News for general public feed https://home.cern/cern-community/news/rss en Key plans for the next two years of the LHC https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/key-plans-next-two-years-lhc <span>Key plans for the next two years of the LHC</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Letizia Diamante</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/152" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ldiamant</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/10/2018 - 13:33</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2650570" data-filename="201811-331_02" id="CERN-PHOTO-201812-331-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201812-331-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Passage of the LHC key for LS2" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201812-331-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Passing the baton, or, even better, the key <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As with everything in this world, scientific instruments have a limited life-span, and from time to time they need a revamp. But compared to other objects, a technical pause for the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a> involves thousands of international scientists, engineers and technicians, state-of-the-art technology, and… a huge key. <a href="/news/news/accelerators/lhc-season-2-holding-key-new-frontiers">Back in 2015</a>, after the LHC’s first long shutdown (LS1), the LS1 coordination team handed this key to the <a href="/science/accelerators/accelerator-complex">CERN Control Centre (CCC)</a> operators. Not to open a door, but as a simple gesture to symbolise a shift in responsibilities. The operators kept the key for almost three years, as they checked the performance of the machine 24/7. Today, <a href="/news/press-release/accelerators/lhc-prepares-new-achievements">after a successful machine run</a>, the operators mark the start of the second long shutdown (LS2), and pass the key to the LS2 coordinators to keep for the next two years.</p> <p>The first task of LS2 is to bring the machine back to room temperature. The LHC uses <a href="/science/engineering/superconductivity">superconductors</a> that work at the astonishing temperature of −271 °C. The warming process requires almost four months, as more than 100 tonnes of liquid helium need to be slowly removed. Then, major upgrades and improvements will start.</p> <p>Teams will be working to a tight schedule to improve the machine for both the short-term and long-term future, including preparations towards the <a href="http://hilumilhc.web.cern.ch">High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)</a> project foreseen for after 2025. Reaching the HL-LHC goals means delivering a more intense beam of particles to the LHC, and the team working on the injectors plan a series of modifications in the next two years. One includes replacing the now retired linear accelerator <a href="/news/news/accelerators/so-long-linac2-and-thanks-all-protons">Linac 2</a> with the new <a href="/news/press-release/cern/cern-celebrates-completion-linac-4-its-brand-new-linear-particle">Linac 4</a>. While Linac 2 accelerated protons, the new addition will accelerate hydrogen ions (H<sup>−</sup>), made of one proton and two electrons, along an almost 90-metre-long machine, placed 12 metres underground.</p> <p>The next accelerator in the chain, the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), will strip off the electrons of H<sup>-</sup>, leaving only protons. The negatively charged hydrogen ions coming from Linac 4 get attracted to the newly-obtained protons, and the result is a more intense, concentrated beam that will continue its journey towards the LHC. In order to cope with these new requirements, the PSB will be equipped with completely new injection and acceleration systems, and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the last injector before the LHC, will have a new radio-frequency system.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-HI-1308206-39"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HI-1308206-39" title="View on CDS"><img alt="LS1,Magnets,TI2,PMI2,LHC,dipole,descent,replacement" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HI-1308206-39/file?size=medium" /></a> <figcaption>Replacement of LHC dipole magnets during LS1<span> (Image: Anna Pantelia/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Of the many renovations taking place inside the LHC, teams will replace more than 20 magnets. They will also install new lifts to travel 100 metres underground to the LHC tunnel, innovative power converters and unprecedented <a href="/news/news/engineering/once-upon-time-there-was-superconducting-niobium-tin">superconducting technologies</a>. Teams will open up the interconnections between the LHC dipole magnets to consolidate the diodes, which are used to bypass the current from one magnet to the next in case of a rise in temperature. This is essential for the machine to reach a beam energy of 7 TeV, another objective of the HL-LHC upgrade.</p> <p>While engineers and technicians perform maintenance and consolidation underground, above ground, physicists sift through the wealth of data gathered so far. We will share the LS2’s key moments for both the accelerators and the experiments over the coming months.</p> </div> Mon, 10 Dec 2018 12:33:35 +0000 ldiamant 9587 at https://home.cern ESA subjects artifical-intelligence chip to tests at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/esa-subjects-artifical-intelligence-chip-tests-cern <span>ESA subjects artifical-intelligence chip to tests at CERN</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Fri, 11/30/2018 - 11:02</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2647358" data-filename="201811-301_03" id="CERN-PHOTO-201811-301-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-301-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Chip Intel Myriad2 tested at CERN" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-301-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> ESA have engaged Ubotica to test the space-worthiness of the Intel Myriad2 system-on-chip for space applications https://www.movidius.com/myriad2 <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>An <a href="https://www.esa.int/">ESA</a>-led team subjected Intel’s new <a href="https://www.movidius.com/myriad2">Myriad 2</a> artificial intelligence (AI) chip to one of the most energetic radiation beams available on Earth: the lead-ion beam delivered by CERN’s <a href="/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)</a> accelerator.</p> <p>The Myriad 2 harnesses artificial intelligence for high-performance, low-power vision processing. It can be pre-trained with data to recognise particular features and patterns or perform in-depth 3D sensing. ESA engineers are interested in harnessing the Myriad 2 to perform in-orbit image processing on future space missions, reducing the amount of data that needs to be sent back to Earth.</p> <p>“AI is a way of boosting the performance of any system with a camera in the loop,” explains ESA on-board computer engineer Gianluca Furano. “By autonomously figuring out the distance of an object from a camera and how fast it is moving it can take many more and better images. This also offers a means of enhancing guidance, navigation and control – for instance to capture drifting items of space debris.</p> <p>“And it could let us overcome the performance bottleneck faced by imaging instruments on <a href="http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Engineering_Technology/Technology_CubeSats">CubeSats</a> and other small satellites. Low data-downlink bandwidth due to a small antenna size and limited power levels stops us accessing all the imagery we could acquire. The Myriad 2 requires less than a watt of power, and would also let instruments identify features of interest autonomously – for instance, spotting sudden flood events or forest fires, then realising these need to be sent down to the ground.”</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-PHOTO-201811-301-10"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-301-10" title="View on CDS"><img alt="intel,ESA,myriad2" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-301-10/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption><p style="margin: 0.5em 0px;">The chip being installed for tests at CERN’s SPS <span>(Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)</span></p> </figcaption></figure><p>Like all candidate hardware to be flown in space, it first needs to be tested against radiation: space is riddled with charged particles from the Sun and further out in the cosmos. CERN provided the most intense beam of ultra-high-energy heavy ions available – short of travelling into orbit. This was made possible under CERN’s R2E (Radiation to Electronics) project and in anticipation of a collaboration between CERN and ESA on matters of radiation environments, technologies and facilities. This collaboration will help explore the potential of CERN technologies and facilities for aerospace applications. CERN has also been collaborating with Intel, through a public-private partnership known as <a href="https://openlab.cern/">CERN openlab</a>, since 2001.</p> <p>ESA put chips in a path of an experimental beamline fed by the SPS, CERN’s second largest accelerator, which is located in a circular tunnel nearly 7 km in circumference. The heavy ions from the SPS have a high penetration capability, thus enabling the in-depth test of complex packaged electronic systems, very difficult to test in other irradiation facilities.</p> <figure class="cds-video" id="CERN-VIDEO-2018-036-001"><div><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="450" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/CERN-VIDEO-2018-036-001" width="100%"></iframe></div> <figcaption>The Myriad 2 chip undergoes tests at CERN<span> (<a href="https://videos.cern.ch/record/2649821">Video: Jacques Fichet/CERN</a>)</span></figcaption></figure><p>The team donned hard hats and ventured into a ground floor ‘cave’ surrounded by protective concrete blocks to place items in the beam path, retreating upstairs before the beam was fired. The results are now under study.</p> <p>ESA is studying various space uses for the Myriad 2 chip as well as uses for maritime vessel recognition, based on the on-board integration of ‘Automatic Identification System’ signals from ships. Several other users from the aerospace community ran parallel tests in CERN’s North Area to use the unique characteristics of the SPS beam to simulate highly energetic galactic cosmic rays for calibrating scientific instruments or testing equipment capability to cope with the harsh environment of deep space.</p> <p><em>This piece is adapted from <a href="https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Engineering_Technology/ESA_team_blasts_Intel_s_new_AI_chip_with_radiation_at_CERN">a longer article originally published on the ESA website</a>.</em></p> <hr /><p>See more photos of the tests <a href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2647358">on CDS</a>.</p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360px" scrolling="no" src="https://cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-301/export?format=sspp"></iframe></p> </div> Fri, 30 Nov 2018 10:02:43 +0000 achintya 9480 at https://home.cern LHC prepares for new achievements https://home.cern/news/press-release/accelerators/lhc-prepares-new-achievements <span>LHC prepares for new achievements</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/152" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ldiamant</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/03/2018 - 10:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="1701358" data-filename="_B1A3495" id="CERN-PHOTO-201405-102-14"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201405-102-14" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Last sleeve welding splice consolidation for LS1 - SMACC." src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201405-102-14/file?size=small"/> </a> <figcaption> The Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation project which took place during the first Long Shutdown (LS1) <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Geneva, 3 December 2018. Early this morning, operators of the CERN Control Centre turned off the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), ending the very successful second run of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. CERN’s accelerator complex will be stopped for about two years to enable major upgrade and renovation works.