News for general public feed https://home.web.cern.ch/ en As Indico passes 1 million events, CERN and UN host joint workshop to discuss growth of this open source platform for organising events https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/computing/indico-passes-1-million-events-cern-and-un-host-joint-workshop-discuss-growth <span>As Indico passes 1 million events, CERN and UN host joint workshop to discuss growth of this open source platform for organising events</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p style="margin-bottom: 11px;">Over one million events have now been organised at CERN using Indico, a free and open source platform created at the Organization in 2004. On 20 and 21 March, representatives of CERN, the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) and other organisations met for a <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1218989/">workshop on Indico</a> and its future development and growth.</p> <p>Indico can be used to organise conferences, book meeting rooms, archive presentations and much more. Today it is used by over 200 organisations, including 11 UN agencies, such as the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).</p> <p>Other organisations using Indico include the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the software company Canonical; representatives of each of these three organisations were also present at the event. In total, the workshop saw 50 experts come together to discuss further development plans for Indico.</p> <p>Much discussion at the event focused on approaches for further growing the Indico community and coordinating development efforts. In addition to CERN and UNOG, important recent contributions to Indico have recently been made by the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.</p> <p>The workshop was split across the CERN Meyrin Data Centre building and the UN’s Palais Des Nations. Tim Smith, head of the CERN IT department’s Communication, Education and Outreach section, gave the keynote speech at the event. “Collaboration and sharing knowledge are founding principles of CERN, built into the Organization’s DNA,” says Smith. “Indico is one of many examples of technologies developed to fulfil CERN needs which now is having significant positive impact on wider society.”</p> <p>Other talks during the workshop focused on topics such as accessibility, searchability, using Indico in conjunction with CERN’s “CERNBox” storage platform, and even harnessing artificial intelligence technologies to improve Indico.</p> <p>“This workshop happens at a time when we’ve reached the milestone of 1 million events having been organised at CERN using Indico; we’re very proud of this, but it's even more impressive to see how Indico has grown outside CERN,” says Pedro Ferreira, head of the Conferencing Technology section in the CERN IT department. “We’ve identified several priorities for future collaboration, including work on accessibility and further support for multilingualism.”</p> <p>“The Indico Workshop 3.5 was a real success,” says Kira Kruglikova, director of the Division of Administration at UNOG. “This first joint workshop, co-organised by CERN and the UN, is another example of the strong collaboration between our two organisations and the respective teams.”</p> <p>“The team felt enriched by the two working days with the Indico community and by the opportunity to share and learn from each other’s experiences and best practices,” continues Kruglikova. “The outcomes of the workshop exemplify the bright future of our project, and we look forward to contributing further with new ideas and concrete development to the success of Indico and its community.”</p> <p>Find out more about Indico on the <a href="https://getindico.io/">official website</a>.</p> <div><div><div id="_com_2" language="JavaScript" onmouseout="msoCommentHide('_com_2')" onmouseover="msoCommentShow('_anchor_2','_com_2')"> <p> </p> </div></div></div></div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/33989" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ndinmore</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/24/2023 - 16:03</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/andrew-purcell" hreflang="en">Andrew Purcell</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-24T14:38:06Z">Fri, 03/24/2023 - 15:38</time> </div> </div> Fri, 24 Mar 2023 15:03:21 +0000 ndinmore 187514 at https://home.web.cern.ch ICRC and CERN cooperate on R&D in technologies for humanitarian action https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/computing/icrc-and-cern-cooperate-rd-technologies-humanitarian-action <span>ICRC and CERN cooperate on R&amp;D in technologies for humanitarian action</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p style="margin-bottom: 11px;">Today, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) representatives from its Delegation for Cyberspace came to CERN for the first in a series of knowledge-sharing sessions on using free and open source technologies to support the vital humanitarian work they carry out across the globe. These technologies are being explored as a means to pursue neutrality, impartiality and independence of humanitarian action in a digital environment. CERN and the ICRC have signed a cooperation agreement that will see members of CERN’s IT department provide training on selected technologies, as well as sharing their experience.</p> <p>Technologies to be covered include Indico, CERN’s popular platform for organising events; CERNBox, which is used to store and share data; Newdle, which was created at CERN to aid meeting scheduling; CERN’s Single-Sign On solution for authentication; and OpenStack, a popular open source cloud-computing tool to which CERN contributes and which is used at CERN to manage the computers in its data centre.</p> <p>The ICRC is an independent, neutral organisation that works to ensure humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence. It takes action in response to emergencies and at the same time promotes respect for international humanitarian law and its implementation in national law.</p> <p>At today’s event, the ICRC was represented by six members of its Luxembourg-based Delegation for Cyberspace and of its Geneva-based Data Protection Office Tech Hub. They are responsible for carrying out research and development and exploring and testing the technology relevant for the deployment of services to populations affected by armed conflict and other situations of violence by digital means, in a neutral, impartial and independent manner. Their aim is also to explore how to adapt the ICRC’s way of working, as well as the work of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement as a whole and the wider humanitarian community, for the benefit of people affected by humanitarian emergencies globally.</p> <p>“Through this collaboration, we aim to develop new research-and-development opportunities for cooperation related to the use of free and open source software development, as well as to cybersecurity,” says Enrica Porcari, Head of the CERN IT Department. “We will work to further the sharing of knowledge, experience and tools in this area.”</p> <p>“We will also identify new challenges as they emerge and develop guidance to help equip the humanitarian and academic sectors with the tools necessary to navigate them,” continues Porcari. “This is an important opportunity for us to further boost CERN’s positive impact upon society.”</p> <p>CERN is at the heart of the open science movement, which is underpinned by sharing open data and creating open tools. The ICRC and CERN share institutional features and interests, including neutrality, impartiality, independence, openness, data protection and cybersecurity. Both organisations recognise the importance of openness and building pillars of knowledge. They both value suitable, affordable, easy-to-use computing tools that enable them to pursue their respective mandates, from protecting vulnerable populations to advancing science.</p> <p>“This collaboration with CERN is an essential enabler for furthering our exploration in the area of neutrality, impartiality and independence of humanitarian action in the digital space,” says Massimo Marelli, Head of the ICRC Delegation for Cyberspace in Luxembourg. “Specifically, to do this, we will work with CERN to set up their free and open source software tools in the Delegation for Cyberspace environment and test new functionalities and tools as well as operating modalities.”</p> <p>At today’s event, initial plans were made for more in-depth training sessions later in the year. Find out more about this important new cooperation, which will further boost the positive impact CERN technologies have on wider society, in an announcement <a href="https://www.icrc.org/en/document/icrc-cern-collaborate-research-and-development">published today on the ICRC website</a>.</p> <p>CERN works closely with other international organisations in Geneva to boost its positive impact upon society. For example, CERN hosts <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/unosat-cern-satellite-mapping-good-humanity">UNOSAT</a>, the United Nations Satellite Centre, and has an agreement with the United Nations Office at Geneva to collaborate on Indico, a popular open source platform for organising events.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/33989" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ndinmore</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/24/2023 - 11:27</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/andrew-purcell" hreflang="en">Andrew Purcell</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-24T10:19:55Z">Fri, 03/24/2023 - 11:19</time> </div> </div> Fri, 24 Mar 2023 10:27:28 +0000 ndinmore 187510 at https://home.web.cern.ch ATLAS and CMS observe simultaneous production of four top quarks https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/physics/atlas-and-cms-observe-simultaneous-production-four-top-quarks <span>ATLAS and CMS observe simultaneous production of four top quarks </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="Body" style="border: none;">Today, at the Moriond conference, the <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> and <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> collaborations have both presented the observation of a very rare process: the simultaneous production of four top quarks. They were observed using data from collisions during Run 2 of the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a>. Both experiments’ results pass the required <a href="/resources/faqs/five-sigma">five-sigma statistical significance</a> to count as an observation – ATLAS’s observation with 6.1 sigma, higher than the expected significance of 4.3 sigma, and CMS’s observation with 5.5 sigma, higher than the expected 4.9 sigma – making them the first observations of this process.</p> <p>The top quark is the heaviest particle in the Standard Model, meaning it is the particle with the strongest ties to the <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a>. This makes top quarks ideal for looking for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model.</p> <p>There are a variety of ways to produce a top quark. Most commonly, they are observed in quark and antiquark pairs, and occasionally on their own. According to Standard Model theory, four top quarks – consisting of two top quark–antiquark pairs – can be produced simultaneously. The rate of production is, however, predicted to be 70 thousand times lower than that of top quark–antiquark pairs, which makes four-top-quark production elusive. Evidence for this phenomenon has previously been found by ATLAS in <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/evidence-four-top-quark-production">2020</a> and <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/further-evidence-four-top">2021</a>, and by CMS in <a href="https://cms.cern/news/new-way-produce-top-quarks">2022</a>. However, until today, there had never been an observation.