</p> <p>A bridge over the Route de Meyrin will dominate the <a href="/news/press-release/cern/esplanade-des-particules-cerns-new-official-address">brand-new Esplanade des Particules</a> and symbolise the inseparable link between science and society. Construction is planned to start in 2020 and be completed in 2022.</p> <p><strong>About FCA Foundation</strong><br /> The FCA Foundation, the charitable arm of FCA, supports charitable organizations and initiatives that help empower people, build strong, resilient communities and generate meaningful and measurable societal impacts particularly in the field of education.</p> <p><strong>About FCA</strong><br /> Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) is a global automaker that designs, engineers, manufactures and sells vehicles in a portfolio of brands including Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, Fiat, Fiat Professional, Jeep®, Lancia, Ram and Maserati. It also sells parts and services under the Mopar name and operates in the components and production systems sectors under the Comau and Teksid brands. FCA employs nearly 200 000 people around the globe. For more information regarding FCA, please visit <a href="http://www.fcagroup.com/">www.fcagroup.com</a>.</p> <p><strong>About RPBW</strong><br /> The Renzo Piano Building Workshop (RPBW) was established in 1981 by Renzo Piano with offices in Genoa, Italy and Paris, France. The practice has since expanded and now also operates from New York.</p> <p>RPBW is led by ten partners, including founder and Pritzker Prize laureate, architect Renzo Piano. The practice permanently employs about 130 architects together with a further 30 support staff including 3D-visualisation artists, model makers, archivers, administrative and secretarial staff.<br /> RPBW has successfully undertaken and completed over 140 projects around the world.</p> <p>Currently, among the main projects in progress are: the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles; the École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay; and the GES 2 Center for the Arts in Moscow.</p> <p>Major projects already completed include: the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris; the Kanak Cultural Center in Nouméa, New Caledonia; the Beyeler Foundation Museum in Basel; the New York Times Building in New York; the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco; the Chicago Art Institute expansion in Chicago, Illinois; The Shard in London; Columbia University’s Manhattanville development project in New York City; the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York; the Valletta City Gate in Malta; the Stavros Niarchos Cultural Center in Athens; the New Paris Courthouse and others throughout the world.</p> <p>Exhibitions of Renzo Piano and RPBW’s works have been held in many cities worldwide, including at the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 2018.<br /> The Science Gateway involves Renzo Piano Building Workshop, architects, in collaboration with Brodbeck Roulet Architectes Associés (Geneva)<br /> Design team: A.Belvedere, L.Piazza (partner and associate in charge)<br /> Consultants: Arup / EDMS (structure); Transsolar (sustainability); SRG (MEP); Müller BBM (acoustics); Emmer Pfenninger (façades); Changement à vue (A/V, heater equipment); Arup (lighting); Charpente Concept (fire prevention); Atelier Descombes Rampini (landscaping)</p> <p><strong>About Fondazione Agnelli</strong><br /> The Fondazione Agnelli is an independent, non-profit research organisation in the fields of human and social sciences, established in 1966 and named after founder of Fiat, the Senator Giovanni Agnelli. Its mission is <em>“to further understanding of change in contemporary society in Italy and in Europe”.</em> Since 2008 the Fondazione’s focus is on education, as a powerful lever for an individual’s fulfilment, an important channel of social mobility, and a key factor for a country’s economic growth and social cohesiveness. It runs wide ranging studies to improve the Italian education system, works with schools to renew the teaching methodologies, and helps families in the school choice. <a href="http://www.fondazioneagnelli.it">www.fondazioneagnelli.it</a></p> </div> Mon, 08 Apr 2019 07:17:10 +0000 cmenard 10622 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: SPS receives major facelift for new beam dump https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-sps-receives-major-facelift-new-beam-dump <span>LS2 Report: SPS receives major facelift for new beam dump</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Tue, 04/09/2019 - 11:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2670718" data-filename="_DSC3704" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-037-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-037-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="The new SPS beam dump and the cavern in which it will be placed" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-037-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> The SPS will receive a new beam dump after LS2, placed in the old cavern of the UA1 experiment. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The <a href="/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)</a> is undergoing an overdue overhaul. Its beam dump, which was previously at point 1 of the SPS, will be replaced by a new one located across the ring at SPS point 5. The new beam dump being constructed requires extensive civil-engineering work to house and operate it, which is one of the primary tasks for the SPS team during the <a href="/tags/long-shutdown-2">second long shutdown</a> (LS2) of <a href="/science/accelerators/accelerator-complex">CERN’s accelerator complex</a>.</p> <p>When a beam of protons or heavy ions accelerating through the SPS needs to be brought to a stop, it is redirected into a beam dump that absorbs the particle beam, terminating its flight. “We need a bigger dump for the SPS due to the higher energies of circulating particles following the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project,” explains Jonathan Meignan, who is coordinating the project to replace the SPS beam dump. After scouting for a suitable location, it was decided to install the new beam dump at an opposite point in the SPS ring, where there is sufficient space for the dump and the additional infrastructure it needs.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-037-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-037-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Accelerators" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-037-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>Jonathan Meignan in front of part of the shielding for the new SPS beam dump<span> (Image: Achintya Rao/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The task is however a difficult one, involving several related works. The underground cavern that will house the new beam dump, known as ECX5, was the location of the erstwhile <a href="/science/experiments/ua1">UA1 detector</a>, which discovered the <a href="/science/physics/w-boson-sunshine-and-stardust">W</a> and <a href="/science/physics/z-boson">Z</a> bosons in 1983 when the SPS was operated as a proton–antiproton collider. It will need to be drastically modified to incorporate the services needed for the modifications to the SPS. For example, the transport zone next to the SPS tubes, which is used by both personnel and equipment, will have to be rerouted so it skirts the voluminous beam dump and its large shielding. The SPS tunnel will therefore undergo digging to widen a section of it by about one metre to accommodate the new shape of the transport zone.