</p> <p>During this second run (2015–2018), the LHC performed beyond expectations, achieving approximately 16 million billion proton-proton collisions at an energy of 13 TeV and large datasets for lead-lead collisions at an energy of 5.02 TeV. These collisions produced an enormous amount of data, with more than 300 petabytes (300 million gigabytes) now permanently archived in CERN’s data centre tape libraries. This is the equivalent of 1000 years of 24/7 video streaming! By analysing these data, the LHC experiments have already produced a large amount of results, extending our knowledge of fundamental physics and of the Universe.</p> <p>“The second run of the LHC has been impressive, as we could deliver well beyond our objectives and expectations, producing five times more data than during the first run, at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV,” says Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology. “With this second long shutdown starting now, we will prepare the machine for even more collisions at the design energy of 14 TeV.”</p> <p>“In addition to many other beautiful results, over the past few years the LHC experiments have made tremendous progress in the understanding of the properties of the <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a>,” adds Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General. “The Higgs boson is a special particle, very different from the other elementary particles observed so far; its properties may give us useful indications about physics beyond the Standard Model.”</p> <p>A cornerstone of the Standard Model of particle physics – the theory that best describes the elementary particles and the forces that bind them together – the Higgs boson was discovered at CERN in 2012 and has been studied ever since. In particular, physicists are analysing the way it decays or transforms into other particles, to check the Standard Model’s predictions. Over the last three years, the LHC experiments extended the measurements of <a href="/news/press-release/cern/atlas-and-cms-experiments-shed-light-higgs-properties">rates of Higgs boson decays</a>, including the most common, but hard-to-detect, decay into <a href="/news/press-release/physics/long-sought-decay-higgs-boson-observed">bottom quarks</a>, and the rare production of a Higgs boson in association with <a href="/news/press-release/cern/higgs-boson-reveals-its-affinity-top-quark">top quarks</a>. The <a href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/1806.00242.pdf">ATLAS</a> and <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.09936">CMS</a> experiments also presented updated measurement of the <a href="/news/press-release/physics/long-sought-decay-higgs-boson-observed">Higgs boson mass</a> with the best precision to date.</p> <p>Besides the Higgs boson, the LHC experiments produced a wide range of results and hundreds of scientific publications, including the discovery of exotic new particles such as <a href="/news/press-release/cern/lhcb-experiment-charmed-announce-observation-new-particle-two-heavy-quarks">Ξcc++</a> and <a href="/news/press-release/cern/cerns-lhcb-experiment-reports-observation-exotic-pentaquark-particles">pentaquarks</a> with the LHCb experiment, and the unveiling of so-far unobserved phenomena in <a href="https://home.cern/news/press-release/experiments/new-alice-experiment-results-show-novel-phenomena-proton-collisions">proton–proton and proton-lead collisions at ALICE</a>.</p> <p>During the two-year break, Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), the whole accelerator complex and detectors will be reinforced and upgraded for the next LHC run, starting in 2021, and the <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will start operation after 2025</a>. Increasing the luminosity of the LHC means producing far more data.</p> <p>“The rich harvest of the second run enables the researchers to look for very rare processes,” explains Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing at CERN. “They will be busy throughout the shutdown examining the huge data sample for possible signatures of new physics that haven’t had the chance to emerge from the dominant contribution of the Standard Model processes. This will guide us into the HL-LHC when the data sample will increase by yet another order of magnitude.”</p> <p>Several components of the accelerator chain (injectors) that feed the LHC with protons will be renewed to produce more intense beams. The first link in this chain, the linear accelerator <a href="/news/news/accelerators/so-long-linac2-and-thanks-all-protons">Linac2</a>, will be replaced by <a href="/news/press-release/cern/cern-celebrates-completion-linac-4-its-brand-new-linear-particle">Linac4</a>. The new linear accelerator will accelerate H− ions, which are later stripped to protons, allowing the preparation of brighter beams. The second accelerator in the chain, the Proton Synchrotron Booster, will be equipped with completely new injection and acceleration systems. The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the last injector before the LHC, will have new radio frequency power to accelerate higher beam intensities, and will be connected to upgraded transfer lines.</p> <p>Some improvements of the LHC are also planned during LS2. The bypass diodes – the electrical components that protect the magnets in case of quench – will be shielded, as a prerequisite for extending the LHC beam energy to 7 TeV after the LS2, and more than 20 main superconducting magnets will be replaced. Moreover, <a href="/news/press-release/accelerators/major-work-starts-boost-luminosity-lhc-0">civil engineering works for the HL-LHC that started in June 2018 will continue</a>, new galleries will be connected to the LHC tunnel, and new powerful magnet and <a href="/news/news/engineering/once-upon-time-there-was-superconducting-niobium-tin">superconducting technologies</a> will be tested for the first time. </p> <p>All the LHC experiments will upgrade important parts of their detectors in the next two years. Almost the entire LHCb experiment will be replaced with faster detector components that will enable the collaboration to record events at full proton-proton rate. Similarly, ALICE will upgrade the technology of its tracking detectors. ATLAS and CMS will undergo improvements and start to prepare for the big experiments’ upgrade for HL-LHC.</p> <p>Proton beams will resume in spring 2021 with the LHC’s third run.</p> <p><strong>More info:</strong><br /><br /><a href="https://cms.cern/news/end-of-LHC-run2">CMS news link</a><br /><a href="http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/Welcome.html#Run2End">LHCb news link</a><br /><a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-news/atlas-completes-data-taking-run-2">ATLAS news link</a></p> </div> Mon, 03 Dec 2018 09:39:06 +0000 ldiamant 9491 at https://home.cern Untangling the origin of string theory https://home.cern/news/news/physics/untangling-origin-string-theory <span>Untangling the origin of string theory</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Matthew Chalmers</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Wed, 11/28/2018 - 18:09</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2632156" data-filename="201807-183_02" id="CERN-PHOTO-201807-183-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201807-183-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Gabriele Veneziano" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201807-183-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> photo of Gabriele Veneziano for Marilena Streit-Bianchi, on the subject of string theory. Veneziano is considered the founder of this theory. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In the summer of 1968, while a visitor in CERN’s theory division, theoretical physicist Gabriele Veneziano wrote a <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02824451">paper</a> titled “Construction of a crossing-symmetric, Regge behaved amplitude for linearly-rising trajectories”. He was trying to explain the strong interaction, but his paper wound up marking the beginning of string theory.</p> <p>“The reaction of the physics community came to me as a shock,” explains Veneziano in an <a href="https://cerncourier.com/the-roots-and-fruits-of-string-theory/">interview at CERN</a> earlier this year. “As soon as I had submitted the paper I went on vacation and did not think much about it. At the end of August 1968, I attended a conference in Vienna and found out, to my surprise, that the paper was already widely known and got mentioned in several summary talks.”</p> <p>The paper was an instant hit, states Veneziano, because the model answered several questions at once. But it was not apparent then that it had anything to do with strings, let alone quantum gravity. It took until 1973 for other theorists to prove this crucial link.</p> <p>“At that point it became clear that the original model had a clear physical interpretation of hadrons being quantised strings. Some details were obviously wrong: one of the most striking features of strong interactions is their short-range nature, while a massless state produces long-range interactions. The model being inconsistent for three spatial dimensions (our world!) was also embarrassing, but people kept hoping.”</p> <p>During the following decade, describes Veneziano, most people stayed away from string theory; the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model of particle physics</a> had just come to life and there was so much to do in order to extract its predictions and test it. “But fifty years on, the enthusiasm of young theorists is still clear and the field is atypically young,” he says. “Perhaps what motivates these scientists is the mathematical beauty of string theory, or the possibility of carrying out many different calculations, publishing them and getting lots of citations.”</p> <p>But is string theory any closer to describing reality? “People say that string theory doesn’t make predictions, but that’s simply not true. It predicts the dimensionality of space, which is the only theory so far to do so, and it also predicts, at tree level (the lowest level of approximation for a quantum-relativistic theory), a whole lot of massless scalars that threaten the equivalence principle (the universality of free-fall), which is by now very well tested. If we could trust this tree-level prediction, string theory would be already falsified. But the same would be true of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), since at tree level it implies the existence of free quarks.”</p> <p>“The usual argument is that you need unconceivably high energies to test string theory,” says Veneziano. “But the new incarnation of string theory can be falsified by large-distance experiments, provided we can trust the level of approximation at which it is solved. On the other hand, in order to test string theory at short distance, the best way is through cosmology. Around (i.e. at, before, or soon after) the Big Bang, string theory may have left its imprint on the early universe and its subsequent expansion can bring those to macroscopic scales today.”</p> <p><em>This is an extract of the </em><a href="https://cerncourier.com/the-roots-and-fruits-of-string-theory/"><em>full interview with Gabriele Veneziano in the CERN Courier</em></a><em>.