</p> <p>As well as being rare, four-top-quark production is notoriously difficult to detect. When physicists search for a particular event, they look for its “signature”: the properties of the final particles of a decay. These provide clues to the short-lived events they are looking for. Every top quark decays into a W boson and a bottom quark. The W boson can then decay into either a charged lepton and a neutrino or a quark–antiquark pair. This means that the signature of four-top-quark events can be highly varied, containing from zero to four charged leptons and up to 12 jets produced by the quarks. This makes looking for the signature of four-top-quark production challenging.</p> <p>To help search for these events, both ATLAS and CMS used novel machine-learning techniques to build the algorithms that select four-top-quark candidate events. The analyses use the spectacular four-top-quark signature with multiple electrons, muons and (bottom-quark-tagged) jets to separate the events with four top quarks from the background due to other Standard Model processes with larger production rates. Both ATLAS and CMS searched for event signatures containing two or more leptons.</p> <p>The first direct observation of four-top-quark production is an exciting new step in learning more about this fascinating particle. Both experiments look forward to continuing to study this phenomenon during LHC Run 3.</p> <p> </p> <p>Read more:</p> <ul><li><a href="https://atlas.cern/Updates/Physics-Briefing/observation-4tops">ATLAS physics briefing</a></li> <li><a href="https://cms.cern/news/cms-observes-four-top-quark-production">CMS physics briefing</a></li> </ul></div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/33989" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ndinmore</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/24/2023 - 10:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/naomi-dinmore" hreflang="en">Naomi Dinmore</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-24T08:36:07Z">Fri, 03/24/2023 - 09:36</time> </div> </div> Fri, 24 Mar 2023 09:23:49 +0000 ndinmore 187509 at https://home.web.cern.ch Arts at CERN and Copenhagen Contemporary to collaborate through Collide International award https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/cern/arts-cern-and-copenhagen-contemporary-collaborate-through-collide-international <span>Arts at CERN and Copenhagen Contemporary to collaborate through Collide International award</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, we are pleased to announce a three-year partnership between CERN and Copenhagen Contemporary through <a href="https://arts.cern/programme/collide">Collide</a>, <a href="https://arts.cern/">Arts at CERN</a>’s flagship international residency programme.</p> <p>Arts at CERN is designed to generate creative connections between science and the arts through a broad programme of artistic residencies, art commissions and exhibitions. Over the past decade, Arts at CERN has brought arts and science together in new configurations, in collaboration with leading cultural institutions around the globe. The Collide residency programme was established in 2012 to foster networks with international organisations, creating new links between art and fundamental science worldwide.</p> <p><a href="https://copenhagencontemporary.org/en/">Copenhagen Contemporary</a> is Copenhagen’s international art centre, displaying installation art created by world-renowned artists and new emerging talents. Located in the former B&amp;W welding building and offering 7000 m<sup>2</sup> of industrial halls, Copenhagen Contemporary displays large-scale installation art and creates collaborative partnerships and events across cultural genres, locally and internationally. Since 2016, Copenhagen Contemporary has hosted exhibitions featuring, among others, James Turrell, Carsten Höller, Pierre Huyghe, Bruce Nauman, Yoko Ono, Anselm Kiefer, Wu Tsang, and Larissa Sansour.</p> <p>“For over 10 years, the Collide programme has allowed us to forge bonds of a new kind with different cities across our Member States,” explains Charlotte Warakaulle, CERN’s Director for International Relations. “We are delighted to see this international network expand with Copenhagen, which has such important traditions in particle physics, technology development, innovation and artistic expression. Bringing these dimensions together in Copenhagen will enable us to take these vital, creative encounters across communities even further.”</p> <p>“At Copenhagen Contemporary we are excited and proud to bring the prestigious Collide programme to Scandinavia and offer artists a unique opportunity to develop their work in dialogue with world-leading scientists and researchers. Art and science share a deep curiosity to understand the world and our place in it. But their methods and end goals are different. Through art, the great conversation about the human condition is constantly renewed. We want to make this programme an opportunity to investigate how technology affects our life and might change our destiny,” says Marie Laurberg, Director of Copenhagen Contemporary.</p> <p>The first edition of Collide Copenhagen has now been officially launched. Artists from any country in the world are invited to submit their proposals for a fully-funded two-month residency, split between CERN and Copenhagen Contemporary. The selected artist or artistic collective will devote this period to artistic research and artistic exploration, working side-by-side with physicists, engineers, laboratory staff and the Arts at CERN and Copenhagen Contemporary teams. For the first edition and the following annual calls, in 2024 and 2025, Arts at CERN and Copenhagen Contemporary will invite artists to reflect on the impact of science and research in contemporary culture. Proposals that consider the role of advanced technologies and novel scientific models as major topics in contemporary culture are welcome. Collide Copenhagen is especially aiming for artistic proposals that reflect on themes such as artificial intelligence, the modelling and analysis of vast datasets, the emergence of quantum technologies, and the interpretation of these themes from philosophical and ethical standpoints. The artists selected for the 2023–2025 editions will become part of an ambitious exhibition at Copenhagen Contemporary in 2025, investigating technology’s impact on humanity.</p> <p>The application deadline is 8 May 2023. Conditions and guidelines for the call are on <a href=" https://arts.cern/article/arts-cern-and-copenhagen-contemporary-collaborate-through-collide-international-award">the Arts at CERN website</a>. An international jury of experts will review the proposals and the decision will be announced in late June 2023.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/31077" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">angerard</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/17/2023 - 11:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-23T13:00:00Z">Thu, 03/23/2023 - 14:00</time> </div> </div> Fri, 17 Mar 2023 10:17:17 +0000 angerard 187401 at https://home.web.cern.ch Improved ATLAS result weighs in on the W boson https://home.web.cern.ch/news/press-release/physics/improved-atlas-result-weighs-w-boson <span>Improved ATLAS result weighs in on the W boson</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Geneva, 23 March 2023. The <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/w-boson-sunshine-and-stardust">W boson</a>, a fundamental particle that carries the charged weak force, is the subject of a new precision measurement of its mass by the <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> experiment at CERN.</p> <p>The preliminary result, reported in a new <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2853290">conference note</a> presented today at the <a href="http://moriond.in2p3.fr/">Rencontres de Moriond</a> conference, is based on a reanalysis of a sample of 14 million W boson candidates produced in proton–proton collisions at the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC), CERN’s flagship particle accelerator.</p> <p>The new ATLAS measurement concurs with, and is more precise than, all previous W mass measurements except one – the latest measurement from the CDF experiment at the <a href="https://www.fnal.gov/pub/tevatron/tevatron-accelerator.html">Tevatron</a>, a former accelerator at Fermilab.</p> <p>Together with its electrically neutral counterpart, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/z-boson">Z boson</a>, the electrically charged W boson mediates the weak force, a fundamental force that is responsible for a form of radioactivity and initiates the nuclear fusion reaction that powers the Sun.</p> <p>The particle’s discovery at CERN <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/physics/w-boson-turns-40">40 years ago</a> helped to confirm the theory of the electroweak interaction that unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces. This theory is now a cornerstone of the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics. CERN researchers who enabled the discovery were awarded the <a href="https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1984/summary/">1984 Nobel Prize in physics</a>.</p> <p>Since then, experiments at particle colliders at CERN and elsewhere have measured the W boson mass ever more precisely. In the Standard Model, the W boson mass is closely related to the strength of the electroweak interactions and the masses of the heaviest fundamental particles, including the Z boson, the top quark and the <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a>. In this theory, the particle is constrained to weigh 80354 million electronvolts (MeV), within an uncertainty of 7 MeV.</p> <p>Any deviation of the measured mass from the Standard Model prediction would be an indicator of new physics phenomena, such as new particles or interactions. To be sensitive to such deviations, mass measurements need to be extremely precise.</p> <p>In 2017, ATLAS released its <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/measuring-w-boson-mass">first measurement of the W boson mass</a>, which was determined using a sample of W bosons recorded by ATLAS in 2011, when the LHC was running at a collision energy of 7 TeV. The W boson mass came out at 80370 MeV, with an uncertainty of 19 MeV.</p> <p>At the time, this result represented the most precise W boson mass value ever obtained by a single experiment, and was in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction and all previous experimental results, including those from experiments at the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-electron-positron-collider">Large Electron–Positron Collider</a> (LEP), the LHC’s predecessor at CERN.</p> <p>Last year, the CDF collaboration at Fermilab announced an even more precise measurement, based on an analysis of its full dataset collected at the Tevatron. The result, 80434 MeV with an uncertainty of 9 MeV, differed significantly from the Standard Model prediction and from the other experimental results, calling for more measurements to try to identify the cause of the difference.