</p> <p>Kicker magnets, which are responsible for deflecting the travelling particles into the dump-bound trajectories, have to be installed in Long Straight Section 5 of the SPS leading up to the beam dump. “To prepare for this installation, the beamlines within LSS5 had to be completely removed,” remarks Meignan. Simultaneously with this removal, an intense decabling campaign was conducted to free space for the new cables. More than 135 km of obsolete cables were removed, notes Meignan. New cables, including high-voltage cables for the kickers, have been installed, snaking all the way from LSS5 to the service cavern adjacent to ECX5, where their instrumentation and control systems will be located.</p> <p>The crane suspended from the roof of ECX5, which can be used to move the large blocks making up the beam dump, has been upgraded as well. “The crane was fitted with cameras during the last year-end technical stop,” says Meignan, “and equipped for remote control from the service cavern, to minimise the radiation exposure of the operators.”</p> <p>As of early April, ECX5 has been isolated from the rest of the SPS to conduct these civil-engineering activities, which are expected to be finished in December. At the same time, the dump and its shielding, which is made of steel, concrete and marble surrounding the inner core, is being assembled on the surface above its future home. In the new year, the beamline will be reconnected and the dump will be installed before being commissioned.</p> <p>We will return to the SPS and its many LS2 activities in a future report.</p> </div> Tue, 09 Apr 2019 09:46:57 +0000 achintya 10634 at https://home.cern Moriond 2019 feels the strong force https://home.cern/news/news/physics/moriond-2019-feels-strong-force <span>Moriond 2019 feels the strong force</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/145" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">melissa</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/01/2019 - 18:02</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2669914" data-filename="BPH-18-007_v1" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Moriond feels the strong force - News Update" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Last week, physicists from all over the world gathered in La Thuile, Italy, for the second week of the <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><i><a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">Rencontres de Moriond</a></i></span></span> conference. This second week of the annual meeting features new and recent findings in all things related to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) – the theory of the strong force that combines quarks into composite particles called hadrons – and to high-energy particle interactions. This year, results from the main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) included new pentaquarks, new charmed beauty particles, a more precise measurement of matter–antimatter asymmetry in strange beauty particles, and new results from heavy-ion collisions.</p> <p><b>Discovery of new pentaquarks</b></p> <p>The LHCb collaboration announced the discovery of new five-quark hadrons, or “pentaquarks”. Quarks normally aggregate into groups of twos and threes, but in recent years the LHCb team has confirmed the existence of exotic tetraquarks and pentaquarks, which are also predicted by QCD. In a 2015 study, the LHCb researchers analysed data from the decay of the three-quark particle Λ<sub>b</sub> into a J/ψ particle, a proton and a charged kaon and were able to see two new pentaquarks (dubbed P<sub>c</sub>(4450)<sup>+</sup> and P<sub>c</sub>(4380)<sup>+</sup>) in intermediate decay states. After analysing a sample of nine times more Λ<sub>b</sub> decays than in the 2015 study, the LHCb team has now <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/Welcome.html#Pentaq" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">discovered</a></span></span> a new pentaquark, P<sub>c</sub>(4312)<sup>+</sup> as well as a two-peak pattern in the data that shows that the previously observed  P<sub>c</sub>(4450)<sup>+</sup> structure is in fact two particles.</p> <p> </p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-02"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-02" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Diagrams and Charts" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-02/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>A Bs candidate decaying to a J/psi and a phi, where the J/psi decays to two opposite-charge muons (red lines) and the phi decays to two opposite-charge kaons (blue). The event was recorded by ATLAS on 16 August 2017 from proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV.<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p> </p> <p><b>Charmed beauty particles in focus</b></p> <p>Notwithstanding significant progress over the past two decades, researchers’ understanding of the QCD processes that make up hadrons is incomplete. One way to try and understand them is through the study of the little-known charmed beauty (B<sub>c</sub>) particle family, which consists of hadrons made up of a beauty quark and a charm antiquark (or vice-versa). In 2014, using data from the LHC’s first proton–proton collision run, the ATLAS collaboration <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1407.1032" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">reported</a></span></span> the observation of a B<sub>c</sub> particle called B<sub>c</sub>(2S). A very recent analysis by the CMS collaboration of the full LHC sample from the second run, published today in <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><i><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.132001" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">Physical Review Letters</a></i></span></span> and presented at the meeting, has unambiguously <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://cms.cern/news/first-measurement-lhc-run-2-pp-data-collected-2016-2017-and-2018" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">observed</a></span></span> a two-peak feature in this dataset that corresponds to B<sub>c</sub>(2S) and to another B<sub>c</sub> particle called B<sub>c</sub>*(2S). Meanwhile, the LHCb team, which in 2017 <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.04094" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">reported no evidence</a></span></span> for B<sub>c</sub>(2S) in its 2012 data, has now analysed the full 2011–2018 data sample and has also <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/Welcome.html#BcPlus" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">observed</a></span></span> the B<sub>c</sub>(2S) and B<sub>c</sub>*(2S), lending support to the CMS result.</p> <p> </p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-3"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-3" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Diagrams and Charts" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-029-3/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>An event recorded by CMS showing a candidate for the Bc(2S*). The signature for this new particle is the presence of two pions (green lines) and a Bc meson, that decays into a pion (yellow line) plus a J/psi that itself decays to two muons (red).