</em></p> </div> Wed, 28 Nov 2018 17:09:29 +0000 cagrigor 9458 at https://home.cern First full satellite tested in CERN’s CHARM facility https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/first-full-satellite-tested-cerns-charm-facility <span>First full satellite tested in CERN’s CHARM facility</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Simon Olofsson</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2632094" data-filename="201803-181_02" id="CERN-Photo-201807-181-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-Photo-201807-181-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="CELESTA satellite" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-Photo-201807-181-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> CELESTA satellite <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>CHARM, a unique facility at CERN to test electronics in complex radiation environments, has now tested its first full space system: CELESTA (CERN Latchup and radmon Experiment STudent sAtellite). The micro-satellite was successfully tested and qualified in July under a range of radiation conditions that it can expect to encounter in space. </p> <p>The CELESTA cubesat, measuring just 10 cm<sup>3</sup>, is a technological demonstrator and educational project. It will play a key role in validating potential space applications of an existing CERN technology called RadMon, which was developed to monitor radiation levels in the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a>. By using RadMon sensors to measure radiation levels in low-Earth orbit, CELESTA will test if RadMon could be used in space missions that are sensitive to radiation, ranging from telecom satellites to navigation and Earth-observation systems.</p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" scrolling="no" src="https://videos.cern.ch/video/CERN-VIDEO-2018-029-001" width="560"></iframe></p> <figcaption>CELESTA (CERN Latchup and radmon Experiment STudent sAtellite) is an educational microsatellite project facilitated by CERN Knowledge Transfer in collaboration with the University of Montpellier and the European Space Agency. (Video: CERN)</figcaption><p>An additional goal of CELESTA is to demonstrate that the CHARM facility is capable of reproducing the low-Earth orbit radiation environment. This would provide a confirmation that CHARM can be used beyond its original use for high-energy physics, in this case for space applications. “CHARM benefits from CERN’s unique accelerator facilities and was originally created to answer a specific need for radiation testing of CERN’s electronic equipment,” explains Markus Brugger, deputy head of the engineering department and initiator of both the CHARM and CELESTA projects in the frame of the R2E (Radiation to Electronics) initiative. </p> <p>The radiation field at CHARM is generated through the interaction of a 24 GeV/c proton beam extracted from the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/proton-synchrotron">Proton Synchrotron</a> with a cylindrical copper or aluminium target. Different shielding configurations and testing positions allow for controlled tests to account for desired particle types, energies and fluences. It is the use of mixed fields that makes CHARM unique compared to other test facilities, which typically use mono-energetic particle beams or sources. For the latter, only one or a few discrete energies can be tested, which is usually not representative of the authentic and complex radiation environments encountered in aerospace missions. Most testing facilities also use focused beams, limiting tests to individual components, whereas CHARM has a homogenous field extending over an area of least one square metre, which allows complete and complex satellites and other systems to be tested. </p> <p>CELESTA has been developed by CERN in collaboration with the University of Montpellier and the European Space Agency (ESA). It was made possible with funding from the CERN Knowledge Transfer fund. “This is a very important milestone for the CELESTA project, as well as an historical validation of the CHARM test facility for satellites,” says Enrico Chesta, CERN’s aerospace application coordinator. </p> <p>Now fully calibrated, CELESTA will be launched as soon as a launch window is provided. When in orbit, its in-flight data will be used to validate the CHARM test results for authentic space conditions. </p> <p><em>This article is based on a </em><a href="https://cerncourier.com/satellite-premieres-in-cern-irradiation-facility/"><em>CERN Courier article</em></a><em>. Read more about how CERN bridges the gap between science and industry via the <a href="http://kt.cern/">CERN Knowledge Transfer website</a>.</em></p> </div> Wed, 28 Nov 2018 12:04:36 +0000 cagrigor 9456 at https://home.cern Using CERN magnet technology in innovative cancer treatment https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/using-cern-magnet-technology-innovative-cancer-treatment <span>Using CERN magnet technology in innovative cancer treatment</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Linn Tvede</div> <div class="field--item">Giovanni Porcellana</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Mon, 11/19/2018 - 22:56</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-11/Screen%20Shot%202018-11-19%20at%2022.50.02_0.png" width="911" height="623" alt="gantry design graphics" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">The new compact non-rotating gantry design enables the treatment of tumours from different angles using superconducting toroidal magnets (Image: Daniel Dominguez/CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Derived from developments in accelerators, detectors and computing, the state-of-the-art technologies behind particle physics have historically contributed to innovations in medical technologies. CERN’s latest addition to this is GaToroid, a novel superconducting and lightweight gantry that can surround a patient and potentially revolutionise the delivery of hadrons for therapies, including cancer treatment.</p> <p>Hadron therapy is an advanced radiotherapy technique using proton or ion beams to deliver precision treatment of tumours, sparing the surrounding healthy tissues from unwanted radiation. The intrinsic precision of this technique makes it particularly suitable for treating tumours in children or close to organs at risk. Furthermore, using rotating gantries to move the beam around the patient, medical doctors can irradiate the tumours from different angles, sparing even more of the surrounding tissue.</p> <p>Gantries are complex pieces of engineering, representing a considerable part of the installation costs and size, or footprint, in hadron therapy. Particularly for carbon ions, there are only two gantries in the world. The first one is at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center in Germany, measuring 25 metres in length and weighing more than 600 tonnes. The second one, in Chiba, Japan, is a superconducting gantry with a reduced size and weight, but with the added challenge of a rotating cryogenic system. While the therapeutic interest for carbon or other ions heavier than protons is increasing, the enormous size of today’s gantries, combined with the lack of viable standard technological solutions, poses relevant constraints on future hadron therapy facilities. </p> <p>Well aware of these challenges, CERN scientist and magnet expert Luca Bottura came up with a new, innovative gantry design based on a toroidal magnet concept, GaToroid, which bends the treatment beam without the need to rotate the structure. The gantry comprises a set of fixed, discrete superconducting coils constituting the toroidal magnet, and a bending device at the entrance of the structure to direct the beam at the right angle. Due to the use of superconductors, GaToroid will substantially reduce weight and footprint compared to conventional gantries, especially for ion beams. This invention was not the output of a dedicated research study, but a result of serendipity coming from Luca’s connection to other fields of applied science and his own professional experience.</p> <figure class="cds-video" id="OPEN-VIDEO-2018-053-001"><div><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="450" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/OPEN-VIDEO-2018-053-001" width="100%"></iframe></div> <figcaption>This animation shows how the superconducting toroidal magnets around the patient are used to direct an incoming hadron beam at the right angle to treat a tumour<span> (Video: Daniel Dominguez/CERN)</span><span></span></figcaption></figure><p>____________</p> <p><em>Luca Bottura presented his idea at the last Knowledge Transfer Seminar, </em><a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/754093/">GaToroid: A Novel Superconducting Compact and Lightweight Gantry for Hadron Therapy</a><em>, which was held on 22 November. Watch the recording <a class="bulletin" href="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2648720">here</a>. </em></p> <p><em>For previous features on hadron therapy, see the CERN Courier articles “</em><a href="http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/70784">Therapeutic Particles</a><em>” and “</em><a href="http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/70786">The changing landscape of cancer therapy</a><em>”.</em></p> </div> Mon, 19 Nov 2018 21:56:12 +0000 cagrigor 9240 at https://home.cern TEDxCERN: A remarkable elephant in the room https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/tedxcern-remarkable-elephant-room <span>TEDxCERN: A remarkable elephant in the room </span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Cristina Agrigoroae</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Mon, 11/26/2018 - 14:26</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2648449" data-filename="201811-305 03" id="CERN-PHOTO-201811-305-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-305-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="TEDxCERN 2018 - event" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-305-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As with each edition, this year’s TEDxCERN triggered a high dose of inspiration and raised a multitude of questions in terms of science, technology and the future of humankind. The “Elephant in the room” theme was matched by a carefully crafted script on burning issues and positive ways to address them. Never shying away from controversial questions and the risk aspects of each topic, the event highlighted the necessity for wise design and regulation of the technology we develop, rather than fearing progress.</p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">The first session was themed around the question “Will we destroy ourselves?” and combined a number of talks on issues of the digital age. Sinan Aral opened the show by approaching political, economic and health impacts of social media on society. He raised questions around “fake news” and the way we consume information. "Who gets to decide in society what's true and what's false? And who's checking the fact-checkers?" he asked. Later on, documentary-makers Hans Block and Moritz Riesenwieck cross-examined content moderation and its moral implications. Shermin Voshmgir, blockchain expert and director of the Research Institute for Crypto Economics at the Vienna University of Economics, discussed how cryptocurrencies are revolutionising the digital world. Maja Pantic gave an overview of Emotional Artificial Intelligence and the promises and risks of machine learning. Joanna J. Bryson concluded the first session’s talks with a psychological framing of AI and its intimate relationship with the human mind. </span></span></span></span></p> <div style="padding:56.25% 0 0 0;position:relative;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" mozallowfullscreen="" src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/266856933?title=0&amp;byline=0&amp;portrait=0" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;" webkitallowfullscreen=""></iframe></div> <figcaption>The first session closed with Poetic AI, an immersive digital experience created by the Ouchhh studio with AI data</figcaption><p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">Janice Chen, biologist and CRISPR pioneer from the University of California, Berkeley, opened the second session, with the question “Will we create new selves?” as its theme. She envisioned a future in which CRISPR, a genome editing technology, could provide real time diagnostics and potentially head off epidemics. The following speaker, Sanushka Naidoo discussed the potential of new biotechnology tools to address plant responses to pests and pathogens and possible solutions for the future of world-food production and sustainability. “Genetic Modification is a biotechnology that can benefit the hungry and the poor, but it is not accessible due to regulations based on fear and ignorance”, she said. Another topic at the heart of the session was the Anthropocene and the future of the Earth. Elena Bennett, a systems ecologist, provided a positive insight into the way humanity could pursue sustainable development by focusing on a conscious behaviour towards the environment. “It is time for us to start thinking about a radical and inspiring future", was her rallying call.