</p> <p>In its new study, ATLAS reanalysed its 2011 sample of W bosons, improving the precision of its previous measurement. The new W boson mass, 80360 MeV with an uncertainty of 16 MeV, is 10 MeV lower than the previous ATLAS result and 16% more precise. The result is in agreement with the Standard Model.</p> <figure role="group" class="align-center"><img alt="Comparison of the measured value of the W boson mass with other published results. The vertical bands show the Standard Model prediction, and the horizontal bands and lines show the statistical and total uncertainties of the results." data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="97fe1ff7-dcac-4ac5-81aa-35f51e796730" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/gfabre/ATLAS-Plot_Overview_WMass%20%281%29.png" width="640" height="462" loading="lazy" /><figcaption>Comparison of the measured value of the W boson mass with other published results. The vertical bands show the Standard Model prediction, and the horizontal bands and lines show the statistical and total uncertainties of the results (Image: CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>To attain this result, ATLAS used an advanced data-fitting technique to determine the mass, as well as more recent, improved versions of what are known as the parton distribution functions of the proton. These functions describe the sharing of the proton’s momentum amongst its constituent quarks and gluons. In addition, ATLAS verified the theoretical description of the W boson production process using dedicated LHC proton–proton runs.</p> <p>“Due to an undetected neutrino in the particle’s decay, the W mass measurement is among the most challenging precision measurements performed at hadron colliders. It requires extremely accurate calibration of the measured particle energies and momenta, and a careful assessment and excellent control of modelling uncertainties,” says ATLAS spokesperson Andreas Hoecker. “This updated result from ATLAS provides a stringent test, and confirms the consistency of our theoretical understanding of electroweak interactions.”</p> <p>Further measurements of the W boson mass are expected from ATLAS and <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> and from <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb</a>, which has also recently <a href="https://lhcb-outreach.web.cern.ch/2021/09/10/the-first-lhcb-measurement-of-the-w-boson-mass/">weighed</a> the boson.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Further information</strong></p> <p>Video news release : <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2297554">https://videos.cern.ch/record/2297554</a></p> <p>News clip : <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2297560">https://videos.cern.ch/record/2297560</a></p> <p>ATLAS images gallery : <a href="https://home.cern/resources/image/experiments/atlas-images-gallery">https://home.cern/resources/image/experiments/atlas-images-gallery</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p></div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/31239" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">gfabre</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/21/2023 - 14:38</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-23T11:00:00Z">Thu, 03/23/2023 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Mar 2023 13:38:29 +0000 gfabre 187454 at https://home.web.cern.ch New LHC experiments enter uncharted territory https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/physics/new-lhc-experiments-enter-uncharted-territory <span>New LHC experiments enter uncharted territory</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Although neutrinos are produced abundantly in collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), until now no neutrinos produced in such a way had been detected. Within just nine months of <a href="/news/news/cern/third-run-large-hadron-collider-has-successfully-started">the start of LHC Run 3</a> and the beginning of its measurement campaign, the <a href="/science/experiments/faser">FASER</a> collaboration changed this picture by announcing its first observation of collider neutrinos at this year’s electroweak session of the Rencontres de Moriond. In particular, FASER observed muon neutrinos and candidate events of electron neutrinos. “Our statistical significance is roughly 16 sigma, far exceeding <a href="/resources/faqs/five-sigma">5 sigma</a>, the threshold for a discovery in particle physics,” explains FASER’s co-spokesperson Jamie Boyd.</p> <p>In addition to its observation of neutrinos at a particle collider, FASER presented results on searches for dark photons. With a null result, the collaboration was able to set limits on previously unexplored parameter space and began to exclude regions motivated by dark matter. FASER aims to collect up to ten times more data over the coming years, allowing more searches and neutrino measurements.</p> <p>FASER is one of two new experiments situated at either side of the ATLAS cavern to detect neutrinos produced in proton collisions in ATLAS. The complementary experiment, <a href="/science/experiments/sndlhc">SND@LHC</a>, also reported its first results at Moriond, showing eight muon neutrino candidate events. “We are still working on the assessment of the systematic uncertainties to the background. As a very preliminary result, our observation can be claimed at the level of 5 sigma,” adds SND@LHC spokesperson Giovanni De Lellis. The SND@LHC detector was installed in the LHC tunnel just in time for the start of LHC Run 3.</p> <p>Until now, neutrino experiments have only studied neutrinos coming from space, Earth, nuclear reactors or fixed-target experiments. While astrophysical neutrinos are highly energetic, such as those that can be detected by the IceCube experiment at the South Pole, solar and reactor neutrinos generally have lower energies. Neutrinos at fixed-target experiments, such as those from the CERN North and former West Areas, are in the energy region of up to a few hundred gigaelectronvolts (GeV). FASER and SND@LHC will narrow the gap between fixed-target neutrinos and astrophysical neutrinos, covering a much higher energy range ­– between a few hundred GeV and several TeV.</p> <p>One of the unexplored physics topics to which they will contribute is the study of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Indeed, the production mechanism of the neutrinos at the LHC, as well as their centre-of-mass energy, is the same as for the very-high-energy neutrinos produced in cosmic-ray collisions with the atmosphere. Those “atmospheric” neutrinos constitute a background for the observation of astrophysical neutrinos: the measurements by FASER and SND@LHC can be used to precisely estimate that background, thus paving the way for the observation of astrophysical neutrinos.</p> <p>Another application of these searches is measuring the production rate of all three types of neutrinos. The experiments will test the universality of their interaction mechanism by measuring the ratio of different neutrino species produced by the same type of parent particle. This will be an important test of the Standard Model in the neutrino sector.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/24416" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ckrishna</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/22/2023 - 10:42</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/kristiane-bernhard-novotny" hreflang="en">Kristiane Bernhard-Novotny</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/chetna-krishna" hreflang="en">Chetna Krishna</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-22T09:25:25Z">Wed, 03/22/2023 - 10:25</time> </div> </div> Wed, 22 Mar 2023 09:42:09 +0000 ckrishna 187463 at https://home.web.cern.ch Beam Gas Curtain: a new instrument for LHC Run 3 https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/accelerators/beam-gas-curtain-new-instrument-lhc-run-3 <span>Beam Gas Curtain: a new instrument for LHC Run 3</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:#222222" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will soon be restarted following its year-end technical stop. During this stop, new instruments were installed in the LHC tunnel, including the Beam Gas Curtain (BGC). </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">After ten years of development, the BGC will start taking data on the LHC’s proton beam this year during Run 3. It will provide precise 2D images of the alignment of the proton beams, making data taking more precise. </span></span><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">The <a href="https://acceleratingnews.web.cern.ch/news/issue-43/high-luminosity-lhc-hl-lhc/beam-gas-curtain-installed-large-hadron-collider">BGC instrument was designed for the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC</a> as part of a collaboration between CERN’s Beam Instrumentation group, Liverpool University, the Cockcroft Institute and GSI.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">Watch an animation of how the BGC works below:</span></span></span></span></p> <p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/6-ZBxHmxM0Y" title="YouTube video player" width="560"></iframe></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/24416" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ckrishna</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/21/2023 - 11:54</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/chetna-krishna" hreflang="en">Chetna Krishna</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-21T12:00:00Z">Tue, 03/21/2023 - 13:00</time> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Mar 2023 10:54:09 +0000 ckrishna 187446 at https://home.web.cern.ch CERN openlab holds annual technical workshop and announces new leader https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/computing/cern-openlab-holds-annual-technical-workshop-and-announces-new-leader <span>CERN openlab holds annual technical workshop and announces new leader</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Last week, CERN openlab held its annual technical workshop at CERN. CERN openlab is a unique public–private partnership between CERN and leading tech companies, which works to drive innovation in the computing technologies needed by CERN’s research community.</p> <p>The ambitious upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) poses significant computing challenges. When the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)</a> comes online in 2029, around ten times the computing capacity of today will be required. Simply spending more money to buy more equipment isn’t an option; instead, IT experts across CERN are finding ways to work<a> smarter.</a></p> <p>CERN openlab is central to this work. Today, 30 R&amp;D projects are carried out through this collaboration, addressing challenges related to the next generation of supercomputers, known as “exascale”; artificial intelligence (AI); and quantum computing. CERN openlab also runs projects aimed at sharing knowledge and expertise with research communities beyond particle physics. All these projects were presented at the two-day technical workshop, which was held in the CERN Council Chamber.</p> <p>The event was attended by 145 people (in person and online), including representatives of member companies Intel, Oracle, Siemens, Micron, Google, IBM, Roche and Comtrade. As well as discussing ongoing projects, the workshop provided an excellent opportunity for considering emerging challenges and identifying opportunities for mutually beneficial collaboration.