<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p> </p> <p><b>Matter–antimatter asymmetry in strange beauty particles</b></p> <p>The meeting’s second week also saw the announcement of a new result concerning the amount of the matter–<span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">antimatter</a></span></span> asymmetry known as CP violation in the system of strange beauty (B<sub>s</sub>) particles, which are made of a bottom quark and a strange quark. B<sub>s</sub> mesons have the special feature that they oscillate rapidly into their antiparticle and back, and these oscillations can lead to CP violation when the B<sub>s</sub> decays into combinations of particles such as a J/ψ and a <i>ϕ</i>. <span style="color:black">The amount of CP violation predicted by the </span><span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">Standard Model</a></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB"> and </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">observed so far in experiments is too small </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">to account for the observed imbalance between matter and antimatter in the universe, prompting scientists to search for additional, as-yet-unknown sources of CP violation and to measure the extent of the violation from known sources more precisely. </span>Following hot on the heels of two independent measurements of the asymmetry in the B<sub>s</sub> system reported by <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2019-009/" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">ATLAS</a></span></span> and <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/2019/EW/slides/5_Thursday/1_morning/2_cpv_govorkova_moriondEW_2019.pdf" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">LHCb</a></span></span> during the meeting’s first week, a <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/QCD/2019/MondayMorning/Contu.pdf" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">new result</a></span></span> that combined the two measurements was reported during the second week. The combined result is the most precise measurement yet of the asymmetry in the B<sub>s</sub> system and is consistent with the small value precisely predicted by the Standard Model.<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></p> <p><strong>Heavy-ion progress </strong></p> <p>The ALICE collaboration specialises in collisions between heavy ions such as lead nuclei, which can recreate the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) that is believed to have occurred shortly after the Big Bang. ALICE highlighted its <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://alice-publications.web.cern.ch/node/4141" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">observation</a></span></span> that three-quark particles (baryons) containing charm quarks (Λ<i><sub>c</sub></i>) are produced more often in proton–proton collisions than in electron­–positron collisions. It also showed that its first measurements of such <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://alice-publications.web.cern.ch/node/4694" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">charmed baryons in lead–lead collisions</a></span></span> suggest an even higher production rate in these collisions, similar to what has been observed for strange-quark baryons. These observations indicate that the presence of quarks in the colliding beams affects the hadron production rate, shedding new light on the QCD processes that form baryons. The collaboration also presented the first measurement of the triangle-shaped flow of J/psi particles, which contain heavy quarks, in lead–lead collisions. This measurement shows that even heavy quarks are affected by the quarks and gluons in the QGP and retain some memory of the collisions’ initial geometry. Finally, ALICE also presented measurements of particle jets in lead–lead collisions that probe the QGP at different length scales.</p> <p>For other results, check out the <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/2019/QCD/" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">conference page</a></span></span>.</p> </div> Mon, 01 Apr 2019 16:02:12 +0000 melissa 10584 at https://home.cern Celebrating 40 years of physics at CERN’s North Area https://home.cern/news/news/physics/celebrating-40-years-physics-cerns-north-area <span>Celebrating 40 years of physics at CERN’s North Area</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/7476" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">camonnin</span></span> <span>Tue, 04/02/2019 - 09:55</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2668260" data-filename="40years_final" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-017-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-017-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="40 years of physics in the North Area" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-017-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> poster for an announcement <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN is known for its collider facilities, yet fixed-target experiments also have a long history at the Laboratory, forming essential building blocks in the physics landscape. Notable among them are experiments fed by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator, which has provided a steady stream of high-energy proton beams to the North Area at CERN’s Prévessin site. As the North Area marks 40 years since the publication of its first physics, a symposium at CERN on 3 April, broadcast via <a href="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/552">webcast</a>, celebrates this hub of experiments, which have been exploring many fundamental questions and will continue to enrich the programme of the Laboratory.</p> <p>In fixed-target experiments, a particle beam collides with a stationary target, in most cases producing secondary particles for specific studies. High-energy machines such as the SPS, which produces proton beams with a momentum of up to 450 GeV/c, give the secondary products a large forward boost, providing intense sources of secondary and tertiary particles such as electrons, muons and hadrons. Compared to collider experiments, fixed-target experiments tend to be more specialised and focus on precision measurements that demand very high statistics, such as those involving ultra-rare decays.