News for general public feed https://home.cern/ en Particle physicists formulate future of the field https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/particle-physicists-formulate-future-field <span>Particle physicists formulate future of the field</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Matthew Chalmers</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Mon, 01/20/2020 - 13:12</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Physikzentrum Bad Honnef, venue for the drafting session of the European strategy for particle physics. (Image credit: Wikicommons/Birds-eye)</div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, senior figures in European particle physics are gathering in the small town of Bad Honnef, Germany, for a week of intense discussions that will guide the future of fundamental exploration. The “strategy drafting session” marks the final stage of discussions for the update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics.</p> <p>This update of the <a href="http://europeanstrategy.cern/">European Strategy for Particle Physics</a> began in September 2017. A <a href="/news/news/cern/call-input-european-strategy-update">call for input</a> in 2018 attracted <a href="/news/news/physics/future-particle-physics-europe-taking-shape">160 submissions</a> from the entire community, which were discussed at an <a href="/news/press-release/knowledge-sharing/granada-european-particle-physics-community-prepares-decisions">open symposium</a> in Granada, Spain, in May 2019. A 200-page <a href="/news/news/cern/briefing-book-2020-update-european-strategy-particle-physics">briefing book</a> then distilled the input into an objective scientific summary that forms the basis for discussions in Germany this week. The recommendations are due to be approved formally by the CERN Council on 25 May at an event in Budapest, Hungary.</p> <p>The focus of the latest strategy update, the third since 2005, is which major project should follow the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a> once its <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">high-luminosity phase</a> comes to an end in the late 2030s. There is broad support for an electron–positron collider that will explore the Higgs sector in detail, as well as for a high-energy proton–proton collider at CERN. In Europe, the possible options are the <a href="/science/accelerators/compact-linear-collider">Compact Linear Collider</a> and the<a href="/science/accelerators/future-circular-collider"> Future Circular Collider</a>, while an<a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/international-committee-backs-250-gev-ilc/"> International Linear Collider</a> (ILC) in Japan and a large <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/chinas-bid-for-a-circular-electron-positron-collider/">Circular Electron–Positron Collider </a>in China are also contenders. The strategy update will also consider non-collider experiments, computing, instrumentation and other key aspects of growing importance to the field such as energy efficiency and communication.</p> <p>During her annual address to personnel on 14 January, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti acknowledged the enormous efforts that have gone into the strategy update, and said that she hoped that a recommendation on CERN’s next major collider would be among the strategy update’s priorities.</p> <p>“The start of a new project in the early 2040s is crucial to keeping the community motivated and engaged,” said Gianotti, noting that CERN and Europe should also be open to participating in projects at the forefront of particle physics elsewhere in the world. “The <a href="/science/physics/higgs-boson">Higgs boson</a> is a guaranteed deliverable. It is related to the most obscure and problematic sector of the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> and carries special quantum numbers and a new type of interaction. It is therefore a unique door into new physics, and one that can only be studied at colliders.”</p> <p>The previous strategy update, which concluded in 2013, made several high-priority recommendations: the full exploitation of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors; R&amp;D and design studies for a future energy-frontier machine at CERN; establishing a <a href="/science/experiments/cern-neutrino-platform">neutrino programme</a> at CERN for physicists to develop detectors for experiments at accelerator-based neutrino facilities around the world; and the welcoming of a proposal from Japan to discuss the possible participation of Europe in the ILC. The first three are well under way, while a decision on the ILC still rests with the Japanese government. Other conclusions of the 2013 update included the need for closer collaboration with the astroparticle and nuclear physics communities, which has been met, for example, via the recently launched centre for astroparticle physics theory (<a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/a-new-centre-for-astroparticle-theory/">EuCAPT</a>) and the new Joint ECFA-NuPECC-APPEC Seminar series, <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/european-astroparticle-nuclear-and-particle-physicists-join-forces/">JENAS</a>. There was also a call for greater scientific diversity, leading to the CERN-led <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/physics-beyond-colliders-initiative-presents-main-findings/">Physics Beyond Colliders</a> initiative, which will also form a central part of this week’s discussions.</p> <p><em>This text was originally published on <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/strategy-drafting-under-way-in-bad-honnef/">cerncourier.com</a></em></p> </div> Mon, 20 Jan 2020 12:12:16 +0000 katebrad 94928 at https://home.cern LHCb explores the beauty of lepton universality https://home.cern/news/news/physics/lhcb-explores-beauty-lepton-universality <span>LHCb explores the beauty of lepton universality</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 01/14/2020 - 16:34</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2215424" data-filename="Img0020" id="CERN-PHOTO-201609-209-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201609-209-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="LHCb experiment cavern at LHC- IP 8" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201609-209-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> LHCb experiment cavern at LHC IP8 in September 2016 during technical stop with Gloria Corti (LHC Radiation and Safety) <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The LHCb collaboration has reported an intriguing new result in its quest to test a key principle of the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a> called lepton universality. Although not statistically significant, the finding – a possible difference in the behaviour of different types of lepton particles – chimes with other previous results. If confirmed, as more data are collected and analysed, the results would signal a crack in the Standard Model.</p> <p>Lepton universality is the idea that all three types of charged lepton particles – electrons, muons and taus – interact in the same way with other particles. As a result, the different lepton types should be created equally often in particle transformations, or “decays”, once differences in their mass are accounted for. However, some measurements of particle decays made by the LHCb team and other groups over the past few years have indicated a possible difference in their behaviour. Taken separately, these measurements are not statistically significant enough to claim a breaking of lepton universality and hence a crack in the Standard Model, but it is intriguing that hints of a difference have been popping up in different particle decays and experiments.</p> <p>The <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.08139">latest LHCb result</a> is the first test of lepton universality made using the decays of beauty baryons – three-quark particles containing at least one beauty quark. Sifting through proton–proton collision data at energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV, the LHCb researchers identified beauty baryons called Λb0 and counted how often they decayed to a proton, a charged kaon and either a muon and antimuon or an electron and antielectron.</p> <p>The team then took the ratio between these two decay rates. If lepton universality holds, this ratio should be close to 1. A deviation from this prediction could therefore signal a violation of lepton universality. Such a violation could be caused by the presence in the decays of a never-before-spotted particle not predicted by the Standard Model.</p> <p>The team obtained a ratio slightly below 1 with a statistical significance of about 1 standard deviation, well below the 5 standard deviations needed to claim a real difference in the decay rates. The researchers say that the result points in the same direction as other results, which have observed hints that decays to a muon–antimuon pair occur less often than those to an electron–antielectron pair, but they also stress that much more data is needed to tell whether this oddity in the behaviour of leptons is here to stay or not.</p> <p>Read more on the <a href="https://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/">LHCb site</a> and the <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/debut-for-baryons-in-flavour-puzzle/">CERN Courier</a>.