</p> <p>At the event, Maria Girone was announced as the new head of CERN openlab. Girone, who has served as CERN openlab’s Chief Technology Officer since 2016, <a href="https://openlab.cern/index.php/news/11-nov-2022/maria-girone-cern-openlab-cto-awarded-gold-medal-calabria">recently received a prestigious Italian award</a> and <a href="https://openlab.cern/news/10-feb-2023/cern-openlab-cto-co-founds-swiss-chapter-women-hpc-advocacy-group">founded the Swiss chapter of the Women in High-Performance Computing advocacy group</a>.</p> <p>Alberto Di Meglio, who has served as the head of CERN openlab since 2013, is now responsible for running CERN IT’s new Innovation section. This section, created as part of <a href="https://home.cern/news/opinion/cern/new-strategy-and-structure-tackle-ambitious-challenges-ahead">the CERN IT department’s new strategy</a>, includes CERN openlab, <a href="https://quantum.cern/">the CERN Quantum Technology Initiative</a>, and IT-related projects funded by the European Commission.</p> <p>At the workshop, Di Meglio presented the CERN IT department’s new Innovation Roadmap, which will be published in June. This roadmap addresses five main objectives:</p> <ol><li>Introduce heterogeneous computing infrastructures and software-engineering services/tools;</li> <li>Scale up data management, data storage and databases towards the requirements of the HL-LHC;</li> <li>Support the introduction of AI technologies in the community;</li> <li>Keep the CERN IT department at the forefront of R&amp;D;</li> <li>Enable open science and boost CERN’s positive impact on society.</li> </ol><p>“CERN openlab has played an important role in making sure CERN’s computing infrastructure is ready to meet the challenges of LHC Run 3,” says Di Meglio. “This roadmap will set out how the CERN IT department will help drive the innovation needed to meet the massive computing challenges posed by the HL-LHC.”</p> <p>“I would like to thank Alberto for his excellent stewardship of CERN openlab over the past decade,” says Enrica Porcari, head of the CERN IT department. “During his time, the collaboration has roughly trebled in size, with CERN openlab also growing to include collaborations involving other research organisations. There has also been significant growth in the popular <a href="https://openlab.cern/education">CERN openlab Summer Student programme</a>.”</p> <p>“I am looking forward to establishing new collaborations and exploring new, emerging technologies through CERN openlab,” says Girone. “This workshop, the first we have held in person at CERN since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, was an excellent way to get this work started.”</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Mon, 03/20/2023 - 14:33</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/andrew-purcell" hreflang="en">Andrew Purcell</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-20T13:29:06Z">Mon, 03/20/2023 - 14:29</time> </div> </div> Mon, 20 Mar 2023 13:33:41 +0000 abelchio 187431 at https://home.web.cern.ch Applications are now open for the Django Girls programming workshop https://home.web.cern.ch/news/announcement/cern/applications-are-now-open-django-girls-programming-workshop <span>Applications are now open for the Django Girls programming workshop</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The International Girls in ICT Day (ICT = information and communication technologies) will be celebrated on 27 April 2023. To mark the occasion, CERN’s <a href="https://wit-hub.web.cern.ch/">Women in Technology</a> (WIT) community, its <a href="https://visit.cern/">Visitors and Events Operations</a> team and the <a href="https://readthedocs.web.cern.ch/display/CMC/">Microclub</a> are organising another edition of Django Girls.</p> <p>The Django Girls workshop offers a crash course in computer programming for beginners aged 15 and over. The aim is to introduce digital technologies to the uninitiated, especially women, who are underrepresented in this field. In a supportive and positive environment, the participants will be coached by the CERN tutors in how to create a blog and launch it online. The event will take place in person, in French and English, at IdeaSquare.</p> <p><strong>The programme:</strong></p> <ul><li>Friday, 21 April 2023, 6.00–7.45 p.m.: Launch party</li> <li>Saturday, 22 April 2023, 9.00 a.m.– 5.00 p.m.: Workshop</li> </ul><p><strong>Conditions of participation:</strong></p> <ul><li>Anyone aged 15 or over who is passionate about information and communication technologies can apply to attend. Participants need no previous knowledge of programming.</li> <li>Priority will be given to applications from girls and women, but boys and men are also welcome to apply.</li> <li>Places are limited, so make sure that you complete the registration form carefully!</li> </ul><p><strong>Meals: Lunch will be provided on the Saturday.</strong></p> <p><strong>Find out more and apply to attend at:</strong> <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/e/django-2023"><strong>https://indico.cern.ch/e/django-2023</strong></a><strong>  </strong></p> <p><strong>Application deadline: 26 March 2023 (11.59 p.m.)</strong></p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/07/2023 - 10:37</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-07T09:33:13Z">Tue, 03/07/2023 - 10:33</time> </div> </div> Tue, 07 Mar 2023 09:37:06 +0000 thortala 187241 at https://home.web.cern.ch Superconductivity for sustainability: a new superconducting link for the High-Luminosity LHC https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/accelerators/superconductivity-sustainability-new-superconducting-link-high-luminosity <span>Superconductivity for sustainability: a new superconducting link for the High-Luminosity LHC </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, is also the largest single machine operating in the world today that uses superconductivity. The proton beams inside the LHC are bent and focused around the accelerator ring using superconducting electromagnets. These electromagnets are built from coils, made of niobium–titanium (Nb–Ti) cables, that have to operate at a temperature colder than that of outer space in order to be superconducting. This allows the current to flow without any resistance or loss of energy. The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), an upgrade of the LHC, will for the first time feature innovative electrical transfer lines known as the “Superconducting Links”.</p> <p>Recently, CERN’s SM18 magnet test facility witnessed the successful integration of the first series of magnesium diboride superconducting cables into a novel, flexible cryostat. Together with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnesium diboride (MgB<sub>2</sub>) cables, they will form a unique superconducting transfer line to power the HL-LHC inner triplet magnets. The triplets are the focusing magnets that focus the beam, right before collisions, to a diameter as narrow as 5 micrometres.</p> <p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/la1631T1bEY" title="YouTube video player" width="560"></iframe></p> <p>Colloquially known as the “python”, the flexible, double-wall, corrugated cryostat comprises 19 MgB<sub>2</sub> superconducting cables in a single assembly, twisted together to form a compact bundle. Each MgB<sub>2</sub> cable is about 140 metres long, with the diameter of the bundle measuring about 90 mm. Together, these 19 superconducting cables can transfer a DC current of about 120 kA at 25 K (-248 °C) – a temperature higher than that at which conventional superconductors operate. In the LHC, niobium–titanium (Nb–Ti) and niobium–tin (Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn) cables are operated in superfluid helium at 1.9 K (‑271.3 °C) – a temperature colder than the 2.7 K (-270.5 °C) of outer space. The MgB<sub>2</sub> cables of the Superconducting Link are cooled by a forced flow of helium gas. “The R&amp;D done in the initial phase of the LHC project has made the ongoing production reliable and repeatable,” says HL-LHC project leader Oliver Brüning.</p> <p>This new type of superconducting transmission line also has potential outside accelerator technology. These lines can transfer vast amounts of current within a small diameter and could therefore be used to deliver electricity in big cities or to connect renewable energy sources to populated areas. Recently, <a href="/news/news/knowledge-sharing/cern-and-airbus-partnership-future-clean-aviation">CERN and Airbus UpNext signed a collaboration agreement</a> to assess the use of superconducting transmission for future low-emission aeroplanes.</p> <p>But the novelty of this superconducting material is not the only secret component for a sustainable, superconducting transfer line.</p> <p>“One of the beauties of this new system is that the cryogenic operation of the Superconducting Link is done at zero cost because it transfers the helium gas that in any case is needed to cool the current leads,” says Amalia Ballarino, the deputy leader of CERN’s Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostat group. “So, the Superconducting Links act as both helium and electrical transfer line.”</p> <p>CERN’s SM18 facility will continue to host the assembly and testing of the Superconducting Links – ten, in total, for the HL-LHC – until they are installed in the LHC tunnel during Long Shutdown 3, scheduled to start in 2026. The first HL-LHC Superconducting Link will come into operation this year, when it will be connected to the cryostat with the REBCO (rare-earth barium copper oxide) HTS current leads on one side and to the Nb–Ti connections on the other. Integrating these key new technologies (novel superconducting cables made of MgB<sub>2</sub>, long and low static heat load flexible cryostats, and REBCO HTS current leads) marks the beginning of a sustainable approach to electrical transmission for the future of CERN’s accelerators, starting with the HL-LHC.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/24416" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ckrishna</span></span> <span>Thu, 03/02/2023 - 15:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/chetna-krishna" hreflang="en">Chetna Krishna</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-03T14:14:53Z">Fri, 03/03/2023 - 15:14</time> </div> </div> Thu, 02 Mar 2023 14:31:44 +0000 ckrishna 187205 at https://home.web.cern.ch LHCb begins using unique approach to process collision data in real-time https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/experiments/lhcb-begins-using-unique-approach-process-collision-data-real-time <span>LHCb begins using unique approach to process collision data in real-time</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Current technology does not allow all <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC) proton–proton collision data to be stored and analysed. It is therefore necessary to filter out the data according to the scientific goals of each experiment. Physicists call this selection process the “trigger”. Thus, data taking and analysis at the LHC has traditionally been performed in two steps. In the first, which physicists call “online”, the detector records the data, which is then read out by fast electronics and computers, and a selected fraction of the events is stored on disks and magnetic tapes. Later, the stored events are analysed “offline”. In offline analysis, important data taken from the online process is used to determine the parameters with which to adjust and calibrate LHCb’s subdetectors. This whole process takes a long time and uses a large amount of human and computing resources.