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-027-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-027-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Life at CERN" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-027-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption><span>Protons leaving the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) enter a target station (bottom left), leading to 6 km of secondary beamlines for experiments in three halls (Image: <a href="https://gis.cern.ch">https://gis.cern.ch</a>) </span></figcaption></figure><p>The North Area fixed-target experiments range from the pioneering NA1, which measured the photoproduction of vector and scalar bosons until 1992, to today’s NA64, which studies the dark sector.Among the key results from the NA experiments are first studies of the quark–gluon plasma, the first evidence of direct charge-parity (CP) violation and a detailed understanding of how nucleon spin arises from quarks and gluons. The first muons in CERN’s North Area were reported at the start of the commissioning run in March 1978, and the first physics publication – a measurement of the production rate of muon pairs by quark–antiquark annihilation – was published in 1979 by the NA3 experiment. </p> <p>Today, the North Area’s physics programme is as vibrant as ever,and this looks set to remain true, with many proposals for new experiments appearing on the horizon, ranging from the study of very rare decays and light dark matter to the study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with hadron and heavy-ion beams. There is even a study under way to possibly extend the North Area with an additional very-high-intensity proton beam serving a so-called beam dump facility. Read more about the physics research in the North Area in <a href="https://cerncourier.com/fixed-target-striking-physics/">this CERN Courier feature</a>, from which this text was extracted.</p> <p>Follow the <a href="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/552">webcast</a> of the event here. </p> </div> Tue, 02 Apr 2019 07:55:09 +0000 camonnin 10589 at https://home.cern home.cern goes retro to commemorate 30 years of the Web https://home.cern/news/news/computing/homecern-goes-retro-commemorate-30-years-web <span>home.cern goes retro to commemorate 30 years of the Web</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Tue, 04/02/2019 - 09:38</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2669644" data-filename="home-comparisons-en" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-026-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-026-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="The new look of home.cern from 1 April 2019" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-026-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> ENGLISH <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><hr /><p><strong>Update</strong> 2 April 2019: Did you fall for our joke? We’ve rolled the changes back and <a href="https://home.cern">home.cern</a> is once again available with our beautiful, modern design.</p> <hr /><p>From today, visitors to <a href="https://home.cern">home.cern</a> will find themselves immersed in nostalgia as CERN’s home page adopts a retro aesthetic, in honour of the 30th anniversary of the World Wide Web. The change comes only months after the <a href="/news/news/cern/welcome-new-cern-website">pages were redesigned</a> and is the result of intense deliberation by experts at the laboratory since the <a href="/news/news/computing/web30-reliving-history-and-rethinking-future">Web@30 celebrations on 12 March</a>.</p> <p>Sir Tim Berners-Lee, <a href="/science/computing/birth-web">who invented the Web at CERN in 1989</a>, reminded the Web@30 audience that more than half the world is not yet online. “We want them all to become connected as soon as possible, but they would miss out on the playful quality of the early Web,” remarks Charlotte Warakaulle, CERN’s Director for International Relations. “I’m therefore thrilled that we can preserve this quality by changing our home page from today.” To commemorate the occasion, the CERN Web Team has been rebranded and will henceforth be referred to by the moniker Team Berners-Lee, in Sir Tim’s honour.</p> <p>Several changes are being made to the website to tailor the experience. For example, rather than operating on a dedicated server, the website will be deployed on the laptops of members of Team Berners-Lee on a weekly basis. The first contributor is Sotirios Rebootas, the head of Team Berners-Lee. “Our modern servers are extremely fast and they would detract from the experience of browsing the Web as we did in the ’90s. So we decided to change our infrastructure a little,” he explains. “The downside is I have to share a laptop with my colleague this week, giving pair-programming a whole new meaning.”</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-023-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-023-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Computers and Control Rooms" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-023-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>One of the laptops which will act as the server for home.cern (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>On the website itself, flashing images with the words “NEW” and “FEATURED” will highlight specific pieces of content. “The lack of any other visual cues should reproduce the challenge of finding information that we experienced on early Web pages. I can’t compute why this would pose a problem,” remarks Kate Krawle, the head of Editorial Contentment. “Minimalism, minimalism, minimalism. I should probably have said that just once, but you get the idea.”</p> <p>We will display a counter of all visits to our website from today and links to social media will be removed. To make the experience truly enjoyable for those with fast computers, we are working on a script that will run in the background for such visitors, maximising their browser’s RAM usage to further enhance the trip down, er, memory lane. Team Berners-Lee recommend browsing home.cern with the soothing sounds of a 56kbps modem playing in the background.</p> <p>These changes will only affect the main page for the first week of April, while all other pages will retain the look and feel of the redesign implemented in November 2018 for now. Changes to the rest of <a href="https://home.cern">home.cern</a> will be rolled out over the coming weeks. You won’t miss the flashing “NEW” signs! Feedback on the proposed changes may be sent via snail mail to</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Team Berners-Lee<br /> Post box: J00820<br /> CERN<br /> CH-1211 Geneva 23<br /> Switzerland</p> </div> Tue, 02 Apr 2019 07:38:51 +0000 achintya 10588 at https://home.cern Highlights from the 2019 Moriond conference (electroweak physics) https://home.cern/news/news/physics/highlights-2019-moriond-conference-electroweak-physics <span>Highlights from the 2019 Moriond conference (electroweak physics)</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/145" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">melissa</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/29/2019 - 14:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2669426" data-filename="CMS event" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-025-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-025-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="A collision event recorded by CMS, containing a missing-transverse-energy signature, which is one of the characteristics sought in the search for SUSY" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-025-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> A collision event recorded by CMS, containing a missing-transverse-energy signature, which is one of the characteristics sought in the search for SUSY. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>At the 66th <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><i><a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/2019/" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">Rencontres de Moriond</a></i></span></span> conference, which is taking place in La Thuile, Italy, physicists working at CERN are presenting their most recent results. Since the start of the conference on 16 March, a wide range of topics from measurements of <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/higgs-boson">the Higgs boson</a> and <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> processes to searches for rare and exotic phenomena have been presented.