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/fFeV8WxIZLk?rel=0" width="560"></iframe></p> <figcaption>TEDxCERN hosted the European premiere of a new TED Ed video created with the help of CNRS physicist David Lunney working at CERN, explaining the life cycle of a neutron star.</figcaption><p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">NASA astrophysicist, Dawn Gelino, explained the challenges linked to research on exoplanets. “There are more stars in our little galaxy than grains of sand in all of our beaches. We are small and insignificant in a vast universe,” she said in her mind-blowing talk on space exploration. Juan Enriquez, renowned TED speaker and life scientist, untangled some of the mysteries of today’s biology and genetics. “The new biology is proactive. Instead of looking for things, we are able to build them. What do we do with this stuff? Well, programmed life forms are going to change the world,” he claimed, adding that “we might only be one to two decades from generating life from scratch.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">To complete the futuristic charm of the show, Kevin Ramseier, Thomas Köppel and François Moncarey of CENC (Centre for numeric and corporal expression) engaged in a marvellous game with digital tools and the laws of physics, by creating a video dance performance where the dancer controls the visual and auditory matter, which they shaped into frequencies, oscillations and vibrations.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">In conclusion, the 2018 edition of TEDxCERN was incontestably a success and reached an unprecedented audience – over 900 present in the room and around 3000 watching the webcast from 32 different locations around the world. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">"TEDxCERN is a very powerful opportunity for putting across and engaging citizens in cutting-edge science, be it the science we do at CERN or research in other fields. It is very positive to see CERN taking a leading role in highlighting the “elephant in the room” aspects, promoting and mediating these discussions. It is strongly in line with the mission of the Lab of being a voice for fundamental research and its impact on society.” - Ana Godinho, CERN’s Head of Education, Communications &amp; Outreach.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">Stay tuned in the following weeks to watch the video recordings of each talk. In the meantime, enjoy the event in images</span><a href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2648449?ln=en"> </a><a href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2648449?ln=en"><span><span>here</span></span></a><span lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> Mon, 26 Nov 2018 13:26:48 +0000 cagrigor 9438 at https://home.cern Google and Micron join CERN openlab https://home.cern/news/news/computing/google-and-micron-join-cern-openlab <span>Google and Micron join CERN openlab</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Andrew Purcell</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Fri, 11/23/2018 - 11:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span>Last week, at the <span><span><a href="https://sc18.supercomputing.org/">2018 Supercomputing Conference</a></span></span> in Dallas, Texas, two new companies announced that they are joining <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/">CERN openlab</a></span></span>. CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership through which CERN collaborates with leading ICT companies to accelerate the development of the computing technologies needed by the high-energy physics research community. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>On Monday 12 November, <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/micron-technology-joins-cern-openlab">Micron Technology announced that they had joined CERN openlab</a></span></span>. As part of the work with CERN, Micron will develop and introduce a specially designed Micron memory solution that will be tested by researchers at CERN to rapidly comb through the vast amounts of data generated by experiments. Specifically, the technology will be tested in the data-acquisition systems of the <span><span><a href="/science/experiments/cms">CMS experiment</a></span></span> and the <span><span><a href="/news/press-release/experiments/first-particle-tracks-seen-prototype-international-neutrino">ProtoDUNE detectors</a></span></span>.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>“CERN collaborates openly with both the public and private sector, and working with technology partners like Micron helps ensure that members of the research community have access to the advanced computing technologies needed to carry out our groundbreaking work,” says Maria Girone, CTO at CERN openlab. “It is critical to the success of the Large Hadron Collider that we are able to examine the petabytes of data generated in a fast and intelligent manner that enables us to unlock new scientific discoveries.”</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>On Wednesday 14 November, <span><span><a href="https://cloud.google.com/blog/topics/inside-google-cloud/subatomic-particles-and-big-data-google-joins-cern-openlab">Google published a blog post</a></span></span> announcing that they had signed an initial agreement to collaborate with CERN through CERN openlab. Together, we are now exploring possibilities for joint research-and-development projects related to cloud computing, machine learning, and quantum computing. Google also participated in <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/cern-openlab-workshop-kicks-discussion-quantum-computing-high-energy-physics">a quantum-computing workshop organised at CERN earlier this month</a></span></span>.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>“CERN has an ambitious upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider, which will result in a wide range of new computing challenges,” says Alberto Di Meglio, head of CERN openlab. “Overcoming these will play a key role in ensuring physicists are able to make new ground-breaking discoveries about our universe. We believe that working with Google can help us to successfully tackle some of these challenges, as well as producing technical breakthroughs that can have impact beyond our research community.”</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>With 2018 marking the start of a new three-year phase for CERN openlab, there are now <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/resources">around 20 ongoing research-and-development projects</a></span></span>. <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/e4-computer-engineering-joins-cern-openlab">E4 computer engineering also joined CERN openlab last month</a></span></span>, bringing the total membership to <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/about-us">12 companies and nine research organisations</a></span></span>. During this phase, the collaboration is working to <span>address</span> many of the ICT challenges laid out in its latest <span><span><a href="https://openlab.cern/whitepaper">white paper</a></span></span>.</span></span></span></p> </div> Fri, 23 Nov 2018 10:46:55 +0000 cmenard 9328 at https://home.cern TEDxCERN: events worth experiencing this week https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/tedxcern-events-worth-experiencing-week <span>TEDxCERN: events worth experiencing this week</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Antonella Del Rosso</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Mon, 11/19/2018 - 09:34</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-11/TEDxCERN2018_SocialNetwork_Facebook%205-%20Highlighted%20Image_1200x717px.jpg" width="1201" height="717" alt="tedxcern banner" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">TEDxCERN 2018 is a whole series of events and initiatives taking place this week (Image: CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>TEDxCERN is in the starting blocks. Todayy, 19 November, and tomorrow, inspiring international scientists and world-renowned artists will gather in Geneva to discuss what evolution will bring us in the future. Even if you are not among the almost 1000 lucky holders of a ticket for the <a href="https://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/">main TEDx show</a> taking place at the <em>Bâtiment des Forces Motrices</em> in Geneva, keep reading. </p> <p>The organisers have planned various opportunities for people to take part in this year’s TEDxCERN event in person or online. This afternoon, the renowned TED speaker and author Juan Enriquez will give a <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/774122/">CERN colloquium</a> in the Council Chamber. The event is open to the CERN community and also available via a <a href="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/i774122">webcast</a>. Enriquez will discuss how life sciences will become the single biggest driver of the global economy and why physicists may end up driving biology. Almost in parallel, the Globe will become the venue for <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/765248/">panel discussions</a> featuring the TEDxCERN 2018 speakers. They will involve the audience in active discussions about digital human rights in a data-driven world and the ethics behind evolving humans – from DNA manipulation to humanoid robots. Although registration for the event is now closed, anyone can take part via <a href="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/i765248">webcast</a>.</p> <p>The main TEDxCERN 2018 event will start at 2 p.m. (CET) on Tuesday. It will address the elephant in the room, exploring the transformative scientific innovation that is affecting the world we live in and tackling the uncertainty of humanity’s destiny as a species. The premiere of a TED-Ed animation on neutron stars and gravitational waves, as well as a video recreating the magic atmosphere of the “Poetic AI” exhibition by Ouchhh creative studio, will feed your thirst for inspiration and imagination. All events are available online – just follow the links.</p> <p>Many institutes and various locations around the world, including the <a href="http://cui.unige.ch/fr/nouvelles/tedxcern2018/">University of Geneva</a>, will host parallel TEDxCERN events, screening the webcast feed live. There is still time to host <a href="https://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/participate">your own local event</a>, or simply connect to the main live feeds to enjoy the various events. For more details, see the <a href="https://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/home">TEDxCERN website</a>.</p></div> Mon, 19 Nov 2018 08:34:00 +0000 cagrigor 9037 at https://home.cern Exploring quantum computing for high-energy physics https://home.cern/news/news/computing/exploring-quantum-computing-high-energy-physics <span>Exploring quantum computing for high-energy physics</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Andrew Purcell</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Thu, 11/15/2018 - 10:13</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-11/Guide_MissiondossierScpoParis_0.jpg" width="944" height="745" alt="View of CERN&#039;s main auditorium with participants at the Openlab CERN quantum computing workshop" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing at CERN, at the CERN openlab workshop on quantum computing in high-energy physics (Image: Andrew Purcell/CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span>A first-of-its-kind workshop on quantum computing in high-energy physics took place at CERN last week, organised by <a href="https://home.cern/science/computing/cern-openlab">CERN openlab</a>. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>The <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider’s (LHC)</a> ambitious <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">upgrade</a> programme poses significant computing challenges in the coming years, so researchers are exploring innovative computing technologies, including quantum computing (see the <a href="https://cerncourier.com/viewpoint-quantum-thinking-required/"><em>CERN Courier</em> November 2018 viewpoint</a>).</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>“Quantum computing is no panacea, and will certainly not solve all the future computing needs of the HEP community,” says Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing at CERN. “Nevertheless, quantum computers are starting to be available; a breakthrough in the number of qubits could emerge at any time. Fundamentally rethinking our algorithms may appear as an interesting intellectual challenge today, yet may turn out as a major benefit in addressing computing challenges in the future.”</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>More than 400 people followed in person or via webcast, with the event kick-starting discussions of which activities within the high-energy physics (HEP) community could use quantum-computing technologies. Taking place from 5 to 6 November, it was organised by <a href="https://home.cern/science/computing/cern-openlab">CERN openlab</a>, a public-private partnership that CERN runs with leading ICT companies to accelerate the development of computing technologies needed by the LHC research community.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>The workshop brought members of the HEP community together with leading companies working on quantum-computing technologies including Intel, IBM, Strangeworks, D-Wave, Microsoft, Rigetti, and Google. Several large-scale research initiatives related to quantum-computing technologies were also presented at the event, including the EU’s Quantum Technologies Flagship project and projects at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>“Now is the right time for the HEP community to get involved and engage with different quantum-computing initiatives already underway, fostering common activities and knowledge sharing,” says Federico Carminati, CERN openlab CIO and chair of the event. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><em>For more details, read the full article and watch the recordings of the talks on the </em><a href="https://openlab.cern/cern-openlab-workshop-kicks-discussion-quantum-computing-high-energy-physics"><em>CERN openlab website</em></a><em>.</em></span></span></span></p> </div> Thu, 15 Nov 2018 09:13:16 +0000 cagrigor 6381 at https://home.cern Time for lead collisions in the LHC https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/time-lead-collisions-lhc <span>Time for lead collisions in the LHC</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Thu, 11/08/2018 - 18:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">The first lead-lead collisions of 2018 send showers of particles through the ALICE detector (Image: ALICE/CERN) </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span>The lead ion run is under way. On 8 November at 21:19, the four experiments at the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> - <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/alice">ALICE</a>, <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a>, <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/cms">CMS</a> and <a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb</a> - recorded their first collisions of lead nuclei since 2015. For three weeks and a half, the world’s biggest accelerator will collide these nuclei, comprising 208 protons and neutrons, at an energy of 5.02 teraelectronvolts (TeV) for each colliding pair of nucleons (protons and neutrons). This will be the fourth run of this kind since the collider began operation. In 2013 and 2016, lead ions were collided with protons in the LHC. </span></span></span></p> <figure role="group" class="align-left"><img alt="Event display of the first lead-lead nuclei collisions generated by the LHCb detector " data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="76c144da-cb97-4819-8a75-c1332890ebb1" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/cmenard/HINov18_2_0.png" /><figcaption>Event display from the first lead-lead LHC collisions in 2018, recorded by the LHCb detector. (Image: LHCb/CERN)</figcaption></figure><p><span><span><span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>Collisions of lead nuclei will allow physicists to study specific phenomena such as <a href="https://home.cern/science/physics/heavy-ions-and-quark-gluon-plasma">quark-gluon plasma</a>, a state of matter that is thought to have existed during the very first moments of the Universe, when the temperature was so high that quarks and gluons were not confined by the strong force into protons and neutrons. The previous runs with lead nuclei have already produced a vast amount of data about the properties of quark-gluon plasma. Evidence of many other phenomena, <span><span><span><span><a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/atlas-observes-direct-evidence-light-light-scattering"><span><span>including light-by-light scattering</span></span></a></span></span></span></span>, has also been found in heavy ion collisions.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Among the four LHC experiments, the ALICE experiment specialises in studies of the strong interaction and the quark-gluon plasma.</span> <span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">The experiment aims to perform more precise measurements of various phenomena, such as the melting and regeneration of <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a-30-year-adventure-with-heavy-ions/">quarkonia</a> – particles consisting of a heavy quark and anti-quark pair. A Facebook live event<a href="https://www.facebook.com/cern/"> </a>will take place on Tuesday 13 November at 4pm (CET) on <a href="https://www.facebook.com/cern/">CERN Facebook page</a>.</span></span></span><span><span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"></span></span></span></p> <figure class="cds-image breakout-right" id="CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2018-009-5"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2018-009-5" title="View on CDS"><img alt="Real Events,For Press" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2018-009-5/file?size=medium" /></a> <figcaption>One of the first lead-ion collisions in 2018 recorded by the CMS detector. <span> (Image: CMS/CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p><span><span><span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>The accelerator teams intend to rise to various challenges for the 2018 run.  <em>“We want to maximise the luminosity in order to generate as much data as possible and prepare for future runs, especially at the High-Luminosity LHC”</em>, says John Jowett, the physicist in charge of the LHC heavy ion runs. Luminosity is a key parameter of a collider that indicates the number of collisions that can be produced in a given period of time. During the last heavy ion run in 2015, the luminosity achieved was over three and a half times higher than the LHC’s design luminosity. This time the LHC team is aiming even higher. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>A new configuration of the accelerator optics has been implemented to increase the squeezing of the beams at the collision points. The next step will be to reduce the spacing between the bunches of nuclei that make up each beam, thereby increasing the number of bunches. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>The experts have been getting ready for the run for several months, carrying out extensive analyses and measurements to increase the performance of the injectors as the lead nuclei are actually prepared by a chain of four accelerators before being sent to the LHC.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>These heavy-ion collisions will last three and a half weeks, with the last beams scheduled for the morning of 3 December. </span></span></span></p> <figure role="group" class="align-left"><img alt="One of the first lead-lead collision recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2018." data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d25273fa-fbf9-4301-8fd3-661a6c1f4163" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/cmenard/vp1-event_display_110420355_1.png" /><figcaption>Event display of one of the first lead-lead collision recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2018. (Image: ATLAS/CERN) </figcaption></figure><p><span><span><span>The accelerators will then be shut down for a two-year technical shutdown that will allow major upgrades to be made to accelerators and detectors. </span></span></span></p> <p><em><strong>Watch the Facebook Live on Tuesday 13 November at 4pm (CET) on <a href="https://www.facebook.com/cern/">CERN Facebook page</a></strong></em></p> </div> Thu, 08 Nov 2018 17:57:04 +0000 cmenard 6242 at https://home.cern Welcome to the new CERN website https://home.cern/news/news/cern/welcome-new-cern-website <span>Welcome to the new CERN website</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Kate Kahle</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Mon, 11/05/2018 - 10:26</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-11/Screen%20Shot%202018-11-05%20at%2010.24.48_0.png" width="2356" height="1111" alt="Screenshot" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Responding to requests from online users, CERN’s new homepage provides more content upfront, with a long scroll to appeal to mobile users.</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p> </p> <p>CERN has launched its new <a href="https://home.cern/">home</a><a href="https://home.cern/">.</a><a href="https://home.cern/">cern</a> website, giving online users the chance to find out about the Organization in a new way. As well as a change of design, site navigation is now content-based instead of audience-based.</p> <p>Taking feedback from a 2017 workshop of CERN stakeholders as well as an online survey of more than 2000 website users, CERN’s scrolling homepage now includes more information. A new megamenu takes visitors deeper into the website quicker than before, not only for news but also for background information about the Laboratory itself, including new lists of frequently asked questions and a new science section with reference material about CERN’s research.</p> <figure role="group"><img alt="graph" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="04a609ba-156b-423c-8961-dcec192a07d2" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/cagrigor/Picture1.png" /><figcaption>A workshop of CERN stakeholders as well as an online survey of more than 2000 website users both called for content-based rather than audience-based navigation (Image: Everis)<br /> ​​​</figcaption></figure><p>CERN’s previous website, launched in 2012, asked users to identify themselves as either the public, CERN community, scientists or students and educators. The dilemma was that many visitors identified as more than one of these audiences.</p> <p>Now visitors can choose different ways to navigate the site, with content grouped into seven topics: physics, accelerators, engineering, computing, experiments, knowledge sharing and at CERN. More audiences have been added to the existing audiences: industry, policymakers and the media, with news items now tagged for multiple audiences to help users find relevant content faster, including news, announcements, opinion pieces and more.</p> <p>Press releases are incorporated into the new website, with press.cern now pointing to dedicated press room for media. Upcoming events and webcasts are now more prominently featured and a new resources section showcases images, videos and publications such as the annual report, <em>CERN Courier</em> magazine and the <em>Bulletin for the CERN community</em>.