</p> <p>In order to speed up and simplify this process, <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/lhcb">the LHCb collaboration</a> has made a revolutionary improvement to data taking and analysis. With a new technique named <a href="https://lhcb.github.io/starterkit-lessons/first-analysis-steps/dataflow-run3.html">real-time analysis</a>, the process of adjusting the subdetectors takes place online automatically and the stored data is immediately available offline for physics analysis.</p> <p>In LHC Run 2, LHCb’s trigger was a combination of fast electronics (“hardware trigger”) and computer algorithms (“software trigger”) and consisted of multiple stages. From the 30 million proton collisions per second (30 MHz) happening in the LHCb detector, the trigger system selected the more interesting collision events, eventually reducing the amount of data to around 150 kHz. Then, a variety of automatic processes used this data to calculate new parameters to adjust and calibrate the detector.</p> <p>For <a href="https://lhcb-outreach.web.cern.ch/2022/07/05/first-collisions-at-the-world-record-energy-for-a-brand-new-lhcb-detector/">Run 3</a> and beyond, the whole trigger system has changed radically: the hardware trigger has been removed and the whole detector is read out at the full LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. This allows LHCb to use real-time analysis for the full selection of data, making it much more precise and flexible.</p> <p>The real-time reconstruction allows LHCb to not only cherry-pick interesting events but also compress the raw detector data in real time. This means there is tremendous flexibility to select both the most interesting events and the most interesting pieces of each event, thus making the best use of LHCb’s computing resources. In the end, around 10 gigabytes of data are permanently recorded each second and made available to physics analysts.</p> <figure role="group"><img alt="event displays of proton-proton and lead-argon collisions" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4ccf5ae2-2abf-4c92-8174-31e566269df2" height="auto" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/ndinmore/combined_1.jpeg" width="3250" loading="lazy" /><figcaption>The event display images shown were taken during the first <a href="https://lhcb-outreach.web.cern.ch/2022/07/05/first-collisions-at-the-world-record-energy-for-a-brand-new-lhcb-detector/">Run 3</a> proton–proton collisions on 5 July (left) and the first lead–argon collisions on 18 November (right). The event display program used real-time analysis.</figcaption></figure><p>The success of real-time analysis was only possible thanks to the extraordinary work of the online and subdetector teams during the construction and commissioning of this brand new version of the LHCb detector. More information about LHCb’s new trigger system and the team behind it can be found on <a href="https://lhcb-outreach.web.cern.ch/2023/03/01/lhcbs-unique-approach-to-real-time-data-processing/">the collaboration’s website</a>.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/33989" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ndinmore</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/01/2023 - 14:54</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/lhcb-collaboration" hreflang="en">LHCb collaboration</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-03-01T13:26:34Z">Wed, 03/01/2023 - 14:26</time> </div> </div> Wed, 01 Mar 2023 13:54:40 +0000 ndinmore 187188 at https://home.web.cern.ch The Russian invasion of Ukraine: one year on https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/cern/russian-invasion-ukraine-one-year <span>The Russian invasion of Ukraine: one year on</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><img alt="Flag of Ukraine (credit UP9, Wikicommons, CC BY-SA 3.0)" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="721a32c9-68c6-4e09-97eb-2b2a67187e67" height="auto" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/anschaef/Flag_of_Ukraine_1440-801-72-min_0.jpg" class="align-right" width="1440" loading="lazy" />On the first anniversary of the military invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation, CERN reiterates its condemnation of this unlawful act and deplores the untold suffering of the Ukrainian population. Over the past year, the Organization has put several <a href="https://home.cern/solidarity-ukraine">measures</a> in place to support Ukraine, and in particular the Ukrainian CERN community. Despite the dramatic consequences of the war, Ukraine continues to contribute to CERN’s scientific programme with strong motivation and commitment. As the war enters its second year, we’ll be looking at new ways in which we can support our Ukrainian scientific community and Ukrainian people more broadly. CERN remains resolutely behind Ukraine and reaffirms its core value of peaceful collaboration across borders.</p> <p class="text-align-right"><em>A message from CERN Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti</em></p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/151" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">anschaef</span></span> <span>Thu, 02/23/2023 - 15:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-02-24T14:30:33Z">Fri, 02/24/2023 - 15:30</time> </div> </div> Thu, 23 Feb 2023 14:40:05 +0000 anschaef 187164 at https://home.web.cern.ch CERN QTI launches its new series of online lectures to explore quantum science https://home.web.cern.ch/news/announcement/computing/cern-qti-launches-its-new-series-online-lectures-explore-quantum <span>CERN QTI launches its new series of online lectures to explore quantum science</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As a follow-up to the first <a href="https://quantum.cern/news/news/quantum-deep-delving-quantum-technologies-cerns-qt4hep-conference">International Conference on Quantum Technologies for High-Energy Physics</a> (QT4HEP22), the CERN Quantum Technology Initiative has organised a new lecture series in the framework of its education and training programme. Starting on 1 March 2023, the curated talks will cover various aspects of four key research areas: quantum theory and simulation; quantum sensing, metrology and materials; quantum computing and algorithms; and quantum communication and networks. The first lectures will capitalise on poster contributions submitted for QT4HEP22, but all young researchers and doctoral students who would like to present their ongoing research are welcome to give a talk. </p> <p>The primary goal of the programme is to provide a platform for young scientists to showcase their work and experiences, exchange ideas with fellow emerging professionals and bring new insights into the rapidly evolving field of quantum science. Each lecture is intended to raise awareness and understanding of the recent developments, opportunities and challenges in various areas of quantum research, and will also offer resources and tools to learn more about the topics covered independently.</p> <p>Free and open to all, the online lectures will take place regularly, on Wednesdays, starting at 11.00 a.m. CET. They will be broadcast live for participants worldwide and will also be made available via Zoom to everyone who has a valid Indico account. All lectures will be recorded and published on the <a href="https://quantum.cern/">CERN QTI website</a> and on the<a href="https://www.youtube.com/c/CERNLectures/featured"> CERN Lectures YouTube channel</a> to watch and re-watch in the future.</p> <p>The first round of talks, coming up in March, is listed below, and a full list of lectures can be found <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/category/14582/">here</a>*. Join us as we explore the exciting possibilities of quantum technologies together! </p> <p><strong>Wednesday, 1 March 2023</strong></p> <p>“Noisy gates approach for simulating quantum computers” <em>by Michele Vischi and Giovanni Di Bartolomeo (University of Trieste)</em></p> <p>The full information and connection details are available <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1247873/">here</a><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Wednesday, 15 March 2023</strong></p> <p>“Classical Splitting of Parametrized Quantum Circuits” <em>by Cenk Tüysüz (DESY)</em></p> <p>The full information and connection details are available <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1248668/">here</a><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Wednesday, 29 March 2023</strong></p> <p>“On the construction of useful quantum kernels”<em> by Massimiliano Incudini (University of Verona)</em></p> <p>The full information and connection details are available <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1251853/">here</a><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>*</em></strong><em>While accurate at the time of publication, the programme’s schedule may be subject to change. For regular updates, please check </em><a href="https://indico.cern.ch/category/14582/"><em>this page</em></a><em> and follow CERN QTI on </em><a href="https://twitter.com/CERNquantum"><em>Twitter</em></a><em> and </em><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/showcase/cern-quantum-technology-initiative-cern-qti/?viewAsMember=true"><em>LinkedIn</em></a><em>. If you would like to express an interest in delivering a talk, please contact quantum-edu@cern.ch</em></p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Tue, 02/21/2023 - 12:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-02-21T11:04:53Z">Tue, 02/21/2023 - 12:04</time> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Feb 2023 11:07:33 +0000 thortala 187123 at https://home.web.cern.ch How can citizens contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals? https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/cern/how-can-citizens-contribute-united-nations-sustainable-development-goals <span>How can citizens contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals?</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p style="text-align:justify"><a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1224762/">Join us</a> on 17 March to celebrate the achievements of the EU-funded <a href="https://crowd4sdg.eu/">Crowd4SDG project</a> and to find out more about how citizen science and crowdsourcing tools can be used to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and climate action. The timetable is brimming with presentations, panel discussions and hackathons, relevant for all.</p> <p>Prior to the final conference on 17 March, a series of events will bring together a dynamic mix of youth innovators, decision makers involved in the SDGs and members of the Crowd4SDG consortium at CERN to celebrate the achievements of the three-year-long project.</p> <p>The first two days will see project participants getting involved in coaching sessions at <a href="https://ideasquare.cern/">IdeaSquare, the innovation space at CERN</a>. The results of these sessions will be showcased during the final conference on 17 March.</p> <p>In addition, projects developed for Crowd4SDG will be featured during the <a href="https://sdgsolutionspace.org/events/geneva-trialogue/">Geneva Trialogue</a>, organised and hosted by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), to be held on 16 March at CERN. The event will bring together academia, international organisations and the private sector. Beyond crowdsourcing, it will also promote open innovation and education. More information about the Geneva Trialogue, which is attendance by invitation only, can be found <a href="https://sdgsolutionspace.org/geneva-trialogue-2023/">here.