</p> <p> </p> </div> Tue, 14 Jan 2020 15:34:04 +0000 abelchio 83905 at https://home.cern A breakthrough for high luminosity https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/breakthrough-high-luminosity <span>A breakthrough for high luminosity</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/199" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abha</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/13/2019 - 15:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2704179" data-filename="201912-418%20_14" id="CERN-PHOTO-201912-418-11"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201912-418-11" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="HL LHC jonction door with LHC - symbolic picture with CERN DG Fabiola Gianotti, Dr Frederic Bordry, Mr Pieter Mattelaer, Dr Lucio Rossi" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201912-418-11/file?size=small"/> </a> <figcaption> On Friday, 13 December, Lucio Rossi, Leader of the HL-LHC project, Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, and Oliver Brüning, Deputy Leader of the HL-LHC project, met in the LHC tunnel to celebrate the breakthrough at the LHC’s Point 1. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A handshake 100 metres underground isn’t something you see every day. But on Friday, 13 December, that’s exactly how Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Lucio Rossi, High-Luminosity LHC project leader, and Oliver Brüning, his deputy, marked the connection of the LHC tunnel with that of its successor, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a>. “This is a crucial milestone for the High-Luminosity LHC,” said Lucio Rossi. “These structures will house equipment that is needed to reach high luminosity.”</p> <p>For the past 18 months, <a href="https://home.cern/news/press-release/accelerators/major-work-starts-boost-luminosity-lhc-0">diggers have been at work underground to excavate</a> the structures for the future accelerator. Work is focused on Point 1, where the ATLAS experiment is located, and Point 5, which houses the CMS experiment. Most of the equipment that will be installed in these locations is designed to boost the luminosity – or to put it another way, the number of collisions – at the heart of these two experiments. </p> <p>At each site, the underground constructions consist of a shaft around 80 metres deep, a service cavern, a 300-metre tunnel and four 50-metre tunnels connecting the new structures to the existing LHC tunnel. Around 80% of the excavations on the two sites are now complete: after having dug the shafts, the caverns and almost all of the two longer tunnels, the civil engineering companies are now working on the tunnels that will connect the new structures to the LHC tunnel. And as a result they connected the LHC with its successor, at Point 5 on 11 December and then at Point 1 the following day. “These connection works were completed with almost surgical precision, so as to minimise damage to the tunnel and to protect the LHC as much as possible from the dust produced by cutting through the concrete,” explains Pieter Mattelaer, Project Manager – Civil Engineering, High-Luminosity LHC Project.</p> <p>A second connection between the new tunnels and the LHC tunnel should be completed before summer 2020. The underground structures will be fully completed by mid-2021, while the surface buildings will be completed by mid-2022.</p> <p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/eK_Mr8O1aE0" width="560"></iframe></p></div> Fri, 13 Dec 2019 14:46:22 +0000 abha 22771 at https://home.cern New open release allows theorists to explore LHC data in a new way https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/new-open-release-allows-theorists-explore-lhc-data-new-way <span>New open release allows theorists to explore LHC data in a new way</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Katarina Anthony</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 01/09/2020 - 10:13</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2705831" data-filename="ATLAS-OpenLikelihoods-Mockup" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2020-001-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2020-001-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="ATLAS News: Open Likelihoods on HEPData" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2020-001-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Explore ATLAS open likelihoods on the HEPData platform. (Original image: Ahmet Anil Sen/Behance) <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>What if you could test a new theory against LHC data? Better yet, what if the expert knowledge needed to do this was captured in a convenient format? This tall order is now on its way from the ATLAS collaboration, with the first open release of full analysis likelihoods from an LHC experiment.</p> <p>“Likelihoods allow you to compute the probability that the data observed in a particular experiment match a specific model or theory,” explains Lukas Heinrich, CERN research fellow working for the ATLAS Experiment. “Effectively, they summarise every aspect of a particular analysis, from the detector settings, event selection, expected signal and background processes, to uncertainties and theoretical models.” Extraordinarily complex and critical to every analysis, likelihoods are one of the most valuable tools produced at the LHC experiments. Their public release will now enable theorists around the world to explore ATLAS data in a whole new way.</p> <p>The ATLAS open likelihoods are available on <a href="https://www.hepdata.net/">HEPData</a>, an open-access repository for experimental particle physics data. The <a href="https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1748602">first open likelihoods</a> released were for a search for supersymmetry in proton–proton collision events containing Higgs bosons, numerous jets of b-quarks and missing transverse momentum. “While ATLAS had published likelihood scans focused on the <a href="https://www.quantumdiaries.org/2013/09/12/inspired-by-the-higgs-a-step-forward-in-open-access/">Higgs boson in 2013</a>, those did not expose the full complexity of the measurements,” says Kyle Cranmer, Professor at New York University. “We hope this first release – which provides the full likelihoods in all their glory – will form a new communication bridge between theorists and experimentalists, enriching the discourse between the communities.”</p> <p>The search for new physics will benefit significantly from open likelihoods. “If you’re a theorist developing a new idea, your first question is likely: ‘Is my model already excluded by experiments at the LHC?’” says Giordon Stark, postdoctoral scholar at SCIPP, UC Santa Cruz. “Until now, there was no easy way to answer this.”</p> <figure class="cds-image" id="ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-042-1"><a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-042-1" title="View on CDS"><img alt="ATLAS" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/ATLAS-PHOTO-2019-042-1/file?size=medium" /></a> <figcaption>Likelihoods are an essential link between theory and ATLAS data <span>(Image: K. Cranmer/ATLAS)</span></figcaption></figure><p>“We plan to make the open release of likelihoods a regular part of our publication process, and have already <a href="https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1765529">made them available</a> from a <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/physics-briefing/searching-electroweak-susy">search for the direct production of tau slepton pairs</a>,” says Laura Jeanty, ATLAS Supersymmetry working group convenor. “Over the coming months, we aim to collect feedback from theorists outside the collaboration to best understand how they are using this new resource to further refine future releases.”</p> <p>Read more on the <a class="bulletin" href="https://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-news/new-open-likelihoods">ATLAS website.</a></p> </div> Thu, 09 Jan 2020 09:13:58 +0000 abelchio 74429 at https://home.cern Relive 2019 at CERN https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/relive-2019-cern <span>Relive 2019 at CERN </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/20/2019 - 15:54</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-listing-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/home.web.cern.ch/files/2019-12/Capture%20d%E2%80%99%C3%A9cran%202019-12-20%20%C3%A0%2015.53.50_0.png" width="900" height="484" alt="ALICE experiment" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><figure><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="400" src="https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/qv6uazEEU9U?rel=0" width="100%"></iframe><figcaption>(Video: CERN)</figcaption></figure><p>As the year draws to a close, here is a chance to look back on the highlights of 2019.</p> <p>Whether it be ground-breaking civil engineering or major improvements across the entire CERN accelerator network, it has been a year of change to the CERN infrastructures.</p> <p>The year also marked 30 years of the World Wide Web, as the CERN family grew with a new Member State and Associate Member State. CERN opened its doors to the public and saw 75 000 visitors over two days.</p> <p>Physics results included greater insights into properties of the Higgs boson, as well as matter–antimatter asymmetry, as experiments work to seek answers to remaining mysteries including dark matter.</p> <p>This video will take you on a journey through key moments of 2019 at CERN. Enjoy!</p> </div> Fri, 20 Dec 2019 14:54:56 +0000 katebrad 40163 at https://home.cern Dive into the world of accelerators https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/dive-world-accelerators <span>Dive into the world of accelerators</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Thu, 12/19/2019 - 13:21</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2705368" data-filename="Panorama" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-151-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-151-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Panoramas project example" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-151-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> An example of the panoramas projects <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A little tour of the LHC? Or what about a peek at the oldest CERN accelerator still in operation, the Proton Synchrotron? The panoramas project invites you to visit the world's largest accelerator complex through a multitude of 360-degree photos.