</p> <p>The Standard Model of particle physics is a successful theory that describes how elementary particles and forces govern the properties of the Universe, but it is incomplete as it cannot explain certain phenomena, such as gravity, <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a> and dark energy. For this reason, physicists welcome any measurement that shows discrepancies with the Standard Model, as these give hints of new particles and new forces – of new physics, in other words. At the conference, the <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> and <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> collaborations have presented new results based on up to 140<sup></sup>fb<sup>–1</sup> of proton-proton collision data collected during Run 2 of the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a> from 2015 to 2018. Many of these analyses benefited from novel machine-learning techniques used to extract data from background processes.</p> <p>Since the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, ATLAS and CMS physicists have made significant progress in understanding its properties, how it is formed and how it interacts with other known particles. Thanks to the large quantity of Higgs bosons produced in the collisions of Run 2, the collaborations were able to measure most of the Higgs boson’s main production and decay modes with a statistical significance far exceeding five standard deviations. In addition, many searches for new, additional Higgs bosons have been presented. From a combination of all Higgs boson measurements, ATLAS obtained new constraints on the Higgs self-coupling. CMS has presented updated results on the Higgs decay to two <a href="/science/physics/z-boson">Z bosons</a> and has also derived new information on the strength of the interaction between Higgs bosons and top quarks. This interaction is measured in two ways, using top <a href="http://cms.cern/news/new-moriond-first-measurement-effect-virtual-higgs-bosons-top-quarks">quark pairs</a> and using a rare process in which <a href="http://cms.cern/news/lhc-powerlifting-%E2%80%93-searching-simultaneous-production-four-times-most-massive-elementary">four top quarks</a> are produced. The probability of four top quarks being produced at the LHC is about a factor of ten less likely than the production of Higgs bosons together with two top quarks, and about a factor of ten thousand less likely than the production of just a top quark pair.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-015-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-015-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="Event Displays,Physics,Heavy Ion Collisions,ATLAS" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-015-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>ATLAS event display showing the clean signature of light-by-light scattering<span> (Image: ATLAS/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The ATLAS collaboration has also reported first evidence for the simultaneous production of three W or Z bosons, which are the mediator particles of the weak force. Tri-boson production is a rare process predicted by the Standard Model, and is sensitive to possible contributions from yet unknown particles or forces. The very large new dataset has also been used by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to expand the searches for new particles beyond the Standard Model at the energy available at the LHC. One of the possible theories is <a href="/science/physics/supersymmetry">supersymmetry</a>, an extension of the Standard Model, which features a symmetry between matter and force and introduces many new particles, including possible candidates for dark matter. These hypothetical particles have not been detected in experiments so far, and the collaborations have set stronger lower limits on the possible range of masses that they could have.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-025-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-025-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="home.cern,Experiments and Tracks" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-025-1/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>A <a href="http://cms.cern/news/new-moriond-catching-disappearing-particles">collision event</a> recorded by CMS, containing a missing-transverse-energy signature, which is one of the characteristics sought in the search for SUSY<span> (Image: CMS/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The CMS collaboration has placed new limits on the parameters of new physics theories that describe hypothetical slowly moving heavy particles. These are detected by measuring how fast particles travel through the detector: while the regular particles propagate at speeds close to that of light, straight from the proton collisions, these heavy particles are expected to move measurably slower before decaying into a shower of other particles, creating a <a href="http://cms.cern/news/delayed-jets-cms-are-just-time-moriond">“delayed jet”</a>. CMS has also presented first evidence for another rare process, the production of two W bosons in not one but two simultaneous interactions between the constituents of the colliding protons.</p> <p>In addition, ATLAS and CMS have presented new studies on the search for hypothetical Z′ (Z-prime) bosons. The existence of such neutral heavy particles is predicted by certain Grand Unified theories that could provide an elegant extension of the Standard Model. Although no significant signs of Z′ particles have been observed thus far, the <a href="http://cms.cern/news/casting-light-dark-sector">results</a> provide constraints on their production rate.</p> <p>The <a href="/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb collaboration</a> has presented several new measurements concerning particles containing beauty or charm quarks. Certain properties of these particles can be affected by the existence of new particles beyond the Standard Model. This allows LHCb to search for signs of new physics via a complementary, indirect route. One much anticipated result, shown for the first time at the conference, is a measurement using data taken from 2011 to 2016 of the ratio of two related rare decays of a B<sup>+</sup> particle. These decays are predicted in the Standard Model to occur at the same rate to within 1%; the data collected are consistent with this prediction but favour a lower value. This follows a pattern of intriguing hints in other, similar decay processes; while none of these results are significant enough to constitute evidence of new physics on their own, they have captured the interest of physicists and will be investigated further with the full LHCb data set. LHCb also presented the first observation of <a href="/science/physics/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem">matter–antimatter asymmetry</a> known as CP violation in charm particle decays, as reported in a <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://home.cern/news/press-release/physics/lhcb-sees-new-flavour-matter-antimatter-asymmetry" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">dedicated press release last week</a></span></span>.