</p> <p>The main CERN website has undergone several changes in its past. By 1998, there was a public website under <a href="http://www.cern.ch" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline">www.cern.ch</a>. By 2005, this changed to public.web.cern.ch before the 2012 evolution to <a href="http://home.web.cern.ch" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline">home.web.cern.ch</a>, whose url changed to home.cern in 2015. In this latest evolution, the toolbar at the top of the website has remained, allowing the CERN community easy access to the directory page for useful links. Content will continue to evolve over time; for now, we wish you an enjoyable new online experience.</p> </div> Mon, 05 Nov 2018 09:26:25 +0000 cagrigor 6015 at https://home.cern New antimatter gravity experiments begin at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/new-antimatter-gravity-experiments-begin-cern <span>New antimatter gravity experiments begin at CERN</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Fri, 11/02/2018 - 10:58</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>We learn it at high school: release two objects of different mass in the absence of friction forces and they fall down at the same rate in Earth’s gravity. What we haven’t learned, because it hasn’t been directly measured in experiments, is whether <a href="https://home.cern/topics/antimatter">antimatter</a> falls down at the same rate as ordinary matter or if it might behave differently. Two new experiments at CERN, ALPHA-g and GBAR, have now started their journey towards answering this question.</p> <p>ALPHA-g is very similar to the <a href="https://home.cern/about/experiments/alpha">ALPHA experiment</a>, which makes neutral antihydrogen atoms by taking antiprotons from the <a href="https://home.cern/about/accelerators/antiproton-decelerator">Antiproton Decelerator</a> (AD) and binding them with positrons from a sodium-22 source. ALPHA then confines the resulting neutral antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap and shines laser light or microwaves onto them to measure their internal structure. The ALPHA-g experiment has the same type of apparatus for making and trapping antiatoms, except that it is oriented vertically. With this vertical set-up, researchers can precisely measure the vertical positions at which the antihydrogen atoms annihilate with normal matter once they switch off the trap’s magnetic field and the atoms are under the sole influence of gravity. The values of these positions will allow them to measure the effect of gravity on the antiatoms.</p> <p>The GBAR experiment, also located in the AD hall, takes a different tack. It plans to use antiprotons supplied by the <a href="https://home.cern/about/updates/2016/11/new-ring-slow-down-antimatter">ELENA deceleration ring</a> and positrons produced by a small <a href="https://home.cern/tags/linear-accelerator">linear accelerator</a> to make antihydrogen ions, consisting of one antiproton and two positrons. Next, after trapping the antihydrogen ions and chilling them to an ultralow temperature (about 10 microkelvin), it will use laser light to strip them of one positron, turning them into neutral antiatoms. At this point, the neutral antiatoms will be released from the trap and allowed to fall from a height of 20 centimetres, during which the researchers will monitor their behaviour.</p> <p>After months of round-the-clock work by researchers and engineers to put together the experiments, ALPHA-g and GBAR have received the first beams of antiprotons, marking the beginning of both experiments. ALPHA-g began taking beam on 30 October, after receiving the necessary safety approvals. ELENA sent its first beam to GBAR on 20 July, and since then the decelerator and GBAR researchers have been trying to perfect the delivery of the beam. The ALPHA-g and GBAR teams are now racing to commission their experiments before CERN’s accelerators shut down in a few weeks for a two-year period of maintenance work. Jeffrey Hangst, spokesperson of the ALPHA experiments, says: “We are hoping that we’ll get the chance to make the first gravity measurements with antimatter, but it’s a race against time”. Patrice Pérez, spokesperson of GBAR, says: “The GBAR experiment is using an entirely new apparatus and an antiproton beam still in its commissioning phase. We hope to produce antihydrogen this year and are working towards being ready to measure the gravitational effects on antimatter when the antiprotons are back in 2021”.</p> <p>Another experiment at the AD hall, AEgIS, which has been in operation for several years, is also working towards measuring the effect of gravity on antihydrogen using yet <a href="https://home.cern/about/experiments/aegis">another approach</a>. Like GBAR, AEgIS is also hoping to produce its first antihydrogen atoms this year.</p> <p>Discovering any difference between the behaviour of antimatter and matter in connection with gravity could point to a quantum theory of gravity and perhaps cast light on why the universe seems to be made of matter rather than antimatter.</p> <figure><div><iframe allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/0bgyi4skk9s?rel=0" width="560"></iframe></div> <figcaption>Jeffrey Hangst at the Antiproton Decelerator hall, explaining the ALPHA-g set-up in the run-up to the start of the experiment. (Video: Jacques Fichet/CERN)</figcaption></figure></div> Fri, 02 Nov 2018 09:58:31 +0000 abelchio 6000 at https://home.cern Chasing a particle that is its own antiparticle https://home.cern/news/news/physics/chasing-particle-its-own-antiparticle <span>Chasing a particle that is its own antiparticle</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 10/30/2018 - 15:56</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">The ATLAS experiment at CERN. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Neutrinos weigh almost nothing: you need at least 250 000 of them to outweigh a single electron. But what if their lightness could be explained by a mechanism that needs neutrinos to be their own antiparticles? The <a href="https://home.cern/about/experiments/atlas">ATLAS collaboration at CERN</a> is looking into this, using data from high-energy proton collisions collected at the <a href="https://home.cern/topics/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> (LHC). </p> <p>One way to explain neutrinos’ extreme lightness is the so-called <a href="https://home.cern/about/updates/2017/09/lhc-rocks-seesaw-model">seesaw mechanism</a>, a popular extension of the <a href="https://home.cern/about/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> of particle physics. This mechanism involves pairing up the known light neutrinos with hypothetical heavy neutrinos. The heavier neutrino plays the part of a larger child on a seesaw, lifting the lighter neutrino to give it a small mass. But for this mechanism to work, both neutrinos need to be “Majorana” particles: particles that are indistinguishable from their <a href="https://home.cern/topics/antimatter">antimatter</a> counterparts.</p> <p>Antimatter particles have the same mass as their corresponding matter particles but have the opposite electric charge. So, for example, an electron has a negative electric charge and its antiparticle, the positron, is positive. But neutrinos have no electric charge, opening up the possibility that they could be their own antiparticles. Finding heavy Majorana neutrinos could not only help explain neutrino mass, it could also lead to a better understanding of why matter is much more abundant in the universe than antimatter.</p> <p>In an extended form of the seesaw model, these heavy Majorana neutrinos could potentially be light enough to be detected in LHC data. In a <a href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.11105.pdf">new paper</a>, the ATLAS collaboration describes the results of its latest search for hints of these particles. </p> <p>ATLAS looked for instances in which both a heavy Majorana neutrino and a “right-handed” <a href="https://home.cern/about/physics/w-boson-sunshine-and-stardust">W boson</a>, another hypothetical particle, could appear. They used LHC data from collision events that produce two “jets” of particles plus a pair of energetic electrons or a pair of their heavier cousins, muons.</p> <p>The researchers compared the observed number of such events with the number predicted by the Standard Model. They found no significant excess of events over the Standard Model expectation, indicating that no right-handed W bosons and heavy Majorana neutrinos took part in these collisions.</p> <p>However, the researchers were able to use their observations to exclude possible masses for these two particles. They excluded heavy Majorana neutrino masses up to about 3 TeV, for a right-handed W boson with a mass of 4.3 TeV. In addition, they explored for the first time the hypothesis that the Majorana neutrino is heavier than the right-handed W boson, placing a lower limit of 1.5 TeV on the mass of Majorana neutrinos. Further studies should be able to put tighter limits on the mass of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the hope of finding them – if, indeed, they exist.</p> </div> Tue, 30 Oct 2018 14:56:08 +0000 abelchio 5955 at https://home.cern TEDxCERN returns with ‘The Elephant in the Room' https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/tedxcern-returns-elephant-room <span>TEDxCERN returns with ‘The Elephant in the Room&#039;</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Wed, 10/31/2018 - 16:29</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-10/TEDxCERN_0.jpg" width="1440" height="961" alt="Conference talk" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">A picture from the 2015 TEDxCERN event (Image: CERN) </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The fifth edition of TEDxCERN returns this year on 20 November at <em>Bâtiment de Forces Motrices</em> in Geneva, from 14:00 to 18:30 CET, with the theme ‘The Elephant in the Room’. The event aims at bringing to the forefront challenges in the realms of science and society that go unnoticed.</p> <p><em>“Society is dependent on scientific and technological development. There’s a gap between those who develop and those who consume. This event tackles the polarization that has occurred as a consequence, and asks the question: will we destroy or recreate ourselves?”</em> says Claudia Marcelloni, project leader and curator of the event.</p> <p>TEDxCERN seeks ways to understand, engage with and find solutions to one of the main challenges of our time: the incertitude of humanity’s destiny as a species. Fourteen speakers and thought-leaders will explore the kind of transformative scientific innovation that is impacting our world through the perspectives of their disciplines, ranging from biotechnology, genomics, systems ecology, artificial intelligence to blockchain and astrophysics. They will discuss contradictions in these disciplines and illustrate the disconnect between our science-dependent society and the science on which it is built.</p> <p><em>“CERN promotes scientific inquiry and the sharing of knowledge to better understand our world. TEDxCERN is a platform that shares insights from different scientific fields, intersecting their relevance to society, opening doors to new opportunities for personal engagement in confronting the challenges of today,”</em> says Charlotte Warakaulle, CERN Director for International Affairs.</p> <p>Preceding TEDxCERN, two panel discussions titled ‘Trust and Rights in the Digital Age’ and ‘Future Ethics’ will be held on 19 November (17:00 to 20:00) at the Globe of Science and Innovation, featuring TEDxCERN speakers. Documentary filmmakers of <em>The Cleaners</em>, Hans Block and Moritz Riesewieck, author of <em>Hyper Machine</em>, Sinan Aral, and director of Blockchain Hub, Shermin Voshmgir, will discuss the first topic. Author of <em>Evolving Ourselves, </em>Juan Enriquez, professor of Affective and Behavioral Computing, Maja Pantic, and founder of the University of Bath’s Intelligent Systems research group, Joanna J Bryson, will discuss the second.</p> <p>Since its first edition in 2013, TEDxCERN has received global acclaim and has become an important idea-sharing platform and a renowned TEDx event. With more than 80 talks from leaders of science and technology, 15 million views and tens of thousands of social-media mentions, it showcases ideas worth spreading.