</p> <p>The panoramas project was initially developed to support accelerator interventions. Even when the machines were running, scientists could use the panoramas to plan maintenance and repairs. Over the years, the 360-degree photo library has grown to include more than 21 800 panoramas! These immersive photos are used by an increasing number of CERN services for operation and maintenance.</p> <p>During the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/cern/infectious-enthusiasm-open-days">Open Days in September 2019</a>, the project team produced a public version with 338 of the most interesting panoramas. You can now explore CERN’s tunnels, caverns and impressive machines from the comfort of your home.</p> <p><a class="bulletin" href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/accelerator-complex/panoramas">Click here to access the panoramas</a>. <add link=""></add></p> </div> Thu, 19 Dec 2019 12:21:52 +0000 katebrad 38090 at https://home.cern FASER’s new detector expected to catch first collider neutrino https://home.cern/news/news/physics/fasers-new-detector-expected-catch-first-collider-neutrino <span>FASER’s new detector expected to catch first collider neutrino</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Wed, 12/04/2019 - 11:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2703412" data-filename="FASERNu1%202" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-142-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-142-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Illustration of the FASER experiment. The new FASERNu detector, which is just 25 cm wide, 25 cm tall and 1.35 m long, will be located at the front of FASER’s main detector in a narrow trench (yellow block on the right)." src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-142-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Shows an illustration of the FASER experiment and the new FASERNu detector. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>No neutrino produced at a particle collider has ever been detected, even though colliders create them in huge numbers. This could now change with the approval of a new detector for the FASER experiment at CERN. The small and inexpensive detector, called FASER<em>ν</em>, will be placed at the front of the FASER experiment’s main detector, and could launch a new era in neutrino physics at particle colliders.</p> <p>Ever since they were first observed at a nuclear reactor in 1956, neutrinos have been detected from many sources, such as the sun, cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere, and the Earth, yet never at a particle collider. That’s unfortunate, because most collider neutrinos are produced at very high energies, at which neutrino interactions have not been well studied. Neutrinos produced at colliders could therefore shed new light on neutrinos, which remain the most enigmatic of the fundamental particles that make up matter.</p> <p>The main reasons why collider neutrinos haven’t been detected are that, firstly, neutrinos interact very weakly with other matter and, secondly, collider detectors miss them. The highest-energy collider neutrinos, which are more likely to interact with the detector material, are mostly produced along the beamline – the line travelled by particle beams in a collider. However, typical collider detectors have holes along the beamline to let the beams through, so they can’t detect these neutrinos.</p> <p>Enter FASER, which was <a href="/news/news/experiments/faser-cern-approves-new-experiment-look-long-lived-exotic-particles">approved earlier this year</a> to search for light and weakly interacting particles such as dark photons – hypothetical particles that could mediate an unknown force that would link visible matter with <a href="/science/physics/dark-matter">dark matter</a>. FASER, supported by the Heising-Simons and Simons Foundations, will be located along the beamline of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), about 480 metres downstream of the <a href="/science/experiments/atlas">ATLAS experiment</a>, so it will be ideally positioned to detect neutrinos. However, the detection can’t be done with the experiment’s main detector.</p> <p>“Since neutrinos interact very weakly with matter, you need a target with a lot of material in it to successfully detect them. The main FASER detector doesn’t have such a target, and is therefore unable to detect neutrinos, despite the huge number that will traverse the detector from the LHC collisions,” explains Jamie Boyd, co-spokesperson for the FASER experiment. “This is where FASER<em>ν</em>, an idea previously considered by CERN theorist Alvaro de Rújula, comes in. It is made up of emulsion films and tungsten plates, and acts both as the target and the detector to see the neutrino interactions.”</p> <p>FASER<em>ν</em> is only 25 cm wide, 25 cm tall and 1.35 m long, but weighs 1.2 tonnes. Current neutrino detectors are generally much bigger, for example Super-Kamiokande, an underground neutrino detector in Japan, weighs 50 000 tonnes, and the IceCube detector in the South Pole has a volume of a cubic kilometre.</p> <p>After studying FASER’s ability to detect neutrinos and doing preliminary studies using pilot detectors in 2018, the FASER collaboration <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1908.02310">estimated</a> that FASER<em>ν</em> could detect more than 20 000 neutrinos. These neutrinos would have a mean energy of between 600 GeV and 1 TeV, depending on the type of neutrino produced. Indeed there are three types of neutrinos – electron neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino – and the collaboration expects to detect 1300 electron neutrinos, 20 000 muon neutrinos and 20 tau neutrinos.</p> <p>“These neutrinos will have the highest energies yet of man-made neutrinos, and their detection and study at the LHC will be a milestone in particle physics, allowing researchers to make highly complementary measurements in neutrino physics,” says Boyd. “What’s more, FASER<em>ν</em> may also pave the way for neutrino programmes at future colliders, and the results of these programmes could feed into discussions of proposals for much larger neutrino detectors.”</p> <p>The FASER<em>ν</em> detector will be installed before the next LHC run, which will start in 2021, and it will collect data throughout this run.</p> </div> Wed, 04 Dec 2019 10:46:08 +0000 abelchio 14270 at https://home.cern Arts at CERN announces winners of artist-in-residence awards and guest artists for 2020 https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/arts-cern-announces-winners-artist-residence-awards-and-guest-artists <span>Arts at CERN announces winners of artist-in-residence awards and guest artists for 2020</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/199" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abha</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/17/2019 - 11:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2704628" data-filename="Presentation1(1)" id="OPEN-PHO-MISC-2019-021-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-MISC-2019-021-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="(From left) Yann Marussich, winner of Collide Geneva (Dance) award, and Erich Berger, winner of Accelerate Finland" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/OPEN-PHO-MISC-2019-021-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Yann Marussich during a performance of Le Festin du Béton (IMAGE: Yann Marussich) and Erich Berger while conducting fieldwork (IMAGE: Liisa Luohela) <span> (Image: )</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>GENEVA. The recipients of the Arts at CERN artistic residency awards, Collide Geneva and Accelerate Finland, are Yann Marussich and Erich Berger, respectively. Both artists will be invited to spend time at CERN next year and to engage in dialogue with physicists, engineers, IT professionals and staff of the Laboratory in order to further their artistic explorations.</p> <p>“We are delighted to announce the names of the winning artists and look forward to welcoming them to the Laboratory. It is a pleasure to be able to provide a platform where an artist can interact with and be part of the research we do at CERN through their artistic methodologies,” says Monica Bello, head of Arts at CERN.</p> <p>Collide Geneva and Accelerate Finland are both Arts at CERN programmes set up to create networks with local, regional and international organisations in order to engage in the arts and sciences together. This is the fifth Collide Geneva artist-in-residence award made possible by partnership between Arts at CERN, the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the City of Geneva. This year the award has been dedicated to dance. Yann Marussich’s proposal, ‘D’Air’, was selected for its intention to develop a levitation device that he and the music collective L’Ensemble Batida could use to perform the resulting work from his three-month residency.</p> <p>Accelerate Finland, organised in partnership with the curatorial platform Capsula (art-science-nature) and with the support of Saastamoinen Foundation, is a country-focused programme set up to foster exchanges between the arts and sciences in different countries. The residency lasts for a month, during which period Erich Berger will develop his winning project proposal, ‘Spectral Landscapes’. His aim is to research naturally occurring radioactive processes produced in a landscape and how they can be captured by detection techniques. In this project, he will use the landscape of Sápmi in the northern sub-Arctic part of Finland as the setting to observe the changes in the territory over time and to find ways through which to experience them.