</p> <p>Finally, using the results of lead-ion collisions taken in 2018, the ATLAS collaboration has been able to clearly observe a very rare phenomenon in which <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://home.cern/news/news/physics/atlas-observes-light-scattering-light" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">two photons – particles of light – interact, producing another pair of photons</a></span></span>, with a significance of over 8 standard deviations. This process was among the earliest predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the quantum theory of electromagnetism, and is forbidden by Maxwell's classical theory of electrodynamics.</p> <p><b>Additional information: </b> <span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"></span></span></p> <p><span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-news/moriond-highlights-full-run-2-dataset" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">ATLAS news</a></span></span><br /><span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="https://cms.cern/news/cms-collaboration-shows-new-results-rencontres-de-moriond-2019" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">CMS news</a></span></span><br /><span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><a href="http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/Welcome.html#RK2" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">LHCb news</a></span></span></p> </div> Fri, 29 Mar 2019 13:48:40 +0000 melissa 10570 at https://home.cern Arts at CERN announces ‘Quàntica’ and a new collaboration with Barcelona https://home.cern/news/news/cern/arts-cern-announces-quantica-and-new-collaboration-barcelona <span>Arts at CERN announces ‘Quàntica’ and a new collaboration with Barcelona</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/145" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">melissa</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/27/2019 - 11:08</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">’The View from Nowhere’ a new art commission by CERN artists in residence Semiconductor (Ruth Jarman &amp; Joe Gerhardt). Exhibition at Le Lieu Unique, Nantes. 2018. Photo: Martin Argyroglo.</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Arts at CERN announces two key ventures: ‘Quàntica’, an exhibition project at the Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona (CCCB) from 9 April to 24 September, and a partnership that begins this year with the city of Barcelona as co-host for the Collide International residency award.</p> <p>‘Quàntica’ is the second iteration of an exhibition project that brings together 10 artworks resulting from art residencies at CERN, juxtaposed with scientific objects to introduce pivotal concepts from quantum physics and the research pursued at the Laboratory. The project is curated by Mónica Bello, head of Arts at CERN, and art curator José-Carlos Mariátegui, with particle physicist José Ignacio Latorre serving as its scientific adviser. The exhibition explores the influence of physics beyond the scientific domain, including its effects on our everyday lives. The artworks illustrate our search to understand the fundamental laws of the universe and investigate the limits of human knowledge through the lens of artists, scientists and educators. The exhibition is designed as a hybrid space, in which visitors will find that the worlds of science and art reflect, echo and transmute ideas through varied means.</p> <p>“The interdisciplinary nature of Arts at CERN fosters dialogue between scientists and artists, which enriches our understanding of the world around us. ‘Quàntica’ brings forward the creative expression of scientific and artistic endeavours; it allows the public to discover both perspectives and challenges them to explore further,” says Charlotte Lindberg Warakaulle, CERN’s Director for International Relations.</p> <p>“Quantum physics reaches out to scientists and philosophers within a realm of speculative thinking that is currently extremely fruitful, and that spreads into diverse artistic and cultural languages,” says Judit Carrera, Director of CCCB Barcelona.</p> <p>‘Quàntica’ is co-produced by ScANNER (the Science and Art Network for New Exhibitions and Research): CERN, FACT, CCCB, iMAL and Le Lieu Unique. The exhibition has its origins in Collide International, the flagship programme of Arts at CERN, which was created to challenge and transform the way art and science encounters are perceived and how science can affect artistic expression.</p> <p>The Collide International residency started with Linz’s Ars Electronica as co-host from 2012 to 2015, which was followed by FACT Liverpool from 2016 to 2018. Arts at CERN has now signed an agreement with Barcelona City Council and the Institute of Culture of Barcelona to host Collide International from 2019 to 2021. Within this framework, a three-month residency will be awarded to an artist to extend their research at CERN by working together with particle physicists, engineers, IT experts and laboratory staff. Following this, the artist will be hosted for a month at Barcelona’s Fabra i Coats – Creative Factory, where they can expand their research, test ideas and engage with participant-led community projects.</p> <p>“Barcelona City Council is committed to science as an engine of economic and social development. That is why it is also important to promote recognition through the dissemination of science, as provided for in Pla Barcelona Ciència (Barcelona Science Plan). We are reinforcing this plan’s goal through art with this alliance with CERN, one of the leading scientific institutions in the world,” says Gerardo Pisarello, First Deputy Mayor, Manager’s Office of the Area of Economy and Work, Digital City and International Relations.</p> <p>Online submissions for Collide International are open until May 17, 2019 for artists interested in <a href="https://arts.cern/open-entries/open-call-entries-collide-international-barcelona">applying</a>. A jury of scientific and cultural experts will select the winning artists who will start their residencies in 2019.</p> <p><br /><strong>Further information:</strong></p> <p><a href="https://arts.cern/">Arts at CERN website</a><br /><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ArtsatCERN/">Arts at CERN Facebook page </a><br /><a href="https://twitter.com/ArtsAtCERN">Twitter Arts at CERN</a><br /><a href="https://www.instagram.com/artsatcern/">Instagram Arts at CERN</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.cccb.org/en/exhibitions/file/quantum/230323">Quàntica CCCB</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.barcelona.cat/barcelonaciencia/es/que-es">Barcelona City Council - Pla Barcelona Ciència</a></p> </div> Wed, 27 Mar 2019 10:08:53 +0000 melissa 10550 at https://home.cern LHCb experiment discovers a new pentaquark https://home.cern/news/news/physics/lhcb-experiment-discovers-new-pentaquark <span>LHCb experiment discovers a new pentaquark</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/26/2019 - 10:36</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2034198" data-filename="particle LHCb discovery (00008)" id="OPEN-PHO-EXP-2015-009-4"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2015-009-4" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="LHCb experiment reports observation of exotic pentaquark particles" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2015-009-4/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The <a href="/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb collaboration</a> has announced the discovery of a new pentaquark particle. The particle, named P<sub>c</sub>(4312)<sup>+</sup>, decays to a proton and a J/ψ particle (composed of a charm quark and an anticharm quark). This latest observation has a statistical significance of 7.3 sigma, passing the threshold of 5 sigma traditionally required to claim a discovery of a new particle.