</a></p> <p>The Crowd4SDG final conference on 17 March will bring the series of events to a close, showcasing the projects, papers and other results of Crowd4SDG and outlining how ideas and initiatives could continue beyond the project’s end.</p> <p>Presentations will explore a range of topics, from using citizen science tools to monitor extreme climate events, to mobilising youth involvement in citizen science climate action projects, and more. Teams that have participated in the project will present their ideas and prototypes. In the afternoon, three hackathons will be held at IdeaSquare, centred around the use of citizen science tools and how Crowd4SDG methodologies can be used to collect data concerning the SDGs.</p> <p>Crowd4SDG is a collaboration between CERN, the University of Geneva (UNIGE), the Spanish National Research Council (IIIA-CSIC), the Polytechnic University of Milan (POLIMI), the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and Paris Cité University.</p> <p>The full agenda of the final conference on 17 March at the Globe of Science and Innovation and at IdeaSquare can be found on the <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/1224762/">Indico page</a>. The event is open to all, but registration is required and will be confirmed subject to availability of places.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/33989" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ndinmore</span></span> <span>Mon, 02/20/2023 - 12:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/alexia-yiannouli" hreflang="en">Alexia Yiannouli</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-02-20T11:07:55Z">Mon, 02/20/2023 - 12:07</time> </div> </div> Mon, 20 Feb 2023 11:17:57 +0000 ndinmore 187103 at https://home.web.cern.ch Managing energy responsibly: CERN is awarded ISO 50001 certification https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/cern/managing-energy-responsibly-cern-awarded-iso-50001-certification <span>Managing energy responsibly: CERN is awarded ISO 50001 certification</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CERN’s accelerators are responsible for most of its energy consumption. As powerful research instruments, these machines make a unique scientific programme possible and support a global community of scientists. CERN makes every effort to run them in the most energy-efficient way possible. Powering CERN’s unique array of accelerators, detectors and infrastructure primarily needs <a href="https://home.cern/science/engineering/powering-cern">electricity</a>, which accounts for about 95% of CERN’s energy use. In addition, the Laboratory uses gas for heating, as well as fuel for transport and for backup diesel generators. </p> <p>CERN is committed to improving its energy performance as part of its commitment to <a href="https://home.cern/about/what-we-do/environmentally-responsible-research">environmentally responsible research</a>. In this context, the Organization began the <a href="https://www.iso.org/iso-50001-energy-management.html">ISO 50001</a> certification process in 2022.</p> <p>This reference international standard provides a practical way to improve energy performance and allows organisations to integrate energy management into their overall efforts to improve quality and environmental management. As part of the associated continual improvement process, CERN submitted its energy performance plan for 2022–2026 to the French authorities in June 2022. The ISO 50001 certification audit, carried out by the French national organisation for standardisation (AFNOR), took place at the end of the year. CERN provided AFNOR with all relevant documentation and information on its processes, including, but not limited to, a new energy management manual, a new procedure for procurement in view of assessing energy performance, a communications plan dedicated to energy, and the updated energy management governance and structure. A range of technical assessments were performed, involving the Laboratory’s largest energy consumers, to ensure that we conform to the standard.</p> <p>Further, the Organization’s Energy Policy was published in October 2022. The policy is designed to continuously improve CERN’s energy performance and minimise the impact of its activities on the environment. Its objectives are to keep the energy required for its activities to a minimum, improve energy efficiency and recover waste energy. The continuous improvement of CERN’s energy performance will be achieved by defining, monitoring and updating guidelines, objectives and indicators based on energy use measurements, best practices and feedback; training and raising awareness among the CERN community; monitoring trends, regulatory developments and best practices in energy performance; and maintaining an energy management system compliant with the ISO 50001 standard.</p> <p>The ISO 50001 certification was officially awarded on 2 February 2023 for a period of three years, i.e. until 1 February 2026, and covers all of the Organization’s sites, activities and energies.</p> <p>During those three years, surveillance audits will be carried out on a yearly basis by AFNOR to confirm compliancy and continuous improvement. The first one is expected to be scheduled for early 2024.</p> <p>For more information about energy management at CERN, see <a href="https://hse.cern/content/energy-management">https://hse.cern/content/energy-management</a>.</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Thu, 02/16/2023 - 15:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-02-16T14:37:15Z">Thu, 02/16/2023 - 15:37</time> </div> </div> Thu, 16 Feb 2023 14:39:18 +0000 thortala 187077 at https://home.web.cern.ch Celebrating the International Day of Women and Girls in Science https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/cern/celebrating-international-day-women-and-girls-science <span>Celebrating the International Day of Women and Girls in Science</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On 11 February, we celebrate the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. To celebrate diversity and representation in STEM-related fields, we asked six female scientists from CERN to share their stories. They shared what a typical day looks like, what they enjoy most in their profession and what is interesting in their careers.</p> <p><strong>Cristina Castro Sequeiro, vacuum engineer</strong></p> <p>Cristina is a Spanish vacuum engineer in the vacuum, surfaces and coatings group at CERN. She is working on the design and integration of different vacuum systems designed for the upcoming upgrade of CERN’s flagship project, the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (<a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">HL-LHC</a>). </p> <p>"My daily work consists mainly of vacuum simulations. Currently, I'm also following the commissioning of the beam gas curtain monitor into the LHC. I like the fact that I am participating in different stages of these projects, from simulations to integration, and working with people from different teams, which gives me a nice overview of all the work involved.”</p> <p><strong>Dalila Salamani, data scientist</strong></p> <p>Dalila is a data scientist from Algeria working in the software development for experiments group, which develops and maintains the common scientific software for CERN's physics experiments. Her specialty is to develop machine-learning approaches for fast simulation in Geant4. </p> <p>“I am deeply passionate about my work, which involves taking data that describes how high-energy physics detectors work and building machine-learning models that mimic their functioning. I find it fascinating to work on unique problems that involve big and complex data sets, where the doors to creativity and innovation are always open!”</p> <p>Dalila’s passion for science started when she received her first telescope from her parents, as well as “when I realised the infinite possibilities offered by the binary world”.</p> <p><strong>Chilufya Mwewa, particle physicist</strong></p> <p>Chilufya is a Zambian particle physicist. She studied physics and obtained a postgraduate diploma in mathematical sciences. In 2017, she received a PhD grant that allowed her to study two same-charge <a href="/science/physics/w-boson-sunshine-and-stardust">W bosons</a> using data collected by the <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS experiment</a>.</p> <p>Between family and physics, Chilufya’s days start with caring for her two children and the daily operation of the ATLAS detector’s liquid argon calorimeter (LAr). Chilufya is also working on maintaining and developing LAr software.</p> <p>“When I get to my office, it’s to write/debug code to analyse data collected by the ATLAS detector. From this data, I look for events with two same-charge W bosons. These events are very rare in the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a>, so being able to observe them and measure their cross-section helps to further validate it. In addition, I write and debug codes to simulate data from a potential next-generation collider.”</p> <p><strong>Stefania Maria Beolè, particle physicist</strong></p> <p>Stefania is an Italian professor of experimental physics at Università degli Studi di Torino. She has been at CERN since 1995, involved in the development and construction of silicon detectors for both the NA50 and <a href="/science/experiments/alice">ALICE</a> experiments. Since 2020, she has also been the project leader of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment.  </p> <p>Between CERN and Torino, Stefania says, “In all workplaces, I try to spend some time in the laboratory each day. I appreciate doing some technical work, especially with my students. We have test set-ups to characterise detectors with laser beams and radioactive sources… working with them makes me feel as young and enthusiastic as a PhD student.”</p> <p>For Stefania, the most fun happens in the control room, waiting for the beam to arrive, while "spending time with colleagues and sharing the excitement of potential achievements". </p> <p><strong>Reham Aly, particle physicist</strong></p> <p>Reham Aly is an Egyptian post-doc fellow at CERN and INFN, as well as a lecturer at Helwan University in Egypt. Working in data analysis, Reham’s research is focused on <a href="/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a> particles and uses data from the <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS experiment</a>. She is also responsible for the irradiation tests for fast gaseous detectors that certifies their operation for the next 15 years.</p> <p>A typical day at CERN for Reham is spent in three places: her office, the  lab and the gamma irradiation facility. </p> <p>Reham’s passion for science started “when I was in kindergarten, I planted beans on a cotton pad and took care to water it everyday until it grew. I was so happy when the plant grew, after being patient, waiting for its growth and watching it everyday.”</p> <p><strong>Jenny Lunde, early-career physicist</strong></p> <p>Jenny is an early-career physicist from Norway, pursuing an integrated Master’s degree in physics. She is currently working on software development for the CMS experiment, and she spends most of her days programming in Python.</p> <p>For Jenny, CERN is a “great place [to work] for an early-career scientist, as you get to interact with scientists from universities from all over the world and explore many opportunities for your future studies. People at CERN have very varied backgrounds, and they are all needed to make the experiments work.” </p> <p>“It is exciting to be part of one of the largest international science experiments. Everyone does a different job and together we can discover new things about the fundamental structure of the Universe.”