</p> <p>Also in 2020, the Guest Artist programme, which invites artists for short visits to CERN to explore ideas related to art and science, will host nine international artists: Rosa Barba (Italy), Ben Frost (Australia), Mathilde Lavenne (France), Armin Linke (Italy) and Daniel Moreno (Spain), as well as the Collide International Honorary Mentions, Samoa Remy (Switzerland), Gabriella Torres-Ferrer (Puerto Rico), Addie Wagenknecht (USA) and Nathan Witt (United Kingdom).</p> <p>Further information:</p> <p><a href="https://arts.cern/">Arts at CERN</a> website<br /><a href="https://twitter.com/ArtsAtCERN">Twitter ArtsAtCern</a><br /><a href="https://www.instagram.com/artsatcern/">Instagram Arts at CERN</a></p> </div> Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:53:33 +0000 abha 32986 at https://home.cern A new schedule for the LHC and its successor https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/new-schedule-lhc-and-its-successor <span>A new schedule for the LHC and its successor</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Fri, 12/13/2019 - 11:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The CERN Management has presented a new calendar for future accelerator runs to the Council, which met on 12 December. Under the new schedule, the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">LHC</a> will restart in May 2021, two months after the initially planned date, and Run 3 will be extended by one year, until the end of 2024. All of the equipment needed for the <a href="https://home.cern/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">High-Luminosity LHC</a>, the LHC’s successor, and its experiments will be installed during Long Shutdown 3, between 2025 and mid-2027. The High-Luminosity LHC is scheduled to come into operation at the end of 2027.</p> <p>For the last year, extensive upgrades of CERN’s accelerator complex and experiments in preparation for the next LHC run and the High-Luminosity LHC have been under way. Major work is being carried out on all the machines and infrastructures: the particle accelerator chain is being entirely renovated as part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project, new equipment is being installed in the LHC, where upgrades are also ongoing, and the experiments are replacing numerous components, even entire subdetectors, in order to prepare for high luminosity (read also about upgrades at <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/upgrading-alice-whats-store-next-two-years">ALICE</a>, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/wheels-motion-whats-planned-atlas-next-two-years">ATLAS</a>, <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/whats-store-cms-detector-over-next-two-years">CMS</a> and <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/transforming-lhcb-whats-store-next-two-years">LHCb</a>).</p> <p>The High-Luminosity LHC will generate many more collisions than the LHC, accumulating ten times more data than its predecessor throughout its operation. This groundbreaking machine will thus be able to detect extremely rare phenomena and improve the precision of measurements of the infinitesimally small. In order to fully exploit the increased quantity of data, the experiments have embarked upon ambitious detector upgrade programmes. The extra time will enable them to ready themselves for Run 3 and, then, for the High-Luminosity LHC.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> Fri, 13 Dec 2019 10:48:51 +0000 cmenard 22672 at https://home.cern Society benefits from investing in particle physics https://home.cern/news/news/cern/society-benefits-investing-particle-physics <span>Society benefits from investing in particle physics</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/03/2019 - 15:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="1271345" data-filename="" id="CERN-GE-1005103-50"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-GE-1005103-50" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Views of the permanent exhibition "Universe of Particles" in the Globe of science and innovation." src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-GE-1005103-50/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Large-scale scientific facilities, such as those for conducting particle-physics research, are financed by society. A team of economists recently performed a cost–benefit analysis of upgrading the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider (LHC)</a>. They concluded that the socioeconomic and cultural benefits gained from the project – not including potential scientific discoveries – exceed the total pecuniary investment.</p> <p>In 2025, the LHC will receive a huge boost in its performance. The <a href="/science/accelerators/high-luminosity-lhc">“high-luminosity” upgrade</a> of the machine will deliver up to ten times more collisions every time protons cross within its gigantic detectors. It will extend the life and potential of the accelerator to 2038 at a total cost of 2.9 billion Swiss francs for materials and personnel.</p> <p>The economists concluded that, purely in financial terms, every Swiss franc invested in the HL-LHC upgrade would pay back approximately 1.8 Swiss francs in societal benefits. These include the training of young scientists, collaboration with industry on developing and rolling out new technology, cultural benefits mainly through on-site visits and exhibitions, scientific output measured in total papers published and the value of the project as a public good.</p> <p>Massimo Florio from the University of Milan, who performed the analysis with his colleagues, will present the findings at a <a href="https://indico.cern.ch/event/863086/">book launch</a> at CERN, today at 5 p.m. (Geneva time). You can watch the event <a href="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/744/camera-slides">live on the CERN Webcast service</a> (camera and slides) or below (camera only):</p> <figure><iframe height="360" src="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/embed/744?stream=camera" type="text/html" width="640"></iframe></figure><p>You can read more about the study in <a href="https://cerncourier.com/a/lhc-upgrade-brings-benefits-beyond-physics/">“LHC upgrade brings benefits beyond physics”</a>, published last year in the <em>CERN Courier</em>.</p> </div> Tue, 03 Dec 2019 14:31:02 +0000 achintya 14264 at https://home.cern Watch live the new spacewalk for AMS https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/watch-live-new-spacewalk-ams <span>Watch live the new spacewalk for AMS</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Mon, 12/02/2019 - 11:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano imaged during the first spacewalk for AMS hitching a ride on the International Space Station’s 16-metre long robotic arm. (Image: ESA/NASA)<br /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Today, European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Luca Parmitano and NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan will begin the third of a series of complex <a href="/news/news/experiments/spacewalk-ams-watch-live-cern-and-esa">spacewalks</a> to service the <a href="/science/experiments/ams">Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02)</a>. The duo will install the new cooling pump system for the spectrometer’s detector tracker.</p> <p>This spacewalk is the most important for AMS scientists at the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre (POCC) at CERN. Lead AMS engineer Zhan Zhang will work in tandem with the astronauts to install and put in operation the tracker’s cooling pump system.</p> <p>CERN will go live at 14:15 CET from POCC, featuring commentary during the crucial stages of the spacewalk by AMS scientists Andrei Kounine, deputy spokesperson for AMS, Mercedes Paniccia  from the University of Geneva, and Giovanni Ambrosi from INFN Perugia.</p> <figure><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/q1pze21El44?rel=0" width="560"></iframe> <figcaption>Video: CERN</figcaption></figure><p>Follow the live from <a href="https://twitter.com/CERN">@CERN</a> on Facebook and YouTube and ask your questions using the hashtag <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/SpacewalkForAMS">#SpacewalkForAMS</a>.</p> </div> Mon, 02 Dec 2019 10:57:38 +0000 abelchio 14254 at https://home.cern NA61/SHINE gives neutrino experiments a helping hand https://home.cern/news/news/physics/na61shine-gives-neutrino-experiments-helping-hand <span>NA61/SHINE gives neutrino experiments a helping hand</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Thu, 11/28/2019 - 10:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2313991" data-filename="201803-98_02" id="CERN-PHOTO-201804-098-2"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201804-098-2" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="Inside the NA61 Detector" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201804-098-2/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> Inside the NA61 Detector <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Neutrinos are the lightest of all the known particles that have mass. Yet their behaviour as they travel could help answer one of the greatest puzzles in physics: why the present-day universe is made mostly of matter when the Big Bang should have produced equal amounts of matter and <a href="/science/physics/antimatter">antimatter</a>. In two recent papers, the <a href="/science/experiments/na61shine">NA61/SHINE</a> collaboration reports particle measurements that are crucial for accelerator-based experiments studying such neutrino behaviour.</p> <p>Neutrinos come in three types, or “flavours”, and neutrino experiments are measuring with ever increasing detail how they and their antimatter counterparts, antineutrinos, “oscillate” from one flavour to another while they travel. If it turns out that neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate in a different way from one another, this may partially account for the present-day matter–antimatter imbalance.