</p> <p>In the conventional quark model, composite particles can be either mesons formed of quark–antiquark pairs or baryons formed of three quarks. Particles not classified within this scheme are known as exotic hadrons. When Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig proposed the quark model in their 1964 papers, they mentioned the possibility of exotic hadrons such as pentaquarks, but it took 50 years to demonstrate their existence experimentally. In July 2015, the LHCb collaboration <a href="/news/press-release/cern/cerns-lhcb-experiment-reports-observation-exotic-pentaquark-particles">reported the P<sub>c</sub>(4450)<sup>+</sup> and P<sub>c</sub>(4380)<sup>+</sup> pentaquark structures</a>. The new particle is a lighter companion to these pentaquark structures and its existence sheds new light into the nature of the entire family.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="OPEN-PHO-EXP-2015-009-2"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2015-009-2" title="View on CDS"><img alt="pentaquark,LHCb" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-EXP-2015-009-2/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption><em>Illustration of the possible layout of the quarks in a pentaquark particle such as those discovered at LHCb. The five quarks might be assembled into a meson (one quark and one antiquark) and a baryon (three quarks), weakly bound together</em><span> (Image: Daniel Dominguez/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The analysis presented today at the <a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/2019/QCD/">Rencontres de Moriond quantum chromodynamics (QCD) conference</a> used nine times more data from the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> than the 2015 analysis. The data set was first analysed in the same way as before and the parameters of the previously reported P<sub>c</sub>(4450)<sup>+</sup> and P<sub>c</sub>(4380)<sup>+</sup> structures were consistent with the original results. As well as revealing the new P<sub>c</sub>(4312)<sup>+</sup> particle, the analysis also uncovered a more complex structure of P<sub>c</sub>(4450)<sup>+</sup> consisting of two narrow overlapping peaks, P<sub>c</sub>(4440)<sup>+</sup> and P<sub>c</sub>(4457)<sup>+</sup>, with the two-peak structure having a statistical significance of 5.4 sigma. More experimental and theoretical study is still needed to fully understand the internal structure of the observed states.</p> <p><em>Read more <a href="http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/Welcome.html#Pentaq">on the LHCb website</a>.</em></p> </div> Tue, 26 Mar 2019 09:36:22 +0000 achintya 10534 at https://home.cern Serbia joins CERN as its 23rd Member State https://home.cern/news/press-release/cern/serbia-joins-cern-its-23rd-member-state <span>Serbia joins CERN as its 23rd Member State</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/199" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abha</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/22/2019 - 17:14</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2638003" data-filename="201808-216_25" id="CERN-PHOTO-201809-216-47"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201809-216-47" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Her Excellency Ms Ana Brnabic Prime Minister Government of the Republic of Serbia" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201809-216-47/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Visit of Her Excellency Ms Ana Brnabic Prime Minister Government of the Republic of Serbia <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, CERN welcomes Serbia as its 23rd Member State, following receipt of formal notification from UNESCO that Serbia has acceded to the CERN Convention.</p> <p>“Investing in scientific research is important for the development of our economy and CERN is one of the most important scientific institutions today. I am immensely proud that Serbia has become a fully-fledged CERN Member State. This will bring new possibilities for our scientists and industry to work in cooperation with CERN and fellow CERN Member States,” said Ana Brnabić, Prime Minister of Serbia.</p> <p>“Serbia has a longstanding relationship with CERN, with the continuous involvement of Serbian scientists in CERN’s major experiments. I’m very happy to see that Serbia’s initiative to seek membership status of CERN has now converged and that we can welcome Serbia as a Member State,” said Ursula Bassler, President of the CERN Council.</p> <p>“It is a great pleasure to welcome Serbia as our 23rd Member State. The Serbian scientific community has made strong contributions to CERN’s projects for many years. Membership will strengthen the longstanding relationship between CERN and Serbia, creating opportunities for increased collaboration in scientific research, training, education, innovation and knowledge-sharing,” said Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General.</p> <p>“As a CERN Member State, Serbia is poised to further the development of science and education as our scientists, researchers, institutes and industry will be able to participate on the world stage in important scientific and technological decision-making,” said Mladen Šarčević, the Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technological Development.</p> <p>When Serbia was a part of Yugoslavia, which was one of the 12 founding Member States of CERN in 1954, Serbian physicists and engineers took part in some of CERN’s earliest projects, at the <a href="/science/accelerators/synchrocyclotron">SC</a>, <a href="/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron">PS</a> and <a href="/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">SPS</a> facilities. In the 1980s and 1990s, physicists from Serbia worked on the <a href="/science/experiments/delphi">DELPHI</a> experiment at CERN’s <a href="/science/accelerators/large-electron-positron-collider">LEP</a> collider. In 2001, CERN and Serbia concluded an International Cooperation Agreement, leading to Serbia’s participation in the <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> and <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> experiments at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a>, in the <a href="http://wlcg.web.cern.ch/">Worldwide LHC Computing Grid</a>, as well as in the <a href="/science/experiments/ace">ACE</a> and <a href="http://shine.web.cern.ch/">NA61</a> experiments. Serbia’s main involvement with CERN today is in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, in the <a href="http://isolde.web.cern.ch/">ISOLDE</a> facility, which carries out research ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics, and on design studies for future particle colliders – <a href="https://fcc.web.cern.ch/Pages/default.aspx">FCC</a> and <a href="http://clic-study.web.cern.ch/">CLIC</a> – both of which are potentially new flagship projects at CERN.