</p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Fri, 02/10/2023 - 11:38</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/bianca-moisa" hreflang="en">Bianca Moisa</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-02-10T16:12:00Z">Fri, 02/10/2023 - 17:12</time> </div> </div> Fri, 10 Feb 2023 10:38:46 +0000 katebrad 187008 at https://home.web.cern.ch Sparks! Talks – videos available online https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/cern/sparks-talks-videos-available-online <span>Sparks! Talks – videos available online</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Two months after our Sparks! Talks event, we are happy to announce that the videos of the individual presentations are now online on the CERN YouTube channel. We invite the community at large to dive back into the event, which was centred around future technology for health – covering aspects from the use of CERN technology for imaging, to DeepMind’s breakthroughs with AI for AlphaFold, to the complexity of changing ethics in a world of quickly evolving technology.</p> <p>The Sparks! Talks were held at the Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN on 17 November 2022. Bruno Giussani (TED) once again hosted our live Sparks! event, not only introducing our guests, but also interviewing some of them. In session 1 he addressed “Treating people”, while in the second, the subject was “Keeping people healthy”. In a now long-standing collaboration, our opening sequence was a video creation by art collective Ouchhh, who this time used data from the Human Cell Atlas to create stunning visuals on our theme of future technology for health.</p> <p>Given that we will be hosting the next Sparks! Talks from Science Gateway, we look forward to continuing to develop content that speaks to as wide an audience as possible in order to maximise CERN’s outreach mission. For now, we leave you with the CERN YouTube playlist where you can see all the videos from this year <a href="https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAk-9e5KQYEpGgaPbCn5spxOurTTgEm4h">here</a>.</p> <p><em>Sparks! is part of the CERN &amp; Society programme. CERN &amp; Society activities are only possible thanks to the support of our partners, in particular Rolex and its long-standing association with the Organization. The 2022 Sparks! event was also supported by the Didier and Martine Primat Foundation.</em></p> <table border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 719.1px;"><tbody><tr><td style="width: 711px;"> <p><strong>Let’s take a closer look at the programme</strong></p> <p>The first talk was given by WHO’s Chief Scientist, Soumya Swaminathan, who addressed <strong>“Digital tools and other efforts for preventing and dealing with future global health challenges”</strong>, a highly relevant subject in these times, allowing us to bring our audience into the heart of the subject and its importance for society at large. Then, Bruce Levine gave us an overview of the technology he researched and developed in a talk entitled <strong><em>“</em>Treating untreatable cancers with gene therapy<em>”</em></strong>. Bringing matters back to CERN-centred technology, Magdalena Kowalska then presented her work in the<strong><em> </em>“Future of detection and imaging”</strong>, which was followed by CERN Director for International Relations Charlotte Warakaulle answering Bruno Giussani’s questions about the Organization’s involvement in <strong>“CERN technologies for health”</strong>. Olaf Blanke, a professor at the nearby EPFL, presented his work in neuroscience and <strong>“AR/VR technology for brain research”</strong>. Then, bringing the subject back to a more global dimension, Els Torreele gave a talk about <strong>“Rethinking health innovation”</strong>. Finally, Bruno interviewed Andrew Hessel, who joined us via Zoom from California and answered questions about a <strong>“Genetic network”</strong>.</p> <p>The second session started with another remote interview conducted by Bruno, this time with Jane Metcalfe, co-founder of Wired and now the head of NEO.LIFE, who answered questions about <strong>“Biological revolution, synthetic biology”</strong>. Continuing on the session’s theme of “Keeping people healthy”, Mark Kendall of WearOptimo presented his take on <strong>“Wearable sensors for better health”</strong>. Speaking on behalf of the Snyder Lab at Stanford, Ariel Ganz followed up with <strong>“Precision health and thriving”</strong>, giving us an insight into how data from sensors is useful further down the line. Coming back to the global level, Rolf Apweiler from EMBL-EBI spoke about <strong>“The bioinformatics revolution”</strong>, bringing data management to the forefront. From there, Ankur Vora of DeepMind introduced us to<strong><em> </em>“AI for health and the AlphaFold case”</strong><em>,</em> reminding returning viewers of last year’s Sparks! theme: future intelligence. Giving us a successful example of a collaborative method for future science, Muzlifah Haniffa gave a talk about the<strong><em> </em>“Human Cell Atlas”</strong>. Concluding the event this year, author Juan Enriquez reminded us of the importance of ethics and the changes in definition we will continue to be faced with in the future with his talk <strong>“Evolving technology changes ethics”</strong>.</p> <p>Given that multidisciplinarity is at the heart of Sparks! mission, we included two art pieces in the programme: <strong><em>SciArt Work: The Beauty of Blood Flow Analys</em></strong><em>is</em> by the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Medicine, and an extract from a film called <strong><em>Bringing Bones to Life</em></strong> about artist Amy Karle and her artwork <strong><em>Regenerative Reliquary</em></strong>. We believe that the inclusion of artistic pieces in the Talks programme not only allows the audience to take a break from the content-intensive presentations, but also helps us remember that, when talking about visions of the future, art has its place in the conversation.</p> </td> </tr></tbody></table></div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/21331" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thortala</span></span> <span>Thu, 02/02/2023 - 15:43</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-02-02T14:39:33Z">Thu, 02/02/2023 - 15:39</time> </div> </div> Thu, 02 Feb 2023 14:43:57 +0000 thortala 186913 at https://home.web.cern.ch W boson turns 40 https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/physics/w-boson-turns-40 <span>W boson turns 40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Exactly four decades ago today, on 25 January 1983, physicists at CERN announced to the world that they had observed a new elementary particle – the <a href="/science/physics/w-boson-sunshine-and-stardust">W boson</a>. Together with its electrically neutral counterpart, the <a href="/science/physics/z-boson">Z boson</a>, which was discovered later in the same year, the electrically charged W boson mediates the weak force, one of nature’s four fundamental forces.</p> <p>Through this force, the W boson enables the nuclear fusion reaction that powers the Sun, without which life as we know it would not be possible. The W boson is also responsible for a form of radioactivity, called radioactive beta decay, that is widely used in medicine.</p> <p>The W boson’s discovery was the result of an idea proposed in 1976 by Carlo Rubbia, Peter McIntyre and David Cline. The trio of physicists suggested converting CERN’s largest accelerator at the time, the <a href="/about/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron</a> (SPS), from an accelerator of protons into a machine to collide protons and antiprotons (the protons’ <a href="/science/physics/antimatter">antimatter</a> equivalents) at a high enough energy to produce W and Z bosons. Together with Simon van der Meer’s ingenious “<a href="/science/engineering/stochastic-cooling">stochastic cooling</a>” technique, which made it possible to reduce the size and increase the density of a proton and, later, an antiproton beam, this bold idea allowed the <a href="/science/experiments/ua1">UA1</a> and <a href="/science/experiments/ua2">UA2</a> experiments that were built around the converted SPS to begin hunting for the W and Z bosons in 1981.</p> <p>Two years later, in a seminar on 20 January 1983 held in CERN’s Main Auditorium, Rubbia, spokesperson of the UA1 collaboration, <a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/1507644">revealed</a> six candidate collision events for the W boson. The following afternoon, Luigi Di Lella of the UA2 collaboration presented four candidate W events and, on 25 January 1983, CERN <a href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/854078/files/CM-P00053948.pdf">delivered</a> the news of the discovery of the new particle to the world.</p> <p>And if that wasn’t enough to celebrate and crown the success of the converted SPS, the W boson discovery was followed a few months later by that of the <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/854195/files/CM-P00053964.pdf">Z boson</a>, indirect evidence for which had been obtained a decade earlier at CERN’s <a href="/science/experiments/gargamelle">Gargamelle</a> bubble chamber.</p> <p>The observations of the W and Z bosons further confirmed the theory of the electroweak interaction that unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces and <a href="/news/series/higgs10/higgs10-three-quarters-way-there">demands</a> the existence of the <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a>, which was found at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC) in 2012. Developed in the 1960s by <a href="https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1979/summary/">Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg</a> and cemented in the 1970s by <a href="https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1999/summary/">Gerard ‘t Hooft and Martinus Veltman</a>, this theory is now a cornerstone of the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics.</p> <p>The W and Z discoveries were recognised with the <a href="https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1984/summary/">1984 Nobel Prize in Physics</a> for Rubbia and Van der Meer, and helped secure the decision to build CERN’s next big accelerator, the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-electron-positron-collider">Large Electron–Positron Collider</a> (LEP), which went on to study the W and Z bosons in detail.</p> <p>Forty years on, and after many investigations at LEP and other colliders, including the LHC, the W and Z bosons continue to show their stripes and provide physicists with new ways of exploring the properties and behaviour of matter at the smallest scales.</p> <p>To give a couple of examples, in 2021 the <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> collaboration reported the <a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2021-039/">observation</a> of the rare simultaneous production of three W bosons, and <a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> obtained a <a href="https://cms-results.web.cern.ch/cms-results/public-results/preliminary-results/SMP-18-014/index.html">high-precision measurement</a> of the transformation of Z bosons into invisible particles. And in 2022, based on data collected by the former <a href="https://www.fnal.gov/pub/tevatron/tevatron-accelerator.html">Tevatron</a> accelerator, the CDF collaboration <a href="https://news.fnal.gov/2022/04/cdf-collaboration-at-fermilab-announces-most-precise-ever-measurement-of-w-boson-mass/">announced</a> the most precise ever measurement of the W boson mass. However, the CDF W boson mass value is in <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/cdf-sets-w-mass-against-the-standard-model/">tension with previous results</a>, including the first at the LHC by ATLAS and LHCb, calling for new measurements with increased precision.