</p> <p>Accelerator-based neutrino experiments look for neutrino oscillations by producing a beam of neutrinos of one flavour and measuring the beam after it has travelled a long distance. The neutrino beams are typically produced by firing a beam of high-energy protons into long, thin carbon or beryllium targets. These proton–target interactions produce hadrons, such as pions and kaons, which are focused using magnetic aluminium horns and directed into long tunnels, in which they transform into neutrinos and other particles.</p> <p>To get a reliable measurement of the neutrino oscillations, the researchers working on these experiments need to estimate the number of neutrinos in the beam before oscillation and how this number varies with the energy of the particles. Estimating this “neutrino flux” is hard, because neutrinos interact very weakly with other particles and cannot be measured easily. To get around this, researchers estimate instead the number of hadrons. But measuring the number of hadrons is also challenging, because there are too many of them to measure precisely.</p> <p>This is where experiments such as <a href="/science/experiments/na61shine">NA61/SHINE</a> at CERN’s <a href="/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron</a> come in. NA61/SHINE can reproduce the proton–target interactions that generate the hadrons that transform into neutrinos. It can also reproduce subsequent interactions that protons and hadrons undergo in the targets and focusing horns. These subsequent interactions can produce additional neutrino-yielding hadrons.</p> <p>The NA61/SHINE collaboration has previously measured hadrons generated in experiments at 31 GeV/c proton energy (where c is the speed of light) to help predict the neutrino flux in the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) neutrino-oscillation experiment in Japan. The collaboration has also been gathering data at 60 and 120 GeV/c energies to benefit the MINERνA, NOνA and DUNE experiments at Fermilab in the US. The analysis of these datasets is progressing well and has most recently led to two papers: <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.03351">one</a> describing measurements of interactions of protons with carbon, beryllium and aluminium, and <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.06294">another</a> reporting measurements of interactions of pions with carbon and beryllium.</p> <p>“These results are crucial for Fermilab's neutrino experiments,” says Laura Fields, an NA61/SHINE collaboration member and co-spokesperson for MINERνA. “To predict the neutrino fluxes for these experiments, researchers need an extremely detailed simulation of the entire beamline and all of the interactions that happen within it. For that simulation we need to know the probability that each type of interaction will happen, the particles that will be produced, and their properties. So interaction measurements such as the latest ones will be vital to make these simulations much more accurate,” she explains.</p> <p>“Looking into the future, NA61/SHINE will focus on measurements for the next generation of neutrino-oscillation experiments, including DUNE and T2HK in Japan, to enable these experiments to produce high-precision results in neutrino physics,” Fields concludes.</p> <p>See also this <a href="https://ep-news.web.cern.ch/content/nuclear-physics-meets-neutrinos">Experimental Physics newsletter article</a>.</p> </div> Thu, 28 Nov 2019 09:31:39 +0000 abelchio 14239 at https://home.cern The plot thickens for a hypothetical “X17” particle https://home.cern/news/news/physics/plot-thickens-hypothetical-x17-particle <span>The plot thickens for a hypothetical “X17” particle</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Wed, 11/27/2019 - 15:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2229237" data-filename="02__DSC0531" id="CERN-PHOTO-201611-278-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201611-278-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="The NA 64 experiment" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201611-278-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> NA64 ECAL and HCAL. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Fresh evidence of an unknown particle that could carry a fifth force of nature gives the NA64 collaboration at CERN a new incentive to continue its searches.</p> <p>In 2015, a team of scientists <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1504.01527">spotted</a> an unexpected glitch, or “anomaly”, in a nuclear transition that could be explained by the production of an unknown particle. About a year later, theorists <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.071803">suggested</a> that the new particle could be evidence of a new fundamental force of nature, in addition to electromagnetism, gravity and the strong and weak forces. The findings caught the attention of physicists worldwide and prompted, among other studies, a <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.231802">direct search</a> for the particle by the NA64 collaboration at CERN.</p> <p>A <a href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.10459.pdf">new paper</a> from the same team, led by Attila Krasznahorkay at the Atomki institute in Hungary, now reports another anomaly, in a similar nuclear transition, that could also be explained by the same hypothetical particle.</p> <p>The first anomaly spotted by Krasznahorkay’s team was seen in a transition of beryllium-8 nuclei. This transition emits a high-energy virtual photon that transforms into an electron and its <a href="/science/physics/antimatter">antimatter</a> counterpart, a positron. Examining the number of electron–positron pairs at different angles of separation, the researchers found an unexpected surplus of pairs at a separation angle of about 140º. In contrast, theory predicts that the number of pairs decreases with increasing separation angle, with no excess at a particular angle. Krasznahorkay and colleagues reasoned that the excess could be interpreted by the production of a new particle with a mass of about 17 million electronvolts (MeV), the “X17” particle, which would transform into an electron–positron pair.</p> <p>The latest anomaly reported by Krasznahorkay’s team, in a <a href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.10459.pdf">paper</a> that has yet to be peer-reviewed, is also in the form of an excess of electron–positron pairs, but this time the excess is from a transition of helium-4 nuclei. “In this case, the excess occurs at an angle of 115º but it can also be interpreted by the production of a particle with a mass of about 17 MeV,” explained Krasznahorkay. “The result lends support to our previous result and the possible existence of a new elementary particle,” he adds.</p> <p>Sergei Gninenko, spokesperson for the NA64 collaboration at CERN, which has not found signs of X17 in its direct search, says: “The Atomki anomalies could be due to an experimental effect, a nuclear physics effect or something completely new such as a new particle. To test the hypothesis that they are caused by a new particle, both a detailed theoretical analysis of the compatibility between the beryllium-8 and the helium-4 results, as well as independent experimental confirmation, is crucial.”</p> <p>The NA64 collaboration searches for X17 by firing a beam of tens of billions of electrons from the <a href="/science/accelerators/super-proton-synchrotron">Super Proton Synchrotron</a> accelerator onto a fixed target. If X17 did exist, the interactions between the electrons and nuclei in the target would sometimes produce this particle, which would then transform into an electron–positron pair. The collaboration has so far found no indication that such events took place, but its datasets allowed them to exclude part of the possible values for the strength of the interaction between X17 and an electron. The team is now upgrading their detector for the next round of searches, which, Gninenko says, are expected to be more challenging but at the same time more exciting.</p> <p>Among other experiments that could also hunt for X17 in direct searches is <a href="/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb</a>. Jesse Thaler, a theoretical physicist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says: “By 2023, the LHCb experiment should be able to make a definitive measurement to confirm or refute the interpretation of the Atomki anomalies as arising from a new fundamental force. In the meantime, experiments such as NA64 can continue to chip away at the possible values for the hypothetical particle’s properties, and every new analysis brings with it the possibility (however remote) of discovery.”</p> </div> Wed, 27 Nov 2019 14:31:33 +0000 abelchio 14236 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: The PS is rejuvenated for its 60th birthday https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-ps-rejuvenated-its-60th-birthday <span>LS2 Report: The PS is rejuvenated for its 60th birthday</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Corinne Pralavorio</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Mon, 11/25/2019 - 15:36</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On 24 November 1959, the Proton Synchotron (PS) accelerated its first beams, making it the most powerful accelerator in the world at the time. Who would have thought that 60 years later, this machine would still be one of the main cogs in the CERN accelerator complex? Incredibly, the PS is still in service. It will even be made more efficient with a bit of tender loving care during this second long shutdown. The <a href="https://home.cern/news/opinion/accelerators/time-lhc-injectors-upgrade-project">LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project</a> includes a long list of <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-proton-synchrotrons-magnets-prepare-higher-energies">work to be carried out on the accelerator and its entire infrastructure</a>.