</p> <p>As a CERN Member State, Serbia will have voting rights in the Council, CERN’s highest decision-making authority, and will contribute to the Organization’s budget. Membership will enhance the recruitment opportunities for Serbian nationals at CERN and for Serbian industry to bid for CERN contracts.</p></div> Fri, 22 Mar 2019 16:14:27 +0000 abha 10523 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: East Area version 2.0 https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-east-area-version-20 <span>LS2 Report: East Area version 2.0 </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Anaïs Schaeffer</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/26/2019 - 13:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The major work to renovate the East Area of the Proton Synchrotron (PS), which began in 2018, will continue throughout LS2. This transformation of one of CERN’s oldest installations into a modern experiment area at the cutting edge of technology will take several years.</p> <p>The civil engineering work, which mainly involves restoring the outer shell and roof of Building 157 (the East Area), should be completed within a few months. The building’s energy efficiency will be greatly improved, a prospect that won the SMB department and the project a major grant from the Office cantonal de l’énergie de Genève (OCEN).</p> <p>But inside the building, the metamorphosis has only just begun. No fewer than 250 metres of beam lines supplying the <a href="http://cloud.web.cern.ch">CLOUD</a>, <a href="http://charm.web.cern.ch">CHARM</a> and <a href="https://ps-irrad.web.cern.ch/index.php">IRRAD</a> experiments and the associated experiment areas must be renovated. “All the power converters, which use technology dating from the 1950s, will be replaced. The new converters, developed at CERN, will supply the magnets on a cyclical basis, with an energy recovery stage between each cycle. Electricity consumption should thereby fall from 11 GWh/year to around 0.6 GWh/year,” explains Sébastien Evrard, leader of the PS East Experiment Area renovation project. “As for the magnets, half of them will be renovated and the other half are currently being manufactured in several European countries.” Some 64 power converters and 60 magnets are concerned.</p> <p>The beam lines will be arranged in a new configuration, with flexible optics, and new beam profile control monitors will be installed in order to carry out very precise measurements on the secondary beams. These scintillating fibre detectors have been developed at CERN by the Beam Instrumentation group to replace the less powerful delay wire chambers that were usually used in the past.</p> <p>The renovation of the beam lines will begin in August with the installation of the new extraction line from the PS. By then, the experiment area will have been fully dismantled: more than 250 km of cables are yet to be extracted (50 km have already been removed), as well as 2000 tonnes of shielding blocks (of the 5000 tonnes present in the East Area).</p> <p>This project, which is being steered by the EN/EA group, involves many other CERN groups from the EN, BE, TE, SMB, EP, HSE, IT, IPT and FAP departments, as well as external institutes, notably the University of Patras (Greece), the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia) and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). “Sincere thanks are due to all the teams for their tremendous commitment!” says Sébastien Evrard.</p> <p>The recommissioning of the East Area is planned for the end of 2020, with physics scheduled to start again in spring 2021. This historic experiment area has served physics for more than half a century and, thanks to the modernisation work under way, will continue to do so for many more years to come.</p> <p>_________</p> <p><em>For more information, see <a class="bulletin" href="https://home.cern/news/news/cern/complete-makeover-east-area">this article</a>, published in June 2018.</em></p> </div> Tue, 26 Mar 2019 12:17:05 +0000 anschaef 10538 at https://home.cern A “muoscope” with CMS technology https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/muoscope-cms-technology <span>A “muoscope” with CMS technology</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Cristina Agrigoroae</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/15/2019 - 11:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2016899" data-filename="DSCF9372" id="CMS-PHO-MUON-2015-005-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CMS-PHO-MUON-2015-005-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Work on CMS Muon Detector (RPC) during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) - Point 5, Cessy, CMS cavern" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CMS-PHO-MUON-2015-005-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Particle physicists are experts at seeing invisible things and their detecting techniques have already found many applications in medical imaging or the analysis of art works. Researchers from the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider are developing a new application based on one of the experiment’s particle detectors: a new, small-scale, portable muon telescope, which will allow imaging of visually inaccessible spaces. </p> <p>Earth’s atmosphere is constantly bombarded by particles arriving from outer space. By interacting with atmospheric matter, they decay into a cascade of new particles, generating a flux of muons, heavier cousins of electrons. These cosmic-ray muons continue their journey towards the Earth’s surface, travelling through almost all material objects. </p> <p>This “superpower” of muons makes them the perfect partners for seeing through thick walls or other visually challenging subjects. Volcanic eruptions, enigmatic ancient pyramids, underground caves and tunnels: these can all be scanned and explored from the inside using muography, an imaging method using naturally occurring background radiation in the form of cosmic-ray muons.  </p> <p>Large-area muon telescopes have been developed in recent years for many different applications, some of which use technology developed for the LHC detectors. The muon telescope conceived by CMS researchers from two Belgian universities, Ghent University and the Catholic University of Louvain, is compact and light and therefore easy to transport. It is nonetheless able to perform muography at high resolution. It will be the first spin-off for muography using the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) technology. A first prototype of the telescope, also baptised a “muoscope”, has been built with four RPC planes with an active area of 16x16 cm. The same prototype was used in the “<a href="http://www.ucltomars.org/">UCL to Mars</a>” project; it was tested for its robustness in a simulation of Mars-like conditions in the Utah Desert, where it operated for one month and later came back fully functional.</p> <p>Other CMS technologies have been used in muon tomography for <a href="http://cms.cern/content/security-and-environmental-protection">security and environmental protection</a>, as well as for <a href="http://cms.cern/content/homeland-security">homeland security</a>. </p> <p>Learn more about the muon telescope<a href="https://cms.cern/news/cms-technology-used-develop-new-portable-muon-telescope"> here</a>.</p> </div> Fri, 15 Mar 2019 10:01:56 +0000 cagrigor 10477 at https://home.cern