</p> <p>Research into these and other facets of the W and Z bosons will continue at the LHC and its planned upgrade, the <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a>.</p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/CERN-MOVIE-2013-003-001?showTitle=true" width="640"></iframe>Carlo Rubbia, spokesperson of the UA1 collaboration, revealing six candidate W boson events in a seminar on 20 January 1983. (Video: CERN)</p> <p><em>Read the <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/remembering-the-w-discovery/">CERN Courier article</a> remembering the discovery of the particle.</em></p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 01/24/2023 - 15:52</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/ana-lopes" hreflang="en">Ana Lopes</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-01-25T09:00:00Z">Wed, 01/25/2023 - 10:00</time> </div> </div> Tue, 24 Jan 2023 14:52:08 +0000 abelchio 186816 at https://home.web.cern.ch Colliding particles not cars: CERN's machine learning could help self-driving cars https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/knowledge-sharing/colliding-particles-not-cars-cerns-machine-learning-could-help-self <span>Colliding particles not cars: CERN&#039;s machine learning could help self-driving cars</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In the future, autonomous or self-driving cars are expected to considerably reduce the number of road accident fatalities. Advancing developments on this revolutionary road, CERN and car-safety software company Zenseact have just completed a <a href="https://zenseact.com/thinking-fast-and-getting-it-right-software-company-zenseact-and-cern-wrap-up-joint-research-project-around-the-acceleration-of-deep-learning-algorithms/">three-year project</a> researching machine-learning models to enable self-driving cars to make better decisions faster and thus avoid collisions.</p> <p>When it comes to capturing data from collisions, CERN also requires fast and efficient decision making while analysing the millions of particle collisions produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detectors. Its unique capabilities in data analysis are what brought CERN and Zenseact together to investigate how the high-energy physics organisation’s machine-learning techniques could be applied to the field of autonomous driving. Focusing on “computer vision”, which helps the car analyse and respond to its external environment, the goal of this collaboration was to make deep-learning techniques faster and more accurate.</p> <p>“Deep learning has strongly reshaped computer vision in the last decade, and the accuracy of image-recognition applications is now at unprecedented levels. But the results of our research with CERN show that there’s still room for improvement when it comes to autonomous vehicles,” says Christoffer Petersson, Research Lead at Zenseact.</p> <p>For processing the computer vision tasks, chips known as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) were chosen as the hardware benchmark. FPGAs, which have been used at CERN for many years, are configurable integrated circuits that can execute complex decision-making algorithms in micro-seconds. The researchers found that significantly more functionality could be packed into the FPGA by optimising existing resources. The best part is that tasks could be performed with high accuracy and short latency, even on a processing unit with limited computational resources.</p> <figure role="group"><img alt="An FPGA-based readout card for the CMS tracker at CERN (Image: CERN)" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e764a059-bb34-4367-b4de-405beaacebfd" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/ndinmore/Zenseact_FPGA%20image_1.jpeg" width="960" height="540" loading="lazy" /><figcaption>An FPGA-based readout card for the CMS tracker at CERN (Image: CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>“Our work together elucidated compression techniques in FPGAs that could also have a significant effect on increasing processing efficiency in the LHC data centres. With machine-learning platforms setting the stage for next-generation solutions, future development of this research area could be a major contribution to multiple other domains, beyond high-energy physics,” says Maurizio Pierini, Physicist at CERN.</p> <p>The same techniques can also be used to improve algorithmic efficiency while maintaining accuracy in a wide range of domains, from energy efficiency gains in data centres to cell screening for medical applications.</p> <p> </p> <figure class="cds-video" id="OPEN-VIDEO-2023-016-002"><div><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="450" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/OPEN-VIDEO-2023-016-002" width="100%"></iframe></div> <figcaption>Colliding particles not cars: CERN's machine learning could help self-driving cars<span> (Video: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>___________________________</p> <p><em>CERN’s technologies and expertise are available for scientific and commercial purposes through a variety of technology transfer opportunities. Visit <a href="https://kt.cern/">cern.kt</a> for more information. </em></p> <p><em>Open access links to scientific papers written as part of the project can be found <a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2632-2153/ac9cb5/pdf">here</a> and <a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2632-2153/ac0ea1/pdf">here</a>.</em></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/33989" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ndinmore</span></span> <span>Wed, 01/25/2023 - 09:33</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/priyanka-dasgupta" hreflang="en">Priyanka Dasgupta</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-01-25T08:21:16Z">Wed, 01/25/2023 - 09:21</time> </div> </div> Wed, 25 Jan 2023 08:33:14 +0000 ndinmore 186836 at https://home.web.cern.ch ATLAS delivers most precise luminosity measurement at the LHC https://home.web.cern.ch/news/news/physics/atlas-delivers-most-precise-luminosity-measurement-lhc <span>ATLAS delivers most precise luminosity measurement at the LHC</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>When the Large Hadron Collider (<a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">LHC</a>) is operating, it produces more than one billion proton–proton interactions every second. But exactly how many take place in the LHC experiments? Critical to every analysis of LHC data is a high-precision measurement of what is known as luminosity, that is, the total number of proton–proton interactions in a given dataset. It allows physicists to evaluate the probability of interesting proton–proton collision events occurring, as well as to predict the rates of similar-looking background processes. Isolating such events from the background processes is crucial for both searches for new phenomena and precision measurements of known <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> processes.</p> <p>The <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> collaboration has recently <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2212.09379">released</a> its most precise luminosity measurement to date. They studied data taken over the course of four years (2015–2018), covering the entire Run 2 of the LHC, to assess the total amount of luminosity delivered to the ATLAS experiment in that dataset.</p> <p>What exactly did this measurement entail? When proton beams circulate in the LHC, they are arranged in “bunches” each containing more than 100 billion protons. As two bunches circulating in opposite directions cross, some of the protons interact. Determining how many interactions there are in each bunch crossing provides a measure of the luminosity. Its value depends on the number of protons per bunch, how tightly squeezed the protons are and the angle at which the bunches cross. The luminosity also depends on the number of colliding proton bunches in each beam.</p> <p>ATLAS has several detectors that are sensitive to the number of particles produced in proton–proton interactions, and the average number of measured particles is often proportional to the average number of proton–proton interactions per bunch crossing. Researchers can therefore use this average to monitor the “instantaneous” luminosity in real time during data-taking periods, and to measure the cumulative (“integrated”) luminosity over longer periods of time.</p> <p>While ATLAS’s luminosity-sensitive detectors provided relative measurements of the luminosity during data taking, measurement of the absolute luminosity required a special LHC beam configuration that allows the detector signals to be calibrated. Once a year, the LHC proton beams are displaced from their normal position in order to record the particle counts in the luminosity detectors. This method is called a van der Meer beam separation scan, named after physics Nobel Prize winner Simon van der Meer, who developed the idea in the 1960s for application at CERN’s <a href="/science/accelerators/intersecting-storage-rings">Intersecting Storage Rings</a>. It allows researchers to estimate the size of the beam and measure how densely the protons are packed in the bunches. With that information in hand, they can calibrate the detector signals.</p> <p>Working in close collaboration with ATLAS researchers, LHC experts carried out van der Meer scans under low-luminosity conditions, with an average of about 0.5 proton–proton interactions per bunch crossing and very long gaps between the bunches. For comparison, the LHC typically operates with 20–50 interactions per bunch crossing, and with bunches closer together in a “train” structure. The researchers therefore need to extrapolate the results of the van der Meer scans to the normal data-taking regime using the measurements from the luminosity-sensitive detectors.</p> <p>Using this approach, and after careful evaluation of the systematic effects that can influence a luminosity measurement, ATLAS physicists determined the integrated luminosity of the full Run 2 dataset that had been recorded by ATLAS and certified as good for physics analysis, to be 140.1 ± 1.2 fb<sup>–1</sup>. For comparison, 1 inverse femtobarn (fb<sup>–1</sup>) corresponds to about 100 trillion proton–proton collisions. With its uncertainty of 0.83%, the result represents the most precise luminosity measurement at a hadron collider to date. It improves upon previous ATLAS measurements by a factor of 2 and is comparable with results achieved at the ISR experiments (0.9%).</p> <p><em>Read more on the <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/briefing/run2-luminosity">ATLAS website</a>.</em></p> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 01/24/2023 - 10:12</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Byline</b></div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/atlas-collaboration" hreflang="en">ATLAS collaboration</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-pub-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field--label"><b>Publication Date</b></div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2023-01-24T08:59:29Z">Tue, 01/24/2023 - 09:59</time> </div> </div> Tue, 24 Jan 2023 09:12:56 +0000 abelchio 186812 at https://home.web.cern.ch