</p> <p>With the first link in the chain of accelerators being replaced by <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/brand-new-linear-accelerator-cern">Linac 4</a>, protons will be injected into the PS Booster at 160 MeV, and then accelerated to 2 GeV (up from 1.4 GeV previously) before being sent to the PS.  This is why the PS proton injection line, which is about 20 metres in length, will be entirely replaced. To date, the quadrupole magnets have been installed together with a septum magnet.  The equipment will continue to be installed in 2020. The power converters which power the injection line, as well as other LIU equipment, have been replaced and installed in renovated buildings. The cabling is now underway.</p> <p>In the 628-metre-long accelerator, half of the main magnets are being renovated. This major project, which entails lengthy handling operations, will soon be finished. “48 of the 100 magnets have been removed and a vast majority have already been reinstalled”, explains Fernando Pedrosa. New equipment such as <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/keeping-close-watch-over-beams">beam wire scanners</a> and internal beam dumps will also be installed in the ring. The teams have used the upgrade works as an opportunity to give the accelerator a deep clean, including the cleaning of certain galleries. The cleaning work, as well as the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-linac4-knocking-door-ps-booster">ongoing Linac 4 tests</a>, require part of the PS to be closed making the work more complex to coordinate.  Downstream, the extraction line towards the East Area has been entirely dismantled ahead of the new installation in 2020, as part of the <a href="https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/ls2-report-east-area-version-20">East Experiment Area renovation project</a>.</p> <p>In addition to the beam lines, the entire infrastructure is also being renovated. The lighting system has been changed, for example, and major work is being carried out on the cooling system. High luminosity requires more intense beams which entails several changes including increased power for the circuits’ cooling plants. “We have reorganized the entire cooling system to double the flow while also reducing running costs”, explains Serge Delaval, Section Leader for Injectors within the Cooling and Ventilation Group. The two plants that use short cooling towers will therefore be replaced with one central plant, which uses a single cooling tower composed of four units. Two of these units were no longer in use and have been fully upgraded.</p> <p>At the same time, all the pumps and heat exchangers have been replaced, together with three kilometres of pipes! “We have used this consolidation as an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact, particularly regarding the products used to prevent Legionnaire’s disease”, says Serge Delaval. Stainless steel has therefore been chosen over steel as it requires much less anti-corrosion treatment. Similarly, demineralised water will also be used for some circuits.</p> <p>Work on the cooling system will continue until March and the accelerator upgrade is slated to be finished at the start of next summer.</p> </div> Mon, 25 Nov 2019 14:36:31 +0000 cmenard 14213 at https://home.cern Celebrating 60 years of the Proton Synchrotron https://home.cern/news/news/accelerators/celebrating-60-years-proton-synchrotron <span>Celebrating 60 years of the Proton Synchrotron</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/146" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cmenard</span></span> <span>Mon, 11/25/2019 - 10:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="1221347" data-filename="" id="CERN-AC-5901761-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-AC-5901761-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="PS ring" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-AC-5901761-1/file?size=large"/> </a> <figcaption> This part of the ring (downstream of the injection point) was already used for tests (note the counter telescope aligned to a beam stop). <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On 24 November 1959, CERN’s Proton Synchrotron became the highest-energy machine in the world when it accelerated a beam to its design energy of 24 GeV for the first time. Today, the PS is still in operation, being one of the main cogs in the CERN accelerator complex.</p> <figure class="cds-video" id="OPEN-VIDEO-2019-062-001"><div><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="450" src="//cds.cern.ch/video/OPEN-VIDEO-2019-062-001" width="100%"></iframe></div> <figcaption>The Proton Synchrotron: 60 years and counting<span> (Video: CERN)</span></figcaption></figure><p>Find out more about the history of the Proton Synchrotron by watching the webcast today from  2.30 p.m. to 4 p.m. (CET) featuring different speakers talking about pushing the performance as well as the future and upgrades of the machine: <a href="https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/733">https://webcast.web.cern.ch/event/733</a></p> </div> Mon, 25 Nov 2019 09:01:17 +0000 cmenard 14212 at https://home.cern Talking science: TEDxCERN one year on https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/talking-science-tedxcern-one-year <span>Talking science: TEDxCERN one year on</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Cristina Agrigoroae</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/147" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cagrigor</span></span> <span>Wed, 11/20/2019 - 12:25</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2648449" data-filename="201811-305%2003" id="CERN-PHOTO-201811-305-3"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-305-3" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="TEDxCERN 2018 - event" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201811-305-3/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> The fifth edition of TEDxCERN will take place on 20 November from 14:00 to 18:30 CET in the heart of Geneva. Fourteen speakers and leaders from a wide range of disciplines will give thought-provoking insights into the most hot topics in science and technology. TEDxCERN is a CERN outreach event and part of the CERN <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><a href="https://home.cern/news/news/knowledge-sharing/tedxcern-remarkable-elephant-room">Last November</a>, TEDxCERN proved once again to be a popular event enjoyed not only by the CERN community and scientists but also by the public and TED and TEDx audiences online. You can now relive the event through the videos available online, two of which have been selected to feature on TED.com.</p> <p>With five editions since 2013, TEDxCERN’s success stems from a forward-looking choice of topics, carefully selected speakers with scientists talking about their own work, and thoughtfully curated production. These assets have made this CERN outreach event one of the most featured TEDx conferences, with nine videos from previous editions showcased on the global online platform TED.com, receiving an average of more than 1.25 million views each. From last year’s event, the TED organisation chose <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPlvILKl5LE&amp;list=PLsRNoUx8w3rMWSXznZJNnZNdxFSX7jV3Q&amp;index=4">Juan Enriquez</a>, a world-renowned life scientist, author and futurist, and the film-making duo <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xC2Ip2AG1oQ&amp;list=PLsRNoUx8w3rMWSXznZJNnZNdxFSX7jV3Q&amp;index=11">Hans Block and Moritz Riesewieck</a>, authors of the documentary <em>The Cleaners</em> for TED.com.</p> <p>“The ‘Elephant in the Room’ theme of last year’s TEDxCERN was a golden opportunity for all our speakers to raise awareness about topics that are not often openly discussed” explained Claudia Marcelloni, curator of TEDxCERN. “We could feature the real reasons behind the fast spreading of fake news, the future-changing potential that gene editing techniques are gently unveiling, blockchain and its unknowns, the decisions that we are making today and that are irreversibly shaping the future.”</p> <p>Discover all the TEDxCERN videos on the <a href="https://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/video?field_event_target_id=106">event webpage</a> or on <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/TEDxTalks/search?query=TEDxCERN">YouTube</a> and follow the <a href="https://www.facebook.com/tedxcern/">Facebook page</a> to stay up to date with new content.</p> <figure><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" scrolling="no" src="https://videos.cern.ch/video/OPEN-VIDEO-2019-014-001" width="560"></iframe> <figcaption>The “Making of” the TEDxCERN event in the beautiful venue of Bâtiment des forces motrices in Geneva. The curation and production of the event involved more than 20 professionals and 60 volunteers. (Video: CERN)</figcaption></figure></div> Wed, 20 Nov 2019 11:25:21 +0000 cagrigor 14185 at https://home.cern Spacewalk for AMS: Watch live with CERN and ESA https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/spacewalk-ams-watch-live-cern-and-esa <span>Spacewalk for AMS: Watch live with CERN and ESA</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/40" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">katebrad</span></span> <span>Thu, 11/14/2019 - 12:33</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On Friday 15 November, European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Luca Parmitano and NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan will begin the first of a series of complex spacewalks to service the <a href="/science/experiments/ams">Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02)</a>. The spacewalk will be streamed live via <a href="http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/ESA_Web_TV">ESA Web TV</a> from 12.50 p.m. CET and will include commentaries from CERN and ESA.