</p> <p>TEDxCERN is a CERN outreach event and part of the CERN &amp; Society programme. CERN &amp; Society activities are only possible thanks to voluntary support received from partners, for example Rolex and its long-standing association with the Organisation. The 2018 TEDxCERN is also supported by <em>Fondation Didier et Martine Primat</em>; with additional contributions received from <em>Le Temps</em> as official media partner.</p> <p>A limited number of places for the TEDxCERN mainstage are available to the general public. Those interested must apply for tickets through the <a href="http://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/attend-2016">TEDxCERN</a> website. The event will also be broadcast live <a href="https://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/participate">online</a> and at a number of <a href="http://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/simulcast">webcast partner institutions</a>.</p> <p>Further information about the <a href="http://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/">event</a> and the <a href="http://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/speakers">speakers</a></p> <ul><li><a href="http://www.facebook.com/tedxcern" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li> <li><a href="http://twitter.com/tedxcern" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Twitter</a></li> </ul></div> Wed, 31 Oct 2018 15:29:46 +0000 cagrigor 5991 at https://home.cern Art residencies for Swiss artists at research centres https://home.cern/news/news/cern/art-residencies-swiss-artists-research-centres <span>Art residencies for Swiss artists at research centres</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Abha Eli Phoboo</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 10/30/2018 - 16:05</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-10/Arts%20at%20CERN_0.jpg" width="1440" height="961" alt="Two artists" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Laura Couto Rosado, winner of Collide Pro Helvetia 2017, with scientific partner James Beacham. (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Arts at CERN announces two residencies for Swiss artists: Collide Pro Helvetia and <em>Simetría.</em> The residencies give artists the opportunity to explore scientific ideas and technological concepts while engaging in innovative discourses to further their artistic expression.</p> <p>Collide Pro Helvetia is a three-month long fully funded residency granted to a Switzerland-based artist working in digital art. Interested artists can submit their project and apply until 10 December 2018. A jury of experts from the arts and sciences will select the winner who will begin their residency in 2019. The artist will be working with particle physicists, engineers and IT professionals at CERN to extend their own artistic research.</p> <p><em>Simetría, </em>a new ambitious residential exchange programme, allows artists to carry out their artistic enquiry in relation to astronomy and particle physics at some of the world’s most important scientific research centres. The Chilean artist Nicole L’Huillier and the Swiss artist Alan Bogana have been selected from a list of nominations by a jury of art and science experts. They will be invited to carry out their residences in Switzerland at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics, and in Chile at <a href="https://www.eso.org/public/" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">European Southern Observatory’s VLT (Very Large Telescope)</a> and <a href="https://www.almaobservatory.org/en/home/" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array)</a>observatory (ESO/<a href="https://www.nao.ac.jp/en/" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">NAOJ</a>/<a href="https://public.nrao.edu/" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">NRAO</a>).</p> <p><em>“The primary objective of Arts at CERN is to open extraordinary new ways for dialogue between artists and scientists. I am particularly proud to announce these two residencies, as they will both contribute greatly to the challenge of art and science at scientific research centres,” </em>says Mónica Bello, Head of Arts at CERN.</p> <p>Created in partnership with the Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia, the goal of these initiatives is to establish networks with local, regional and international organisations to foster platforms intersecting science and arts. <em>Simetría</em>, launched with support from Pro Helvetia <em>Coincidencia</em>, the Swiss-South America exchange programme, and the Ministry of Culture, Art and Heritage in Chile, is a joint cooperation between Arts at CERN, ALMA, ESO and the Corporación Chilena de Video.</p> <p>Online applications for <a href="https://arts.cern/">Collide Pro Helvetia</a></p> <p>Further information:</p> <p><a href="http://cern.ch/arts/">Arts at CERN website</a><br /> info.arts@cern.ch<br /><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ArtsatCERN/">Facebook</a><br /><a href="https://twitter.com/ArtsAtCERN">Twitter @artsatCERN</a></p> </div> Tue, 30 Oct 2018 15:05:24 +0000 cagrigor 5956 at https://home.cern Final lap of the LHC track for protons in 2018 https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/final-lap-lhc-track-protons-2018 <span>Final lap of the LHC track for protons in 2018</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Tue, 10/30/2018 - 14:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2018-10/lhc-tunnel-2302977_0.jpg" width="1440" height="885" alt="View of the LHC tunnel" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">View of the LHC accelerator in 2018. (Image: Maximilien Brice, Julien Ordan/CERN)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, protons said their goodbyes to the <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/fr/topics/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> during a last lap of the track. At 6 a.m., the beams from fill number 7334 were ejected towards the beam dumps. It was the LHC’s last proton run from now until 2021, as CERN’s accelerator complex will be shut down from 10 December to undergo a full renovation.</p> <figure><img alt="" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/image/inline-images/cmenard/proton-dumped-181024.png" /><img alt="LHC page 1" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9e253b52-a7be-4721-bf23-546ee723fc23" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/cagrigor/proton-dumped-181024.png" /><figcaption>LHC Page1, showing the operational state of the accelerator at 6.02 a.m. on Wednesday 24 October. The spiral represents the proton bunches stopped by the beam dump (Image: CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>Now is the time for the scientists who read the collisions meter to make a first assessment. The integrated luminosity in 2018 (or the number of collisions likely to be produced during the 2018 run) reached 66 inverse femtobarns (fb<sup>-1</sup>) for <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/about/experiments/atlas">ATLAS</a> and <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/about/experiments/cms">CMS</a>, which is 6 points better than expected. About 13 million billion potential collisions were delivered to the two experiments. <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/about/experiments/lhcb">LHCb</a> accumulated 2.5 fb<sup>-1</sup>, more than the 2.0 predicted, and <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/about/experiments/alice">ALICE</a> 27 inverse picobarns. The remarkable efficiency of the LHC this year is due to excellent machine availability and an instantaneous luminosity that regularly exceeded the nominal value. Since the start of the second run at a collision energy of 13 TeV, the integrated luminosity was 160 fb<sup>-1</sup>, higher than the 150 fb<sup>-1</sup> expected.</p> <p>However, this does not mean that the LHC runs are finished for this year. The show will go on for four more weeks, during which time the collider will master another kind of particle, lead ions (lead atoms that have been ionised, meaning they have had their electrons removed). After a few days of machine tests, the teams will inject these heavy ions, a run which have been prepared over recent months in the injectors. The collisions of lead ions allow studies to be conducted on quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that is thought to have existed a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang.</p> <figure><img alt="" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/image/inline-images/cmenard/lhc-integrated-luminosity-all-years.jpg" /><img alt="Graph showing LHC integrated luminosity" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="187cd9d1-6726-48e0-ba07-4f4746a45906" src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/inline-images/cagrigor/lhc-integrated-luminosity-all-years.jpg" /><figcaption>This graph shows the integrated luminosity delivered to the ATLAS and CMS experiments during different LHC runs. The 2018 run produced 65 inverse femtobarns of data, which is 16 points more than in 2017. (Image: CERN)</figcaption></figure></div> Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:01:21 +0000 cagrigor 5954 at https://home.cern Halfway to high luminosity https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/halfway-high-luminosity <span>Halfway to high luminosity</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Tue, 10/30/2018 - 13:45</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2633513" data-filename="201803-190_05" id="CERN-PHOTO-201808-190-5"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201808-190-5" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="HiRadMat HRM-45 experiment" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201808-190-5/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Assembly of HRMT-45 experiment. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The High-Luminosity LHC has reached its halfway point. The second-generation LHC project was launched eight years ago and is scheduled to start up in 2026, eight years from now. From 15 to 18 October, the institutes contributing to this future accelerator came together at CERN to assess the progress of the work as the project moves from prototyping to the series production phase for much of the equipment.</p> <p>The annual meeting is a chance to conduct a global review of the project – and global is the word, because, as project leader Lucio Rossi observes, “the High-Luminosity LHC is a worldwide project that has been worked on by an international collaboration since the very beginning”. As well as CERN’s Member States and Associate Member States, thirteen other countries are contributing to the project. New agreements have been signed recently with Japan and China and <a href="https://home.cern/cern-people/updates/2018/06/ground-breaking-ceremony-high-luminosity-lhc">an agreement with Canada was announced in June</a>. Representatives of the collaborating countries presented the status of their contributions during the plenary session. Some 1000 people are working on the project.</p> <p>The civil engineering work has progressed considerably since it began in the spring: excavations have reached 30 metres at Point 1 and 25 metres at Point 5. The two 80-metre shafts should be fully excavated by the beginning of 2019.</p> <p>As for the accelerator, one of the key tasks is the production of <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2017/06/future-lhc-takes-shape">around one hundred magnets of eleven different types</a>. Some of these, notably the main magnets, are made of a novel type of superconductor, niobium-tin, which is particularly difficult to work with. The short prototype phase is coming to an end for the quadrupole magnets that will replace the LHC’s triplets and focus the beams very strongly before they collide. The long quadrupole magnets (7.15 metres in length) are being produced at CERN, while those measuring 4.2 metres in length are being developed in the United States in the framework of the US LHC-AUP (LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project) collaboration. Several short prototypes have reached the required intensities on both sides of the Atlantic. Two long prototypes (4.2 metres) have been produced in the United States and the second is currently being tested. At CERN, the assembly of the first 7.15-metre-long prototype has begun.