</p> <p>This series of spacewalks is expected to be the most challenging since those to repair the <a href="https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/servicing/index.html">Hubble Space Telescope</a>. AMS was originally intended to run for three years, after its installation on the International Space Station in 2011, and was not designed to be maintained in orbit. However, the success of its results to date have meant that its mission has been extended.</p> <figure><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="360" id="ls_embed_1573808401" scrolling="no" src="https://livestream.com/accounts/362/events/8890996/player?width=640&amp;height=360&amp;enableInfoAndActivity=true&amp;defaultDrawer=&amp;autoPlay=true&amp;mute=false" width="640"></iframe> <figcaption>Watch the spacewalk live on <a href="https://livestream.com/ESA/SpacewalkforAMS">ESA Web TV</a></figcaption></figure><p>AMS-02 is a particle-physics detector that uses the unique environment of space to study the universe and its origin. It searches for antimatter and dark matter while precisely measuring cosmic-ray particles – more than 140 billion particles to date. The detector, which measures 60 cubic metres and weighs 7.5 tonnes, was assembled by an international team at CERN, and researchers, astronauts and operations teams have had to develop new procedures and more than 20 custom tools to extend the instrument’s life.</p> <p>A key task for the astronauts is to replace the AMS-02 cooling system and to fix a coolant leak, and the pair have trained extensively for this intricate operation on the ground. It will involve cutting and splicing eight cooling tubes, connecting them to the new system and reconnecting a myriad of power and data cables. It is the first time that astronauts will cut and reconnect cooling lines in orbit.</p> <p>The first AMS spacewalk on Friday is expected to last about six hours and sets the scene for at least three more. It will be streamed live on <a href="http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/ESA_Web_TV">ESA Web TV</a> and the first two hours will feature commentary from scientists at the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre (POCC) at CERN as well as astronaut and operation experts at ESA’s astronaut centre in Germany.</p> <p>CERN’s contributions will include a tour of the POCC by AMS Experiment and Operations Coordinator Mike Capell, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Here, AMS physicists take 24-hour shifts to operate and control the various components of AMS from the ground. Zhan Zhang, also from MIT, is the lead engineer of the Upgraded Tracker Thermal System, which is being installed during the spacewalks. She will show the laboratory at CERN where an identical spare of the system is kept in space conditions and will explain how the system works and what the astronauts will have to do to install it on the AMS detector in space. AMS scientists Mercedes Paniccia from the University of Geneva, Alberto Oliva from INFN Bologna and Andrei Kounine, from MIT, will explain the science of AMS as the spacewalk takes place and can answer your questions.</p> <p>You can already tweet questions ahead of the live broadcast to <a href="https://twitter.com/esaspaceflight">@esaspaceflight</a> or <a href="https://twitter.com/CERN">@CERN</a> using the hashtag <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/SpacewalkForAMS">#SpacewalkForAMS</a>.</p> </div> Thu, 14 Nov 2019 11:33:55 +0000 katebrad 14105 at https://home.cern Probing dark matter using antimatter https://home.cern/news/news/physics/probing-dark-matter-using-antimatter <span>Probing dark matter using antimatter</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Tue, 11/12/2019 - 10:11</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><a href="/science/physics/dark-matter">Dark matter</a> and the <a href="/science/physics/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem">imbalance between matter and antimatter</a> are two of the biggest mysteries of the universe. Astronomical observations tell us that dark matter makes up most of the matter in the cosmos but we do not know what it is made of. On the other hand, theories of the early universe predict that both antimatter and matter should have been produced in equal amounts, yet for some reason matter prevailed. Could there be a relation between this matter–antimatter asymmetry and dark matter?</p> <p>In a <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1727-9">paper</a> published today in the journal Nature, the <a href="/science/experiments/base">BASE </a>collaboration reports the first laboratory search for an interaction between antimatter and a dark-matter candidate, the hypothetical axion. A possible interaction would not only establish the origin of dark matter, but would also revolutionise long-established certainties about the symmetry properties of nature. Working at <a href="http://visit.cern/ad">CERN’s antimatter factory</a>, the BASE team obtained the first laboratory-based limits on the existence of dark-matter axions, assuming that they prefer to interact with antimatter rather than with matter.</p> <p>Axions were originally introduced to explain the symmetry properties of the strong force, which binds quarks into protons and neutrons, and protons and neutrons into nuclei. Their existence is also predicted by many theories beyond the <a href="/science/physics/standard-model">Standard Model</a>, notably superstring theories. They would be light and interact very weakly with other particles. Being stable, axions produced during the Big Bang would still be present throughout the universe, possibly accounting for observed dark matter. The so-called wave–particle duality of quantum mechanics would cause the dark-matter axion’s field to oscillate, at a frequency proportional to the axion’s mass. This oscillation would vary the intensity of this field’s interactions with matter and antimatter in the laboratory, inducing periodic variations in their properties.</p> <p>Laboratory experiments made with ordinary matter have so far shown no evidence of these oscillations, setting stringent limits on the existence of cosmic axions. The established laws of physics predict that axions interact in the same way with protons and antiprotons (the antiparticles of protons), but it is the role of experiments to challenge such wisdom, in this particular case by directly probing the existence of dark-matter axions using antiprotons.</p> <p>In their study, the BASE researchers searched for the oscillations in the rotational motion of the antiproton’s magnetic moment or “spin” – think of the wobbling motion of a spinning top just before it stops spinning; it spins around its rotational axis and “precesses” around a vertical axis. An unexpectedly large axion–antiproton interaction strength would lead to variations in the frequency of this precession.</p> <p>To look for the oscillations, the researchers first took antiprotons from CERN’s antimatter factory, the only place in the world where antiprotons are created on a daily basis. They then confined them in a device called a Penning trap to avoid their coming into contact with ordinary matter and annihilating. Next, they fed a single antiproton into a high-precision multi-Penning trap to measure and flip its spin state. By performing these measurements almost a thousand times over the course of about three months, they were able to determine a time-averaged frequency of the antiproton’s precession of around 80 megahertz with an uncertainty of 120 millihertz. By looking for regular time variations of the individual measurements over their three-month-long experimental campaign, they were able to probe any possible axion–antiproton interaction for many values of the axion mass.</p> <p>The BASE researchers were not able to detect any such variations in their measurements that would reveal a possible axion–antiproton interaction. However, the lack of this signal allowed them to put lower limits on the axion–antiproton interaction strength for a range of possible axion masses. These laboratory-based limits range from 0.1 GeV to 0.6 GeV depending on the assumed axion mass. For comparison, the most precise matter-based experiments achieve much more stringent limits, between about 10 000 and 1 000 000 GeV. This shows that today’s experimental sensitivity would require a major violation of established symmetry properties in order to reveal a possible signal.</p> <p>If axions were not a dominant component of dark matter, they could nevertheless be directly produced during the collapse and explosion of stars as supernovae, and limits on their interaction strength with protons or antiprotons could be extracted by examining the evolution of such stellar explosions. The observation of the explosion of the famous supernova SN1987A, however, set constraints on the axion–antiproton interaction strength that are about 100 000 times weaker than those obtained by BASE.</p> <p>The new measurements by the BASE collaboration, which teamed up with researchers from the Helmholtz Institute Mainz for this study, provide a novel way to probe dark matter and its possible interaction with antimatter. While relying on specific assumptions about the nature of dark matter and on the pattern of the matter–antimatter asymmetry, the experiment’s results are a unique probe of unexpected new phenomena, which could unveil extraordinary modifications to our established understanding of how the universe works.</p> </div> Tue, 12 Nov 2019 09:11:51 +0000 abelchio 13997 at https://home.cern LS2 Report: LHCb looks to the future with SciFi detector https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/ls2-report-lhcb-looks-future-scifi-detector <span>LS2 Report: LHCb looks to the future with SciFi detector</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Achintya Rao</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">achintya</span></span> <span>Tue, 11/12/2019 - 08:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2701306" data-filename="201911-373_04" id="CERN-PHOTO-201911-373-4"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201911-373-4" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="LHCb's new scintillating-fibre (SciFi) tracker" src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-PHOTO-201911-373-4/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> The new tracker is made of over 10,000 kilometres of polystyrene-based scintillating fibres and will help LHCb record data at a higher luminosity and rate from Run 3 onwards <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>For the <a href="/science/experiments/lhcb">LHCb detector</a> at the <a href="/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider">Large Hadron Collider</a>, the ongoing <a href="/tags/long-shutdown-2">second long shutdown (LS2)</a> of CERN’s accelerator complex will be a period of metamorphosis. After two successful data-collection runs, the detector is being upgraded to improve the precision of its physics measurements, many of which are the best in the world. There will therefore be five times more collisions every time proton bunches cross within the detector after LS2 and the LHCb collaboration plans on increasing the data-readout rate from 1 MHz to the LHC’s maximum interaction frequency of 40 MHz (or every 25 nanoseconds).</p> <p>In addition to replacing nearly all of the electronics and data-acquisition systems to handle the enormous increase in data production, LHCb is replacing its tracking detectors with new ones, such as the scintillating-fibre tracker, or SciFi. It is the first time such a large tracker, with a small granularity and high spatial resolution, has been made using this technology. The SciFi will be placed behind the dipole magnet of LHCb.</p> <p>Scintillating fibres, as the name suggests, are optical fibres – with a polystyrene base, in this case – that emit tens of photons in the blue-green wavelength when a particle interacts with them. Secondary scintillator dyes have been added to the polystyrene to amplify the light and shift it to longer wavelengths so it can reach custom-made silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) that convert optical light to electrical signals. The technology has been well tested at other high-energy-physics experiments. The fibres themselves are lightweight, they can produce and transmit light within the 25-nanosecond window and they are suitably tolerant to the ionising radiation expected in the future.</p> <p>Each scintillating fibre making up the sub-detector is 0.25 mm in diameter and nearly 2.5 m in length. The fibres will be packed into modules that will reside in three stations within LHCb, each made of four so-called “detection planes”, with the photomultipliers located at the top and bottom of each plane. “The fibres have been painstakingly examined, wound into multi-layer ribbons, assembled into detector modules and thoroughly tested,” explains Blake Leverington, who is coordinating part of the SciFi project for LHCb. “The fibres provide a single-hit precision better than 100 microns and the single-hit efficiency over the area of the detector is better than 99%.” In total, over 10 000 km of precision-made scintillating fibres will adorn LHCb.</p> <p>Unlike the other LHC detectors, LHCb is asymmetric in design and studies particles that fly very close to the beam pipe after being produced in proton–proton collisions. However, operating a sensitive detector this close to the beam pipe brings its own problems. Simulations show that radiation damage from collision debris would darken the fibres closest to the beam pipe by up to 40% over the lifetime of LHCb. This would make it harder for the produced light to be transmitted through the fibres, but the detector is expected to remain efficient despite this.</p> <p>The photomultipliers located at the top and bottom of each SciFi detection plane will be bombarded by neutrons produced in the calorimeters that sit further downstream. The radiation damage results in so-called “dark noise”, where thermally excited electrons cause the SiPMs to produce a signal that mimics the signal coming from individual photons. In addition to shielding placed between the SciFi and the calorimeters, a complex cooling system has been developed to chill the SiPMs. “Measurements have shown that the rate of dark noise can be reduced by a factor of two for every 10 °C drop in temperature,” points out Leverington. The SiPMs have been mounted on special 3D-printed titanium cold-bars that are cooled to −40 °C.</p> <p>“The project has had contributions from more than a hundred scientists, students, engineers and technicians from 17 partner institutes in 10 countries,” says Leverington. “We have worked together for seven years to bring SciFi to life.” Currently, the SciFi modules, services and electronics are being assembled and installed in the 12 mechanical frames in the assembly hall at the LHCb site at Point 8 of the LHC ring. The first SciFi components are planned to be installed in spring next year.</p> </div> Tue, 12 Nov 2019 07:53:20 +0000 achintya 13994 at https://home.cern LHCf gears up to probe birth of cosmic-ray showers https://home.cern/news/news/experiments/lhcf-gears-probe-birth-cosmic-ray-showers <span>LHCf gears up to probe birth of cosmic-ray showers</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-byline field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item">Ana Lopes</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/159" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">abelchio</span></span> <span>Fri, 11/08/2019 - 13:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-list-cds field--type-cerncdsmedia field--label-hidden field--item"><figure class="cds-image" data-record-id="2699736" data-filename="LHCf_Arm2_during_installation_02%20copy%202" id="CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-131-1"> <a href="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-131-1" title="View on CDS"> <img alt="One of the LHCf experiment's two detectors, LHCf Arm2, seen here during installation into a particle absorber that surrounds the LHC's beam pipe." src="//cds.cern.ch/images/CERN-HOMEWEB-PHO-2019-131-1/file?size=medium"/> </a> <figcaption> One of the LHCf experiment's two detectors, LHCf Arm2, seen here during installation into a particle absorber that surrounds the LHC's beam pipe. <span> (Image: CERN)</span> </figcaption> </figure></div> <div class="field field--name-field-p-news-display-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Cosmic rays are particles from outer space, typically protons, travelling at almost the speed of light. When the most energetic of these particles strike the atmosphere of our planet, they interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles that shower down to the Earth’s surface. These extensive air showers, as they are known, are similar to the cascades of particles that are created in collisions inside particle colliders such as CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the next LHC run, starting in 2021, the smallest of the LHC experiments – the <a href="/science/experiments/lhcf">LHCf experiment</a> – is set to probe the first interaction that triggers these cosmic showers.</p> <p>Observations of extensive air showers are generally interpreted using computer simulations that involve a model of how cosmic rays interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere. But different models exist and it’s unclear which one is the most appropriate. The LHCf experiment is in an ideal position to test these models and help shed light on cosmic-ray interactions.</p> <p>In contrast to the main LHC experiments, which measure particles emitted at large angles from the collision line, the LHCf experiment measures particles that fly out in the “forward” direction, that is, at small angles from the collision line. These particles, which carry a large portion of the collision energy, can be used to probe the small angles and high energies at which the predictions from the different models don’t match.</p> <p>Using data from proton–proton LHC collisions at an energy of 13 TeV, LHCf has recently measured how the number of forward <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269317310365?via%3Dihub">photons</a> and <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP11%282018%29073">neutrons</a> varies with particle energy at previously unexplored high energies. These measurements agree better with some models than others, and they are being factored in by modellers of extensive air showers.</p> <p>In the next LHC run, LHCf should extend the range of particle energies probed, due to the planned higher collision energy. In addition, and thanks to ongoing upgrade work, the experiment should also increase the number and type of particles that are detected and studied.</p> <p>What’s more, the experiment plans to measure forward particles emitted from collisions of protons with light ions, most likely oxygen ions. The first interactions that trigger extensive air showers in the atmosphere involve mainly light atomic nuclei such as oxygen and nitrogen. LHCf could therefore probe such an interaction in the next run, casting new light on cosmic-ray interaction models at high energies.</p> <p>Find out more in the <a href="https://ep-news.web.cern.ch/content/lhcf-sheds-light-hadronic-interaction-models">Experimental Physics newsletter article</a>.</p> <p> </p> </div> Fri, 08 Nov 2019 12:48:34 +0000 abelchio 13345 at https://home.cern