</p> <p>The dipole magnets at the interaction points, which divert the beams before and after the collision point, are being developed in Japan and Italy. One short model has been successfully tested at KEK in Japan and a second is in the process of being tested. INFN, in Italy, is also assembling a short model. Finally, progress is being made on the development of the corrector magnets at CERN and in Spain (CIEMAT), Italy (INFN) and China (IHEP), with several prototypes already tested. In 2022, a test line will be installed in hall SM18 in order to test a magnet chain at the interaction point.</p> <p>One of the major successes of 2018 is the installation in the SPS of a test bench with an autonomous cryogenic unit. The test bench houses two DQW (double-quarter wave) crab cavities, one of the two architectures chosen for this ground-breaking equipment. <a href="https://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2018/05/worlds-first-crabbing-proton-beam">The two cavities rotated the proton bunches as soon as the tests began in May</a>, marking a world first. The construction of the DQW cavities will continue while the second architecture, RFD (radiofrequency dipole), is developed in the United States. The production of this novel equipment is the result of an international endeavour by Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.</p> <p>Many other developments were presented during the symposium: new <a href="https://home.cern/cern-people/updates/2018/02/new-lhc-protectors">collimators have been tested</a> in the LHC; a beam absorber for the injection points from the SPS was tested over the summer and will be installed during the second long shutdown; a demonstrator for a magnesium diboride superconducting link is currently being validated; studies have been undertaken to test and adjust the remote alignment of all the equipment in the interaction region, etc.</p> <p>Over the four days, some 180 presentations covered a wide range of technologies developed for the High-Luminosity LHC and beyond.</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="CERN-PHOTO-201810-268-26"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201810-268-26" title="View on CDS"><img alt="Projects,HL-LHC,8th HL-LHC Collaboration Meeting" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201810-268-26/file?size=large" /></a> <figcaption>Some of the participants at the High-Luminosity LHC collaboration’s annual meeting during the first day of the symposium, on 15 October 2018 (Image: Maximilien Brice/Rachel Lavy/Julien Ordan/CERN)<span> (Image: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p> </p> </div> Tue, 30 Oct 2018 12:45:29 +0000 cmenard 5953 at https://home.cern Exhibition showcasing results of three years of arts and science collaborations https://home.cern/news/news/cern/exhibition-showcasing-results-three-years-arts-and-science-collaborations <span>Exhibition showcasing results of three years of arts and science collaborations</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/145" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">melissa</span></span> <span>Wed, 10/24/2018 - 16:41</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Installation view of Yunchul Kim’s Cascade at KCCUK. © Mark Blower</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Geneva, 16 October 2018. What happens when scientists and artists collide? Artworks resulting from three years of collaboration between physicists and Collide International artists-in-residence at CERN, the world’s largest particle physics laboratory, will be exhibited at <a class="ext" href="https://www.fact.co.uk/projects/broken-symmetries.aspx?selection=Exhibition&amp;when=futureevents" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Broken Symmetries<span aria-label="(link is external)" class="ext"></span></a> in FACT Liverpool, UK, from 22 November 2018 to 3 March 2019.</p> <p>Broken Symmetries comprises artworks by 10 international artists that delve into scientific fact and challenge our perception of reality by performing or interrogating theories and experiments.</p> <p>“<em>The process of learning through discovery in arts and science makes them well-suited partners in interdisciplinary work. The art displayed in this exhibition is a result of three years of intense dialogue between the Collide International artists-in-residence and physicists at CERN. It illustrates how scientists and artists can work together to create a culture that explores questions about the universe we live in,”</em> says Monica Bello, Head of <a href="https://arts.cern/">Arts at CERN</a> programme.</p> <p>Among those on display is Yunchul Kim’s <em>Cascade</em>, exploring the potentialities of matter by using the pattern of electrically charged subatomic particles called muons. Kim, a Seoul-based artist, was the recipient of Collide International 2016 artist-in-residence. When muons are detected, the experiments’ tubes flash with light. These beautiful objects visualise not only a kinetic experience, but also a living organism that interacts with its environment.</p> <p>Muons are among the elementary subatomic particles studied by CERN physicists. The signal they leave as they exit the ATLAS and CMS detectors on the Large Hadron Collider was a key physics signature in the discovery of the Higgs boson.</p> <p>“<em>We are thrilled to partner on a project which celebrates and showcases international collaborations. The last three years of collaboration between CERN and FACT have seen some of the most exciting artists working with science engage with the programme, creating works in which some of the most urgent questions of our time collide with the forefront of science</em>,” says Lesley Taker, Exhibitions Manager at FACT.</p> <p>The Arts at CERN programme fosters connection between science and arts by extending artistic practice and creating a space for artists to partner with physicists and engineers. Together, they are given the opportunity to explore different approaches to curiosity and creativity. Collide International, coordinated by Arts at CERN, collaborates with a leading international cultural institution for a three-year period. The artists are invited to further their artistic practice in connection with fundamental research at CERN during their three-month residency. For the period of 2016-2018, Collide International partnered with FACT Liverpool, the result of which is Broken Symmetries. After March 2019, Broken Symmetries, co-produced by the Science-Art Network for New Exhibitions and Research (ScANNER), will tour to ScANNER partner institutions: <a class="ext" href="http://www.cccb.org/en" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">CCCB<span aria-label="(link is external)" class="ext"></span></a> in Barcelona, <a class="ext" href="https://imal.org/" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">iMAL<span aria-label="(link is external)" class="ext"></span></a> in Brussels and <em><a class="ext" href="http://www.lelieuunique.com/" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">le lieu unique<span aria-label="(link is external)" class="ext"></span></a></em> in Nantes.</p> <p>Media representatives are invited to a press preview of Broken Symmetries on 22 November, 13:00-16:00 at FACT Liverpool, 88 Wood Street, L1 4DX, UK.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Further information:</strong></p> <p><a class="ext" href="https://www.fact.co.uk/news-articles/2018/10/broken-symmetries-a-new-exhibition-at-fact-liverpool-opening-22-november-2018.aspx" rel=" noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">FACT Press Release<span aria-label="(link is external)" class="ext"></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://arts.cern/event/broken-symmetries-international-exhibition-opens-fact-liverpool">Arts at CERN: <em>Broken Symmetries an international exhibition opens in FACT Liverpool</em></a></p> </div> Wed, 24 Oct 2018 14:41:25 +0000 melissa 5937 at https://home.cern CERN collaborates with Japan’s NII on digital libraries https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/cern-collaborates-japans-nii-digital-libraries <span>CERN collaborates with Japan’s NII on digital libraries</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Abha Eli Phoboo</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Thu, 11/01/2018 - 09:26</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>How we produce, share and preserve knowledge has transformed with advancements in technology and changes in publishing methods, especially in research. Particle physicists rely heavily on digital library platforms to archive, share and preserve research output. These platforms depend on <a href="https://inveniosoftware.org/" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Invenio</a>, a digital library framework CERN has been developing since 2002.</p> <p>This year, on 4 September, CERN signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Japan’s <a href="https://www.nii.ac.jp/en/" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">National Institute of Informatics</a> (NII). The event signals the beginning of a collaboration between the two organisations to extend Invenio with <a href="https://www.coar-repositories.org/files/NGR-Final-Formatted-Report-cc.pdf" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Next Generation Repository</a>capabilities as defined by the <a href="https://www.coar-repositories.org/" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Confederation of Open Access Repositories</a>.</p> <p>“The collaboration focuses on extending Invenio to become fully Next Generation compliant, which will consolidate CERN technology for digital repositories as the most modern repository framework in the market, making it more useful for any institution worldwide with the same needs. To have Invenio technology developed by two such important institutions will enable an efficient and diverse evolution of the software. This also highlights CERN’s capacity to generate technological value for society,” says Jose Benito Gonzalez Lopez, project coordinator.</p> <p>The future of research libraries rests in modern digital repositories. Here, research output, data and other materials can be curated, shared and archived for easy access from anywhere in the world. Invenio is now used by more than 60 institutions worldwide. Its latest version, Invenio 3, was redeveloped from scratch using modern technology, making it flexible and customizable. These features, which allow Invenio 3 to be extended to fit any system, were the main reason why NII chose its framework to develop a new version of WEKO, their own in-house digital repository system.</p> <p>“Before starting our collaboration, we carefully investigated existing open-source repository systems. By comparing its functionality, scalability, extensibility and also capability in international development, we reached the conclusion that Invenio is the best repository system. We are excited to work with the CERN team. Through our use case, we can show the huge potential of Invenio to the world.” says Masaharu Hayashi, project manager of WEKO, NII.</p> <p>WEKO, developed by NII in 2008, is used by more than 500 Japanese universities and research institutions through a cloud service. NII is an inter-university research institute that partners with industries and civilian organisations in Japan to promote academic information infrastructure. Within the outlines of the newly-signed MoU, NII will develop several functionalities for WEKO 3, which will contribute to Invenio 3’s framework. CERN and NII will work together in the development of modules related to Next Generation Repositories as both Invenio and WEKO evolve in the coming years. These modules and other tools will be integrated as open source into Invenio’s core structure to benefit the global research community. </p> </div> Thu, 01 Nov 2018 08:26:12 +0000 cagrigor 5993 at https://home.cern